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TLR 3: Wikis


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Toll-like receptor 3

The structure of TLR3 covered with sugars
Available structures
1ziw, 2a0z
Symbols TLR3; CD283
External IDs OMIM603029 MGI2156367 HomoloGene20696 GeneCards: TLR3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TLR3 206271 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7098 142980
Ensembl ENSG00000164342 ENSMUSG00000031639
UniProt O15455 Q3TM31
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003265 NM_126166
RefSeq (protein) NP_003256 NP_569054
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
187.23 - 187.24 Mb
Chr 8:
46.89 - 46.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

TLR 3 is a member of the Toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Discovered in 2001,[1] TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by some viruses such as reoviruses. Upon recognition, TLR 3 induces the activation of NF-kB to increase production of type I interferons which signal other cells to increase their antiviral defenses. Double-stranded RNA is also recognised by the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I and MDA-5. TLR3 has also been designated as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283).


The structure of TLR3 was reported in June 2005 by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute.[2] TLR3 forms a large horseshoe shape that contacts with a neighboring horseshoe, forming a "dimer" of two horseshoes. Much of the TLR3 protein surface is covered with sugar molecules, making it a glycoprotein, but on one face (including the proposed interface between the two horseshoes), there is a large sugar-free surface. This surface also contains two distinct patches rich in positively-charged amino acids, which may be a binding site for negatively-charged double-stranded RNA.

Despite being a glycoprotein, TLR3 crystallises readily - a prerequisite for structural analysis by x-ray crystallography.


  1. ^ Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA (2001). "Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3". Nature 413 (6857): 732–8. doi:10.1038/35099560. PMID 11607032.  
  2. ^ Choe J, Kelker MS, Wilson IA (2005). "Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain". Science 309 (5734): 581–5. doi:10.1126/science.1115253. PMID 15961631.  

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