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Toll-like receptor 3

The structure of TLR3 covered with sugars
Available structures
1ziw, 2a0z
Identifiers
Symbols TLR3; CD283
External IDs OMIM603029 MGI2156367 HomoloGene20696 GeneCards: TLR3 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE TLR3 206271 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7098 142980
Ensembl ENSG00000164342 ENSMUSG00000031639
UniProt O15455 Q3TM31
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003265 NM_126166
RefSeq (protein) NP_003256 NP_569054
Location (UCSC) Chr 4:
187.23 - 187.24 Mb
Chr 8:
46.89 - 46.91 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

TLR 3 is a member of the Toll-like receptor family of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Discovered in 2001,[1] TLR3 recognizes double-stranded RNA, a form of genetic information carried by some viruses such as reoviruses. Upon recognition, TLR 3 induces the activation of NF-kB to increase production of type I interferons which signal other cells to increase their antiviral defenses. Double-stranded RNA is also recognised by the cytoplasmic receptors RIG-I and MDA-5. TLR3 has also been designated as CD283 (cluster of differentiation 283).

Structure

The structure of TLR3 was reported in June 2005 by researchers at The Scripps Research Institute.[2] TLR3 forms a large horseshoe shape that contacts with a neighboring horseshoe, forming a "dimer" of two horseshoes. Much of the TLR3 protein surface is covered with sugar molecules, making it a glycoprotein, but on one face (including the proposed interface between the two horseshoes), there is a large sugar-free surface. This surface also contains two distinct patches rich in positively-charged amino acids, which may be a binding site for negatively-charged double-stranded RNA.

Despite being a glycoprotein, TLR3 crystallises readily - a prerequisite for structural analysis by x-ray crystallography.

References

  1. ^ Alexopoulou L, Holt AC, Medzhitov R, Flavell RA (2001). "Recognition of double-stranded RNA and activation of NF-kappaB by Toll-like receptor 3". Nature 413 (6857): 732–8. doi:10.1038/35099560. PMID 11607032.  
  2. ^ Choe J, Kelker MS, Wilson IA (2005). "Crystal structure of human toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) ectodomain". Science 309 (5734): 581–5. doi:10.1126/science.1115253. PMID 15961631.  

Further reading

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