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toll-like receptor 9
Symbol TLR9
Entrez 54106
HUGO 15633
OMIM 605474
RefSeq NM_017442
UniProt Q9NR96
Other data
Locus Chr. 3 p21.3

TLR 9 is a toll-like receptor.

It recognizes unmethylated CpG sequences in DNA molecules. CpG sites are relatively rare (~1%) on vertebrate genomes in comparison to bacterial genomes or viral DNA. TLR9 is expressed by numerous cells of the immune system such as dendritic cells, B lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. TLR9 is expressed intracellularly, within the endosomal compartments and functions to alert the immune system of viral and bacterial infections by binding to DNA rich in CpG motifs. TLR9 signals leads to activation of the cells initiating pro-inflammatory reactions that result in the production of cytokines such as type-I inteferon and IL-12. There are new immunomodulatory treatments undergoing testing which involve the administration of artificial DNA oligonucleotides containing the CpG motif. CpG DNA has applications in treating allergies such as asthma, immunostimulation against cancer, immunostimulation against pathogens, and as adjuvants in vaccines.

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