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Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1
Identifiers
Symbols NR2E1; TLX; TLL; XTLL
External IDs OMIM603849 MGI1100526 HomoloGene37750 GeneCards: NR2E1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NR2E1 207443 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 7101 21907
Ensembl ENSG00000112333 ENSMUSG00000019803
UniProt Q9Y466 Q3UXE8
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_003269 NM_152229
RefSeq (protein) NP_003260 NP_689415
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
108.59 - 108.62 Mb
Chr 10:
42.25 - 42.27 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The protein encoded by TLX (Human homologue of the Drosophila tailless gene) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors and is encoded by the NR2E1 gene (nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group E, member 1).[1]

Contents

Function

TLX regulates the expression of another nuclear receptor, RAR.[2]

TLX also is essential for normal brain-eye coordination and appears to play a role in control of aggressive behavior.[3]

Adult neural stem cells are nuclear receptor TLX-positive and TLX expression in these cells is crucial in maintaining their undifferentiated state.[4] Furthermore TLX regulates adult neural stem cell proliferation. Removal of TLX from the adult mouse brain resulted in a reduction of stem cell proliferation and spatial learning.[5]

Tlx-positive cells of the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain are self-renewing stem cells. Mutation of the Tlx gene in adult mouse brain leads to complete loss of neurogenesis in the subventricular zone. Tlx is also required for transition from radial glial cells to astrocyte-like neural stem cells.[6]

References

  1. ^ Jackson A, Panayiotidis P, Foroni L (1998). "The human homologue of the Drosophila tailless gene (TLX): characterization and mapping to a region of common deletion in human lymphoid leukemia on chromosome 6q21". Genomics 50 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5270. PMID 9628820.  
  2. ^ Kobayashi M, Yu RT, Yasuda K, Umesono K (2000). "Cell-type-specific regulation of the retinoic acid receptor mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor TLX". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (23): 8731–9. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.23.8731-8739.2000. PMID 11073974.  
  3. ^ Abrahams BS, Kwok MC, Trinh E, Budaghzadeh S, Hossain SM, Simpson EM (2005). "Pathological aggression in "fierce" mice corrected by human nuclear receptor 2E1". J. Neurosci. 25 (27): 6263–70. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4757-04.2005. PMID 16000615.  
  4. ^ Shi Y, Chichung Lie D, Taupin P, Nakashima K, Ray J, Yu RT, Gage FH, Evans RM (January 2004). "Expression and function of orphan nuclear receptor TLX in adult neural stem cells". Nature 427 (6969): 78–83. doi:10.1038/nature02211. PMID 14702088.  
  5. ^ Zhang CL, Zou Y, He W, Gage FH, Evans RM (February 2008). "A role for adult TLX-positive neural stem cells in learning and behaviour". Nature 451 (7181): 1004–7. doi:10.1038/nature06562. PMID 18235445.  
  6. ^ Liu HK, Belz T, Bock D, Takacs A, Wu H, Lichter P, Chai M, Schütz G (September 2008). "The nuclear receptor tailless is required for neurogenesis in the adult subventricular zone". Genes Dev. 22 (18): 2473–8. doi:10.1101/gad.479308. PMID 18794344.  

Further reading

  • Yu RT, McKeown M, Evans RM, Umesono K (1994). "Relationship between Drosophila gap gene tailless and a vertebrate nuclear receptor Tlx.". Nature 370 (6488): 375–9. doi:10.1038/370375a0. PMID 8047143.  
  • Jackson A, Panayiotidis P, Foroni L (1999). "The human homologue of the Drosophila tailless gene (TLX): characterization and mapping to a region of common deletion in human lymphoid leukemia on chromosome 6q21.". Genomics 50 (1): 34–43. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5270. PMID 9628820.  
  • Kobayashi M, Yu RT, Yasuda K, Umesono K (2000). "Cell-type-specific regulation of the retinoic acid receptor mediated by the orphan nuclear receptor TLX.". Mol. Cell. Biol. 20 (23): 8731–9. doi:10.1128/MCB.20.23.8731-8739.2000. PMID 11073974.  
  • Abrahams BS, Mak GM, Berry ML, et al. (2003). "Novel vertebrate genes and putative regulatory elements identified at kidney disease and NR2E1/fierce loci.". Genomics 80 (1): 45–53. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6795. PMID 12079282.  
  • Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.  
  • Mungall AJ, Palmer SA, Sims SK, et al. (2003). "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6.". Nature 425 (6960): 805–11. doi:10.1038/nature02055. PMID 14574404.  
  • Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMID 15489334.  
  • Abrahams BS, Kwok MC, Trinh E, et al. (2006). "Pathological aggression in "fierce" mice corrected by human nuclear receptor 2E1.". J. Neurosci. 25 (27): 6263–70. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4757-04.2005. PMID 16000615.  
  • Kumar RA, Leach S, Bonaguro R, et al. (2007). "Mutation and evolutionary analyses identify NR2E1-candidate-regulatory mutations in humans with severe cortical malformations.". Genes, Brain and Behavior 6 (6): 503–16. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2006.00277.x. PMID 17054721.  
  • Kumar RA, Everman DB, Morgan CT, et al. (2007). "Absence of mutations in NR2E1 and SNX3 in five patients with MMEP (microcephaly, microphthalmia, ectrodactyly, and prognathism) and related phenotypes.". BMC Med. Genet. 8: 48. doi:10.1186/1471-2350-8-48. PMID 17655765.  
  • Sun G, Yu RT, Evans RM, Shi Y (2007). "Orphan nuclear receptor TLX recruits histone deacetylases to repress transcription and regulate neural stem cell proliferation.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104 (39): 15282–7. doi:10.1073/pnas.0704089104. PMID 17873065.  

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