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T helper 3 cell: Wikis

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T helper 3 cell (Th3) have different cytokine requirements for their growth from CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells. The survival of CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells is dependent upon interleukin 2 (IL-2)[1], while in vitro differentiation of Th3 cells is enhanced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-4, and IL-10.

Findings suggest that Th3 cells are a different linage from naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells, but it is still unclear whether Th3 cells are the same as induced Treg cells because of the lack of a specific marker for Th3 cells. It was previously shown that TGF-β was produced by intestinal dendritic cells,[2][3] which has been considered to be the source of cytokines for the induction of Th3 cells in the intestine. Additionally, since TGF-β production was induced by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), which is constitutively expressed on naturally arising Treg cells,[4] it is possible that TGF-β production from Treg cells through CTLA-4–mediated signaling may stimulate the differentiation of both induced Treg cells and Th3 cells.

References

  1. ^ Sakaguchi, S; Ono, M; Setoguchi, R; Yagi, H; Hori, S; Fehervari, Z; Shimizu, J; Takahashi, T et al. (2006). "Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ natural regulatory T cells in dominant self-tolerance and autoimmune disease". Immunol Rev 212: 8–27. doi:10.1111/j.0105-2896.2006.00427.x. PMID 16903903.  
  2. ^ Johansson, C; Kelsall, BL (2005). "Phenotype and function of intestinal dendritic cells". Semin Immunol 17 (4): 284–294. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2005.05.010. PMID 15978836.  
  3. ^ Iwasaki, A (2007). "Mucosal dendritic cells". Annu Rev Immunol 25: 381–418. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141634. PMID 17378762.  
  4. ^ Chen, W; Jin, W; Hardegen, N; Lei, KJ; Li, L; Marinos, N; McGrady, G; Wahl, SM (2003). "Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-β induction of transcription factor Foxp3". J Exp Med 198 (12): 1875–1886. doi:10.1084/jem.20030152. PMID 14676299.  
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