The Full Wiki

More info on T helper 3 cell

T helper 3 cell: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

T helper 3 cell (Th3) have different cytokine requirements for their growth from CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells. The survival of CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells is dependent upon interleukin 2 (IL-2)[1], while in vitro differentiation of Th3 cells is enhanced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), IL-4, and IL-10.

Findings suggest that Th3 cells are a different linage from naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ Treg cells, but it is still unclear whether Th3 cells are the same as induced Treg cells because of the lack of a specific marker for Th3 cells. It was previously shown that TGF-β was produced by intestinal dendritic cells,[2][3] which has been considered to be the source of cytokines for the induction of Th3 cells in the intestine. Additionally, since TGF-β production was induced by cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), which is constitutively expressed on naturally arising Treg cells,[4] it is possible that TGF-β production from Treg cells through CTLA-4–mediated signaling may stimulate the differentiation of both induced Treg cells and Th3 cells.


  1. ^ Sakaguchi, S; Ono, M; Setoguchi, R; Yagi, H; Hori, S; Fehervari, Z; Shimizu, J; Takahashi, T et al. (2006). "Foxp3+ CD25+ CD4+ natural regulatory T cells in dominant self-tolerance and autoimmune disease". Immunol Rev 212: 8–27. doi:10.1111/j.0105-2896.2006.00427.x. PMID 16903903.  
  2. ^ Johansson, C; Kelsall, BL (2005). "Phenotype and function of intestinal dendritic cells". Semin Immunol 17 (4): 284–294. doi:10.1016/j.smim.2005.05.010. PMID 15978836.  
  3. ^ Iwasaki, A (2007). "Mucosal dendritic cells". Annu Rev Immunol 25: 381–418. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol.25.022106.141634. PMID 17378762.  
  4. ^ Chen, W; Jin, W; Hardegen, N; Lei, KJ; Li, L; Marinos, N; McGrady, G; Wahl, SM (2003). "Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25- naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-β induction of transcription factor Foxp3". J Exp Med 198 (12): 1875–1886. doi:10.1084/jem.20030152. PMID 14676299.  


Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address