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Tablighi Jamaat
تبلیغی جماعت
2009 Malaysian Tablighi Ijtema.jpg
2009 Malaysian Annual Congregation of Tablighi Jamaat
Sepang Selangor, Malaysia
Total population
70 to 80 million[1]
Founder
Muhammad Ilyas
Regions with significant populations
 France 100,000 (2008)[2]
 Kyrgyzstan 10,000 (2007)[3]
 United States 50,000[1]
 India over 30 million
 Bangladesh over 30 million
 Pakistan over 25 million
 South Africa 200,000 to 300,000
Religions
Predominantly: Deobandi Hanafi Muslims.
Minorities include: Shafi`i, Hanbali, Maliki Muslims; and various Muslim minorities
Scriptures
Quran
Languages
Liturgical: Arabic
In Bangladesh: Bengali
In Pakistan and India:Urdu
In the diaspora: Respective regional languages

Tablighi Jamaat (Urdu: تبلیغی جماعت, Arabic: جماعة التبليغ‎, English:Society for spreading faith)[3] is a transnational religious movement, which primarily aims for spiritual reformation of Muslims.[4] In 1926, Muhammad Ilyas founded Tablighi Jamaat (TJ) as an independent movement among the people of Mewat, India. The primary aim of the organization is to work at the grass roots level, reaching out to Muslims in all social and economic spectra, to bring them closer to the life practices of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1][5]

TJ's inception was an offshoot of the Deobandi movement and is also believed to be a response to Hindu revivalist movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims.[6] TJ gradually expanded from local to national to a transnational movement and now has followers in over 150 countries.[1]

TJ maintains a non-affiliating stature in matters of politics and jurisprudence so as to eschew the controversies that would otherwise accompany such affiliations.[7] Although, TJ emerged out of Deobandi sub-school in Hanafi jurisprudence of Islam, no particular jurisprudence or interpretation has been endorsed since the beginning of movement.[7][8] TJ has largely avoided electronic media and has emphasized a personal communication for proselytizing. The teachings of TJ are mainly rudimentary and the Six Principles put forward by Muhammad Ilyas influence most of their teachings.

Despite its pacifist stance, TJ has appeared on the fringes of numerous terrorism investigations.[9] TJ attracted significant public and media attention when it announced plans for the largest mosque in Europe to be built in Dewsbury, United Kingdom.

Contents

History

The emergence of Tablighi Jamaat (TJ) represented the intensification of the individual reformation aspect of original Deobandi movement. It was also a continuation of the broader trend of Islamic revival in India in the wake of the collapsed Muslim political power and the consolidation of the British rule in India in the mid-nineteenth century. This emergence also coincides with the rise of various Hindu proselytizing movements which launched massive efforts in the early twentieth century to reconvert Hindus who had previously converted to Islam. Notable among these Hindu revivalist movements were Shuddhi (purification) and Sangathan (consolidation) movements.[10] The magnitude of these movements generated widespread concerns regarding the vulnerability of non-practicing and new Muslims to conversion.

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Origin

Tablighi Jamaat originated in 1926 in Mewat, in north India, which was inhabited by Rajput tribes known as Meos. At the time, some Muslim Indian leaders feared that Muslims were losing their religious identity to the majority Hindu culture.[11] There is evidence that several Meos converted to Islam, followed by re-conversion to Hinduism when Muslim political power declined in the region. Meos were generally benighted Muslims before the emergence of TJ, and lacked the necessary acumen required to resist the cultural and religious influence of Hindus.[12]

Muhammad Ilyas, the founder of a Jamaat, wanted to set forth a movement that would exemplify the Quranic decree. "Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong. They are the ones to attain felicity."[Qur'an 3:104][13] The inspiration for devoting his life to Islam came to Ilyas during his second pilgrimage to the Hejaz in 1926.[14] His initially strove to establish a network of mosque-based religious schools to educate Mewati Muslims about correct Islamic beliefs and practices. Shortly afterwards, he was disappointed with the reality that these institutions were producing religious functionaries but not preachers.[15]

He abandoned his teaching profession at Madrasah Mazharul Ulum in Saharanpur and started on his life as a missionary. He relocated to Nizamuddin near Delhi, where Tablighi movement was formally launched in 1926.[15] When setting the guidelines for the movement, he sought inspiration from the practices adopted by prophet Muhammad at the dawn of Islam.[13] Muhammad Ilyas put forward the slogan, Urdu: "!اﮮ مسلمانو! مسلمان بنو", "O Muslims! Be Muslims". This expressed the central focus of Tablighi Jamat; their aim to renew Muslim society by uniting them in embracing the lifestyle of Muhammad. The movement gained a phenomenal following in a relatively short period and nearly twenty-five thousand people attended the annual conference in November 1941.[15]

Expansion

The group began to expand its activities in 1946, and within two decades the group reached Southwest Asia and Southeast Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America.[16] Initially it expanded its reach to South Asian diaspora communities, firstly in Arabic countries, and then in Southeast Asia. The first foreign missions were sent to Hijaz and Britain in 1946.[17] Before entering Europe, the movement first established itself in the United States. It established a large presence in Europe during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1978, construction of the Dewsbury Markaz in Dewsbury, England commenced which subsequently became the European headquarters of Tablighi Jamaat. Introduced in France in 1960s, it grew prominently in during 1970-80s.[18] The members of Tablighi Jamat are also represented in the French Council of the Muslim Faith.[19]

In the few years before 2006, TJ's influence has exponentially grown in France, which now has around 100,000 followers.[2] However, the United Kingdom is the current focus of the movement in the West, primarily due to the large South Asian population that began to arrive there in the 1960s and 1970s.[20] By 2007, Tabligh members were situated at 600 of Britain's 1350 mosques.[21]

After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the movement made inroads into Central Asia. As of 2007, it was estimated 10,000 Tablighi members could be found in Kyrgyzstan alone.[3] FBI believes that nearly 50,000 members of Tablighi Jamaat are active in United States.[1] By 2008, organization had a presence in nearly 150 countries and with a global following of 70 to 80 million people, it has now become the largest Muslim movement in the world. However, it maintains a majority presence in South Asia.[1][22]

Beliefs and objectives

Following the fundamentals of Sunni Islam, TJ claims no beliefs exclusive to them. Although TJ itself is deeply imbued in ethos that permeate Deobandi sub-school of Hanafi jurisprudence, the scope of their activities is not limited to the Deobandi community. Every member is allowed to follow his own jurisprudence as long as it does not deviate from Sunni Islam.[7][20]

Tablighi Jamaat defines its objective with reference to the concept of Da'wa which literally means 'to call' connotes to an invitation to act. In religious context, it implies to a call towards prayer which may also refer to a 'mission' if used in reference with religious prophets and other people who were assigned such mission. TJ defines its objective within the framework of two particular Quranic verses which refer to such mission.[23] Those two verses are:[24]

"And who speaks better than he who calls to Allah while he himself does good, and says: I am surely of those who submit?" [Qur'an 41:33]
"Let there arise out of you a band of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding what is wrong. They are the ones to attain felicity."[Qur'an 3:104]

The only objective, overtly stated in most sermons, of TJ is that Muslims adopt and invite for the Islamic lifestyle, exemplified by Islamic prophet Muhammad, in its perfection. They encourage Muslims to spend time out of their daily routine in the tablighi activities so that the rest of routine could be harmonized with Islamic lifestyle. They insist that the best way of learning is teaching and encouraging others.[6]

Six Principles

Muhammad Ilyas devoted to what he described as “the mission of the prophets”. The method adopted by him was simple. It was to organize units of at least ten persons and send them to various villages. This unit, called jamaat, would visit a village, invite the local Muslims to assemble in the mosque and present their message in the form of Six Principles. Muhammad Ilyas articulated six demands in the form of Six Principles which are quintessential to TJ's teachings. These six principles are:

  1. "Kalimah: An article of faith in which the tabligh accepts that there is no god but Allah and the Prophet Muhammad is His messenger.
  2. Salah: Five daily prayers that are essential to spiritual elevation, piety, and a life free from the ills of the material world.
  3. Ilm and Dhikr: The knowledge and remembrance of Allah conducted in sessions in which the congregation listens to preaching by the emir, performs prayers, recites the Quran and reads Hadith.
  4. Ikram-i-Muslim: The treatment of fellow Muslims with honor and deference.
  5. Ikhlas-i-Niyyat: Reforming one’s life in supplication to Allah by performing every human action for the sake of Allah and toward the goal of self-transformation.
  6. Tafrigh-i-Waqt: The sparing of time to live a life based on faith and learning its virtues, following in the footsteps of the Prophet, and taking His message door-to-door for the sake of faith."[20]

Organization

Kakrail Mosque, Dhaka. The Tablighi Jamaat movement in Bangladesh is mostly based on here.

Tablighi Jamaat follows an informal organizational structure and keeps an introvert institutional profile. It keeps distance from mass media and avoids publishing details about its activities and membership. The group also exercises complete abstinence from expressing opinions on political and controversial issues mainly to avoid the disputes which would accompany these endorsements.[25][26] TJ, as an organization, does not seek donations and is largely funded by its senior members. Since there is no formal registration process and no official membership count has ever been taken, the exact membership statistics remain unknown.[27] The movement discourages interviews with its elders and has never officially released texts. Even though there are publications associated with the movement, particularly by Zakariya Kandahalwi, the emphasis has never been on book learning, but rather on first-hand personal communication and da'wa work.[6][28] There is a collection of books, usually referred as Tablighi Nisaab (Tablighi Curriculum), which is recommended by elders of TJ for general reading. This set includes three books namely Hayatus Sahaba, Fazail-e-Amal and Fazail-e-Sadqaat.

The organization's activities are coordinated through centers and headquarters called 'Markaz'. Tablighi Jamaat maintains its international headquarters, called Nizamuddin Markaz, in the Nizamuddin West district of Delhi, India, from where it originally started. It also has country headquarters in over 120 countries to coordinate its activities. These headquarters organize volunteer, self-funding people in groups (called Jama'ats, Arabic: جماعتِ ‎ meaning Assembly), averaging ten to twelve people, for reminding Muslims to remain steadfast on path of Allah.[22] These jamaats and preaching missions are self funded by their respective members.

Their operations in the UK are coordinated through Dewsbury Markaz, Yorkshire. This centre holds one major gathering annually, generally in Dewsbury itself. It has also constructed a busy madrassah (Islamic educational institution), where future British Islamic scholars are trained.

Ameer is the title of leadership in the TJ and the attribute largely sought is the quality of faith, rather than the worldly rank.[29] The ameer of TJ is appointed by central consultative council (shoora) and elders of TJ.[30] First ameer, also the founder, was Muhammad Ilyas, second was his son Muhammad Yusuf and the third was Inaam ul Hasan.[16] At present, there is a council of two people (Zubair ul Hasan and Saad Kandhalawi) performing as ameer.[22]

Activities and traditions

Dry-dock parable:
Man is a ship in trouble in tumultuous sea. It is impossible to repair it without taking it away from the high seas where the waves of ignorance and the temptations of temporal life assail it. Its only chance is to come back to land to be dry-docked. The dry-dock is the mosque of the jamaat.

— from the book Travellers in Faith[31]

The activism of Jamaat can be characterized by the last of Six Principles. This principle, Tafrigh-i-Waqt (English: sparing of time) justifies the withdrawal from world, though temporarily, for travelling. Travel has been adopted as the most effective method of personal reform and has become an emblematic feature of organization. They describe the purpose of this retreat as to patch the damages caused by the worldly indulgence and occasionally use the dry-dock parable to explain this.[31]

This withdrawal is generally compared to the Hijra, where Islamic prophet Muhammad and his followers left behind their worldly pursuits for religious concerns and migrated to the city of Medina in 622 AD. These jamaats, each led by an ameer, are sent from each markaz across the city or country to remind people to persist on the path of Allah. The duration of work is depends on the discretion of individual jamaats which generally spans from either an evening, three days or to years.

Khurūj - proselytizing tour

TJ encourages its followers to follow the pattern of spending "one night a week, one weekend a month, 40 continuous days a year, and ultimately 120 days at least once in their lives engaged in tabligh missions". These members use mosques as their base during this travel but particular mosques, due to more frequent tablighi activities, have come to be specifically associated with this organization. These mosques generally hold the periodic, smaller scale convocations for neighborhood members.[6]

During the course of these tours, jamaats conduct a daily gasht, which involves visiting local neighborhoods, preferably with the help of a guide.[20] They invite people to attend the Maghrib prayer at their mosque and those who attend are delivered a sermon after the prayers, which essentially outlines the Six Principles. They urge the attendees to spend time in Tabligh for self reformation and the propagation of Islam.

Generally, the assumed role of these jamaat members cycle in a way that they may be a preacher, cook or a cleaner on occasions.[29] The markaz keeps records of each jamaat and its members, the identity of whom is verified from their respective mosques. Mosques are used to assist the tablighi activities of individual jamaats that voluntarily undertake preaching missions.[1][22] Members of a jamaat, ideally, pay expenses themselves so as to avoid financial dependence on anyone.[29]

Ijtema - annual gathering

An annual gathering of followers, called Ijtema, is summoned at the headquarters of respective countries. A typical ijtema continues for three days and ends with an exceptionally long prayer.[2] These gatherings are considered moments of intense blessings by TJ members and are known to attract members in excess of 2 million in some countries.[6] The largest of such annual gatherings are held in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The Bengali gathering, called Bishwa Ijtema (World Gathering), converges followers from around the world in Tongi near Dhaka, Bangladesh and with an attendance exceeding 2 million people, it is assumed to be the second largest annual Muslim gathering in the world after Hajj.[32][33] The second largest TJ gathering takes place in Raiwind, Pakistan which was attended by approximately 1.5 million people in 2004.[34]

Controversies

Abbey Mills Mosque

The new Abbey Mills pumping station, which is adjacent to the proposed site of the Mosque

Tablighi Jamaat gained much media and public attention in Europe, particularly in United Kingdom, when it announced the plans for an 18 acre mosque near 2012 Olympics park in east London. This mosque was to have a capacity in excess of 70,000 people making it the largest religious building in United Kingdom and the largest mosque in Europe. The scope of project raised much criticisms and concerns in general public.[1] However, the mosque was downsized in its revised project plans for a capacity of 12000 people.[35]

The plan sparked controversy for various reasons including its initially reported size, the possible chemical contamination risk associated with the site, the uncertainty as to the sources of funding that will be used by Tablighi Jamaat, and alleged links between Tablighi Jamaat and Islamic terrorism.[36][37][38] Mosque officials are engaged in resolving the controversies, as well as countering the perception implied by the term "mega-mosque".[39] Public response to the mosque and associated controversies has included online petitions, various public talks, debates, speeches, and websites, and even apparent threats against people opposing the mosque.[40] With the expiration of the permit to use the site, and neither a current plan permission nor application for a mosque, the building's future remains uncertain.[41][42]

Allegations of terrorism

Although, TJ has maintained pacific stance since it's inception but, after 9/11 attacks on US, concerns have risen about Tablighi Jamaat's role as a springboard to terrorist organizations. It was cited on the cases of John Walker Lindh,[43] and dozens of the captives the USA holds in extrajudicial detention in its Guantanamo Bay detention camps, in Cuba, had their continued detention justified through their alleged association with the Tabligh movement. Other nation's counter-terrorism agencies also suspect the movement, or some of its members, of ties to terrorism.

A December 2001 article by the Boston Herald cited Indian security concerns branches of the jamaat were related to Al-Qaeda. Yet "shoe-bomber" Richard Reid apparently did not remain with the group because they were not violent enough.[44] It is also alleged extremist members of MULTA, with ties to the Pakistani intelligence agency, passed into Bangladesh under the guise of members of TJ.[45] A very direct comment from the FBI in the article stated, "We have a significant presence of Tablighi Jamaat in the United States," the deputy chief of the FBI's international terrorism section said in 2003, "and we have found that Al-Qaeda used them for recruiting now and in the past."[46]

On the other hand, some notable people hold opinions contrary to these allegations.

"peaceful and apolitical preaching-to-the-people movement."[47]
Graham E. Fullera former CIA official and an expert on Islam, (author of The Future of Political Islam)
"completely apolitical and law abiding."[48]
Olivier Roya prominent authority on Islam at French National Centre for Scientific Research
"an apolitical, quietist movement of internal grassroots missionary renewal"[6]
—Barbara D. Metcalf, University of Michigan,  (While comparing its activities to the efforts to reshape individual lives by Alcoholics Anonymous)

Celebrated members

There are many eminent personalities associated with this movement. These include the former presidents of Pakistan, Muhammad Rafiq Tarar and Farooq Leghari. Former Prime Minister of Pakistan, Nawaz Sharif lives in the town of Raiwind and has attended Jamaat's activities on occasions. Former President of Bangladesh Ziaur Rahman has been a supporter and member of TJ, and popularized it in Bangladesh.

Former renowned singer and pop star Junaid Jamshed has close links with Jamaat, and his departure from professional singing career is attributed to his inclination towards this movement. Famed singers, actors and models, including Attaullah Essa Khailwi[49], Gulzar Alam,[50] Alamzeb Mujahid,[51] and stage performers like Javed Kodu, Jawad Waseem and Moin Akhter, are also affiliated with the movement.

Former Lieut. General, and head of Inter-Services Intelligence, Javed Nasir of the Pakistan Army remained a member of Tablighi Jamaat during his service. Well-recognized writers and scholars, such as Dr. Nadir Ali Khan (famous Indian writer) and others. TJ also has a notable following among Pakistani professional cricketers and Shahid Afridi, Mohammad Yousuf; and the former cricketers Saqlain Mushtaq, Inzamam-ul-Haq, Mushtaq Ahmed, Saeed Anwar, Saleem Malik, Waqar Younis are active members. Mohammad Yousuf's conversion to Islam is widely attributed to the influence of the TJ.[52] Others include South African batsman Hashim Amla. Former reputed Pakistani motorcar and motorcycle jumping specialist Sultan Golden, Muhammad Hassan, Rizwan Nadir is also affiliated with the movement.[citation needed]

See also

References

Citations

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  2. ^ a b c Khalid Hasan (2006-08-13). "Tableeghi Jamaat: all that you know and don’t". Daily Times. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2006\08\13\story_13-8-2006_pg3_4. Retrieved 2010-01-21. 
  3. ^ a b c Rotar, Igor (June 23, 2007). "Pakistani Islamic Missionary Group Establishes a Strong Presence in Central Asia". EurasiaNet. http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav072307a.shtml. Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  4. ^ Masud 2000, p. xiii
  5. ^ Dominic Kennedy and Hannah Devlin (2006-08-19). " ""Disbelief and shame in a community of divided faith"". http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article613756.ece". Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
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  7. ^ a b c Ayoob 2007, p. 135
  8. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2007). God's continent (illustrated, annotated ed.). US: Oxford University Press. pp. 340. ISBN 019531395X. http://books.google.com/books?id=94rZKHMilp0C&dq=tablighi&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  9. ^ ""Tablighi Jamaat does not preach jihad", says senior Muslim leader". The Hindu. 2007-07-09. http://mangalorean.com/news.php?newstype=local&newsid=47608. Retrieved 2007-07-09. 
  10. ^ Appleby 1994, p. 511
  11. ^ Kepel 2004, p. 261
  12. ^ Ballard 1994, p. 64
  13. ^ a b Ballard 1994, p. 65
  14. ^ Agwani, Mohammad Shafi (1986). Islamic Fundamentalism in India 1986. Twenty First Century Indian Society. p. 41. 
  15. ^ a b c Appleby 1994, p. 152
  16. ^ a b Appleby 1994, p. 514
  17. ^ Masud 2000, p. 127
  18. ^ Smith, Craig (2005-04-29). "French Islamic group offers rich soil for militancy". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/28/world/europe/28iht-muslim.html. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 
  19. ^ Gilles, Kepel. The War for Muslim Minds. 2004. pg.261
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  21. ^ Norfolk, Andrew. "Muslim group behind ‘mega-mosque’ seeks to convert all Britain" (ece). TimesOnline. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/faith/article2419524.ece. Retrieved 2008-04-07. 
  22. ^ a b c d Sameer Arshad (2007-07-22). "Tabligh, or the enigma of revival". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-2223665,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved 2009-05-02. 
  23. ^ Masud 2000, p. xxi
  24. ^ Masud 2000, p. xxii
  25. ^ Alexiev, Alex (Winter 2005). "Tablighi Jamaat: Jihad's Stealthy Legions". Middle East Quarterly. http://www.meforum.org/article/686. Retrieved 2007-02-01. 
  26. ^ "Tableeghi Jamaat leaders denounce gunpoint Sharia". DawnNews. 2009-04-27. http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/12-tableeghi-jamaat-leaders-denounce-gunpoint-sharia--bi-12. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  27. ^ Appleby 1994, p. 154
  28. ^ Appleby 1994, p. 516
  29. ^ a b c Barbara, Metcalf (February 27, 1996). "Islam and women: The case of the Tablighi Jama`at". Stanford University. http://www.stanford.edu/group/SHR/5-1/text/metcalf.html. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  30. ^ Appleby 1994, p. 156
  31. ^ a b Masud 2000, p. 166
  32. ^ Uddin, Sufia M. (2006). Constructing Bangladesh (illustrated ed.). UNC Press. pp. 224. ISBN 0807830216. http://books.google.com/books?id=wpS0vjc8atIC&dq=tablighi&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  33. ^ "Millions of Muslims gather in Bangladesh". Reuters, UK. 2007-02-02. http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKDHA10181920070202. Retrieved 2009-07-31. 
  34. ^ "600 couples wedded at Ijtema". Daily Times. 21 November 2004. http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=story_21-11-2004_pg7_28. Retrieved 19 March 2010. 
  35. ^ "Mosque Plans Downsized". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_6490000/newsid_6499900/6499935.stm?bw=nb&mp=wm&news=1&ms3=6&ms_javascript=true&bbcws=2. Retrieved 2009-08-26. 
  36. ^ Blake, Daniel (31 July 2007). "Calls to Close London 'Mega-Mosque' Site amid 'Contamination' Revelations". Society. Christian Today. http://www.christiantoday.com/article/calls.to.close.london.megamosque.site.amid.contamination.revelations/11983.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  37. ^ Doward, Jamie (4 September 2006). "Battle to block massive mosque". Special report:Religious affairs. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2006/sep/24/communities.religion. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  38. ^ Leapman, Ben; Wynne-Jones, Jonathan (21 February 2007). "Supermosque for 70,000 'will be blocked'". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1542995/Supermosque-for-70%2C000-%27will-be-blocked%27.html. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  39. ^ (ASX) Mosque plans downsized. [Television production]. London, England: BBC News. 2007-03-27. Event occurs at 00:00:15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_6490000/newsid_6499900/6499935.stm?bw=nb&mp=wm&news=1&ms3=62&ms_javascript=true&bbcws=2. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  40. ^ Sugden, Joanna (6 November 2007). "Video threat to opponent of Olympic 'mega-mosque'". The Times. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article2820684.ece. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  41. ^ Law, Peter (7 November 2006). "Mega-mosque planning deadline missed". This is Local London. http://www.thisislocallondon.co.uk/news/topstories/display.var.1006186.0.megamosque_planning_deadline_missed.php. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  42. ^ "ScrapMegaMosque - epetition reply". Her Majesty's Government. 19 July 2007. http://www.pm.gov.uk/output/Page12552.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  43. ^ Rabasa 2004, p. 448
  44. ^ Tabliq a thorn in sides of several governments Reprinted on ApologeticsIndex.org
  45. ^ Appendix One - Muslim Fundamentalist Organizations in North East India—A Compendium Terror Sans Frontiers: Islamic Militancy in North East India, Jaideep Saikia
  46. ^ Sachs, Susan (14 July 2003). "A Muslim Missionary Group Draws New Scrutiny in U.S.". U.S.. The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F06E5D7163CF937A25754C0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 
  47. ^ "The Future of Political Islam". Foreign Affairs. 2002-03-01. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-1383832_ITM. Retrieved 2008-03-28. 
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  49. ^ "Top Stories". The News. December 18, 2006. http://www.thenews.com.pk/top_story_detail.asp?Id=4830. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  50. ^ "Entertainment industry of Frontier hangs in the balance". TheNews. 2009-01-20. http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=158072. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  51. ^ "Popular comedian quits showbiz". TheNews. 2009-01-17. http://www.thenews.com.pk/daily_detail.asp?id=157567. Retrieved 2009-04-29. 
  52. ^ "Pakistan's Youhana embraces Islam". BBC News. 2005-09-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4260516.stm. Retrieved 22 February 2010. 

Bibliography

External links

Coordinates: 31°15′25″N 74°13′22″E / 31.25694°N 74.22278°E / 31.25694; 74.22278


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