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Tabriz
ancient names: Davrezh, Tavrezh, Tavrez
Left: Municipality of Tabriz (city hall) built in 1934, by Arfa'ol molk, Top right: Blue Mosque, Middle right: Maqbaratoshoara, Bottom right: Shah-goli.
 Tabriz is located in Iran
Tabriz
Coordinates: 38°04′N 46°18′E / 38.067°N 46.3°E / 38.067; 46.3
Country Flag of Iran.svg Iran
Province East Azerbaijan Province
County Tabriz County
District Tabriz Central district
Established date N/A
Government
 - Mayor Alireza Novin
Area
 - Total 140 km2 (54.1 sq mi)
Elevation 1,351.4 m (4,434 ft)
Population (2006)
 - Total 1,398,060
 - Population Rank in Iran 4th
 - Demonym Tabrizian
Time zone IRST (UTC+3:30)
 - Summer (DST) IRDT (UTC+4:30)
Postal code 51368
Area code(s) 0411
Website Tabriz municipality

Tabriz (Persian: تبریز, Azerbaijani: تبریز) is the fourth largest city in Iran and the capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Situated at an altitude of 1,350 meters at the junction of the Quri River and Aji River, it was the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960s, one of its former capitals and residence of the crown prince under the Qajar dynasty. The city has proven extremely influential in the country’s recent history. Tabriz is located in a valley to the north of the long ridge of the volcanic cone of Sahand, south of the Eynali mountain. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes down gently to the northern end of Lake Urmia, 60 km to the west.

With a population of about 1,400,000[1] Tabriz is Iran's fourth largest city, after Tehran, Mashhad and Esfahān and the second industrial city after Tehran. It is a summer resort and a commercial, industrial, and transportation center.[2]

With a very rich history, Tabriz once housed many historical monuments. Unfortunately, many of them were destroyed in repeated invasions and attacks by foreign forces, combined with the negligence of the ruling governments, and natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. What remains now mostly dates back to the Ilkhanid, the Safavid, and the Qajar periods. Some of the monuments are unrivalled masterpieces of architecture.[3][4][5]

Contents

Etymology

According to some sources,[6] including Encyclopædia Britannica,[7] the name Tabriz derives from "tap-riz" ("causing heat to flow" in Iranian languages), from the many thermal springs in the area. Other sources[8][9] claim that in AD 246, to avenge his brother's death, king Khosraw I of Armenia defeated Ardashir I of the Sassanid Empire and changed the name of the city from Shahistan to Tauris, deriving from "ta-vrezh" ("this revenge" in Grabar). In AD 297, it became the capital of Tiridates III, king of Armenia.[10] However, this story has popular origin and no ancient source has recorded such event. This is based on accounts of Vardan, the Armenian historian in 14th century.[11]

History

An old map of Tabriz

Early Accounts

According to The Cambridge History of Iran, Tabriz was founded in early Sassanids times in 3rd or 4th century A.D. or more probably in 7th century.[12] During the Islamic conquest of Iran, Arab armies in Azerbaijan mostly turned attention toward Ardebil and Tabriz was not even listed among the cities of Azerbaijan that Iranian armies were mobilized. These accounts suggest that Tabriz was not more than a small village at this time.[13] Current excavations in Blue Mosque site may lead to new theories about the early history of Tabriz[citation needed].

From the Muslim conquest to Qajars

An old photo of Tabriz

After the conquest of Iran by Muslims, Arab tribe Azd form Yemen resided in Tabriz and development of post-Islamic Tabriz began from this time. Yaqut, the Islamic geographer says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd came to Tabriz.[13] In AD 791, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder[3][10].

After the Mongol invasion, Tabriz came to eclipse Maragheh as the later Ilkhanid capital of Azerbaijan until sacked by Tamerlane in 1392.[14] Chosen as a capital by Arghun Khan, fourth ruler of the Ilkhanate, for its favored location in the northwestern grasslands,[15] in 1295, his successor Ghazan Khan made it the chief administrative center of an empire stretching from Egypt to the Oxus River and from the Caucasus to the Indian Ocean. Under his rule new walls were built around the city, and numerous public buildings, educational facilities, and caravansarais were erected to serve traders traveling on the ancient Silk Road. The Byzantine Gregory Choniades is said to have served as the city's Orthodox bishop during this time.[citation needed]

From 1375 to 1468, Tabriz was the capital of Kara Koyunlu state in Azerbaijan[16], and from 1469 to 1501 the capital of Ak Koyunlu state.

Before the expansion of Altaic languages in the area, Iranian languages[17] were spoken in Tabriz and Azerbaijan. The 13th century manuscript Safina-yi Tabriz has poems in what its Tabriz-born author has called the Tabrizi dialect (Zaban-i-Tabrizi)[18]. Samples of the Tabrizi dialect of the wider Old Azari language include quatrains recorded in Tabrizi dialect by Abd al-Qadir Maraghi, phrases from Baba Faraji Tabrizi and poems in Tabrizi in the Safina-yi Tabriz, and poetry from Homam Tabrizi, Mama Esmat Tabrizi, Maghrebi Tabrizi and others. Before the Safavid revolution, Tabriz was predominantly a Shafi'ite and Sunni city.

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans, but remained the capital of Safavid Iranian empire until 1548, when Shah Tahmasp I transferred it to Qazvin.

Between 1585 and 1603, Tabriz was occupied by the Ottomans but was then returned to the Safavids after which it grew as a major commercial center, conducting trade with the Ottoman Empire, Russia, central Asia, and India. In 1724 the city was again occupied by the Ottomans and retaken by Iranian army. The city was held by Russia on 1826 after a series of battles but the Iranian army retook Tabriz in 1828. Tabriz was the residence for Crown Prince within Qajar Dynasty.

Contemporary history

Constitutionalists of Tabriz, the two men in the center are Sattar khan & Bagher khan
Sattar Khan (1868-1914) was a major revolutionary figure.
  • Iranian Constitutional Revolution

Advantage of the vicinity to the west and with the benefit of the communications with nearby countries' enlightenment movements, Tabriz became center of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution. This makes Tabriz a major pole for Iranian Constitutional Revolutionary movements between 1905 and 1911 which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran. Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan two Tabrizi reformists whose led Tabrizi people's solidarity had a great role in achievement of this revolution.

  • Azerbaijan People's Government

After World War II, the Soviets set up the communist Azerbaijan People's Government in north-west Iran with its capital at Tabriz. The new communist government, under the leadership of Ja'far Pishevari, held power for a year from 1946, after which Tabriz returned to Iran after the forced Soviet withdrawal.

  • Iranian presidential election 2009
Protesters after vote fraud, Abressan intersection, Tabriz.

On June 12, 2009, Iran presidential election was held, between Mir-Hossein Mousavi (who is Azeri originally), Mehdi Karroubi the reformist Lur candidate, and Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (who is an Arab from the small Arab settlement around Semnan) the fundamental candidate who was the favourite of supreme leader Ali Khamenei (who is also an Azeri from the town of Khameneh, Azerbaijan). People asked Where is my vote? which became the motto of huge demonstration against anti-democratic regime. International concern and condemnation have been expressed by much of the international media, the United Nations, the European Union, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and others at alleged voting fraud, censorship, and the use of police brutality against protestors. Extensive demonstrations have occurred across Iran, particularly in the capital Tehran. According to most of Iranians, it was supreme leather's coup d'état against improvement of democracy in the country.[19][20][21][22]

Historical time-line

Zahhak's stucco
  • 4 BC: It is the capital of Media Atropatene ,named after Atropates, an Iranian governor of the province (appointed by Alexander the Great).[citation needed]
  • 297 AD: It becomes the capital of Tiridates III, the king of Armenia.
  • 791: Tabriz is rebuilt by Zubaidah, wife of Harun al-Rashid, after being destroyed by an earthquake.
  • 858: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1041: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • late 1200s: The Mongol Il-Khan Arghun makes Tabriz his capital.[15]
  • 1501: Ismail Safavi crowned as Shah in Tabriz, founding the Safavid dynasty
  • 1548: Tabriz is replaced by Qazvin as the capital of the Safavid kingdom. Tabriz was considered too exposed to a potential Ottoman invasion.
  • 1721: An earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1780: Another earthquake destroys large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1826: Tabriz is occupied by the Russians.
  • 1828: Qajar army takes back Tabriz.
  • 1850: Báb, the founder of the Bábí Faith and Forerunner of Bahá'u'lláh is executed in Tabriz.
  • 1906 - 1908: Tabriz becomes the centre of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution.
  • 1927: An earthquake destroyed large parts of Tabriz.
  • 1941: Tabriz occupied by the Soviet troops.
  • 1945: December: Becomes the capital of a short-lived Soviet-backed autonomous Azerbaijan People's Government.
  • 1946: Tabriz University is opened.
  • 1947: Iranian troops take back Tabriz.
Excavation founding in 2002 in Blue mosque site, Iron Age branch, Azerbaijan Museum.

Excavation sites

See also: Iron Age museum.

In 2002, during a construction project at north side of the Blue Mosque (Part of Silk Road Project), an ancient graveyard was revealed. This was kept secret until a construction worker alerted the authorities. Radiocarbon analysis by Allameh Tabatabi University has shown the background of the graves to be more than 3800 years old. A museum of these excavations including the Blue Mosque was opened to public in 2006 [23].

There is another excavation in Abbasi Street at site of Rabe Rashidi. This academic institution is dated back to more than 700 years ago and was established in Ilkhanid period.

Capital of Iran

Tabriz was known as capital of Iran several times: during Kara Koyunlu dynesty from 1375 until 1468, then during Ak Koyunlu within 1468-1501, Some of the existing historical monuments including Blue Mosque are belonged to Kara Koyunlu period. Finally, it was capital of the Iranian Empire within the Safavid period from 1501 until their defeat in 1514 [24].

During the Qajar dynasty, Tabriz was residence of Iranian Crown Prince (1794-1925).

Blue Mosque is built during Kara Koyunlu dynasty.

City of The Firsts

Due to its location as a western gateway of Iran, many modern developments have been adopted first in this city, leading to its moniker as a "city of firsts".[25] These include:

  • Iran's first printing house was founded in Tabriz (1811).
  • Iran's first modern school was founded in Tabriz by Hassan Roshdieh (1888). The language of instruction was Persian and Azari Turkic.
  • The first Iranian special school for deaf children was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1924).
  • The first Iranian special school for blind students was founded in Tabriz by a German mission (1926).
  • The first Iranian kindergarten was founded in Tabriz by Jabbar Baghcheban (1923).
  • Iran's first modern-style municipal government was set up in Tabriz.
  • Tabriz Chamber of Commerce was the first of its kind founded in Iran (1906).
  • The first public libraries in modern Iran were founded in Tabriz.
  • Iran's first cinema was founded in Tabriz (1900), while the first cinema in Tehran was founded by a Tabrizi (1921).
  • Tabriz was the first city in Iran to install a telephone system (about 1900).

Geography

Topography

Tabriz is located in northwest of Iran in East Azerbaijan province between Eynali and Sahand mountains in a fertile area in shore of Aji River and Ghuri River. The local area is earthquake-prone and during its history, the city has been devastated and rebuilt several times.

Climate

Tabriz has a continental climate and regular seasons(Köppen BSk). The annual precipitation is around 380 millimetres (15 in), a good deal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. The city enjoys mild and fine climate in spring, dry and semi-hot in summer, humid and rainy in autumn and snowy cold in winter. The average annual temperature is 13oC. Cool winds blow from east to west mostly in summer.[26]

Climate data for Tabriz
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 12
(54)
17
(63)
22
(72)
27
(81)
33
(91)
38
(100)
38
(100)
40
(104)
35
(95)
28
(82)
26
(79)
17
(63)
40
(104)
Average high °C (°F) 0
(32)
2
(36)
8
(46)
16
(61)
21
(70)
27
(81)
31
(88)
31
(88)
26
(79)
19
(66)
10
(50)
3
(37)
17
(63)
Average low °C (°F) -6
(21)
-3
(27)
1
(34)
7
(45)
11
(52)
17
(63)
21
(70)
21
(70)
16
(61)
10
(50)
2
(36)
-1
(30)
8
(46)
Record low °C (°F) -16
(3)
-17
(1)
-11
(12)
-2
(28)
0
(32)
7
(45)
12
(54)
10
(50)
1
(34)
-2
(28)
-8
(18)
-15
(5)
-17
(1)
Precipitation mm (inches) 26
(1.02)
25
(0.98)
47
(1.85)
54
(2.13)
42
(1.65)
18
(0.71)
3
(0.12)
4
(0.16)
10
(0.39)
30
(1.18)
29
(1.14)
30
(1.18)
381
(15)
Source: [27]

Air pollution

Tabriz is the 2nd most polluted city of Iran. The level of air pollution increases day after day. The main reasons for this phenomenon are: vehicles and major factories like oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical factories. According to research, 558,167 tons of pollutants are produced everyday in Tabriz.[28]

Governance

City authority lies with the mayor, who is elected by a municipal board. The municipal board is periodically elected by the city residents. Municipality of Tabriz is used as the Municipal central office.

Districts

The city is divided into 8 municipal districts. Old neighborhoods of Tabriz:

  • Ahrub
  • Akhmagaya
  • Amiraghiz
  • Bahar
  • Baghmasha
  • Baghshoumal
  • Baron Avak (Barnava)
  • Bazaar
  • Beylankee
  • Charandub
  • Chousdouzan
  • Davachi (Shotorban)
  • Gajeel
  • Imamieh
  • Hokmabad
  • Kouchebagh
  • Khateeb
  • Khayyam
  • Khiabun
  • Laklar
  • Lalah
  • Manzaria
  • Maghsoudia
  • Maralan
  • Nobar
  • Gara-aghach
  • Garamalik
  • Rastakhoocha

Demographics

Tabriz Population Change.

According to official census of 2006, the population of Tabriz is about 1,400,000 [29]. The majority of Tabriz residents are known as Azeris. Also, some minority groups of Persians, Armenians, Assyrians and Kurds also live in Tabriz.

Language

Todays, the predominant language spoken in Tabriz is Azerbaijani Turkic which belongs to the Turkic languages family. Azeri is a member of Oghuz branch of Turkic language and it is closely related to Turkish and Turkmeni. The modern Azeri language is evolved from the Eastern Oghuz dialect of Western (Oghuz) Turkic which spread to Southwestern Asia during medieval Turkic migrations and was heavily influenced by Persian and Arabic. Classical literature in Azeri was formed in 14th century based on the Tabrizi and Shirvani dialects which were used by classical Azeri poets and writers such as Nasimi, Fuzuli and Khatai. Besides, some inhabitants speak the Persian language, which is the official language of Iran and the sole language of education.[3]. Also, Armenian language is another traditional language spoken and written by Christians in Tabriz.

Religion

The majority of people are followers of Shia Islam. Some Armenians and Assyrians live in Tabriz and have their own churches and organizations. There used to be a small Jewish community, but most of them have moved to Tehran.[3]

Culture and Art

Orosey window of Amir Nezam House
Armenian illuminated manuscript of 1337, done by Avag in Sultania / Tabriz.

Literature

The music and folk songs of Tabriz are popular and traditions have a long history. The prominent Iranian Azeri poet Mohammad-Hossein Shahriar was born in Tabriz. The handicrafts in the Bazaar of Tabriz, and in particular the Tabriz rug are famous worldwide. The culture, social values, language and the music is a mixture of what exists in rest of Iran.

Tabriz also has a special place in Persian literature, as the following sample of verses from some of Iran's best poets and authors illustrates:

ساربانا بار بگشا ز اشتران
شهر تبريز است و کوی دلبران

Oh Sārbān, have camels' cargo unloaded,
For Tabriz is neighborhood of the beloved.
Molana

عزیزی در اقصای تبریز بود
که همواره بیدار و شبخیز بود

A beloved lived in Tabriz away from sight,
who was always alert and awake at night
Bustan of Sadi

Statue of Shahryar.

تا به تبریزم دو چیزم حاصل است
نیم نان و آب مهران رود و بس

As long as I live in Tabriz, two things I need not worry of,
The half loaf of bread and the water of Mehranrud [river] are enough!
Khaqani

اين ارك بلند شهر تبريز است
افراشته قامتِ رسايش را

This is the tall Arg of Tabriz City,
Raised it's outstanding height there!
Maftun

Music

The professional music of Azari people are divided into two "distinct types", the music of "ashyg" and the "mugam". Mugam "is not common" among Iranian azaris who "prefer the School of Tabriz".

Tabriz style in Iranian miniature

On the other hand the music of the ashyg is found in most places in northwestern Iran and particularly in Tabriz, Maraghe, Khoy, and Orumïye (Rezaye). In Iran the primarily distinct styles of Mugam and the music of the ashyg "still share common characteristics" including "the initial range, which is restricted to a pentachord (jins), readily identifiable modes, melodic lines consisting predominantly of sequential notes, time signatures (4/4, 6/8, 3/4), brevity of compositions, arrangements of dance melodies, tone colour, the dragging of the voice and vocal techniques which are similar to those of popular singing and small instrumental ensembles (three or four musicians)."[30] Ashighs are traveling bards who sing and play the saz or qopuz, a form of lute. Their songs are partly improvised around a common base.

Painting

One of the Iranian painting styles is called "Tabrizian style" which has been shaped in the era of Ilkhanids, Kara Koyunlu and the Safavids.[31]

Cuisine

see also: Iranian Cuisine , Azerbaijani Cuisine

Ash is a kind of soup which are prepared with bouillon, various vegetables, carrot, noodle and spices.

Chelow Kabab - is the national dish of Iran, prepared with Kebab and roasted tomatoes (and roasted hot peppers occasionally) on a plate of steamed rice. Tabriz is famous for its Chelow Kabab in Iran.

Sample of Tabrizi traditional foods.

Dolma is a traditional delicious Turkic food. It is prepared with eggplant, capsicum, tomato or zucchini filled with a mixture of meat, split pea, onion and various spices.

Garniyarikh (Lit."the torn abdomen" in Azeri) is a kind of Dolma filled with meat, garlic, almonds and spices.

Kofta (Koufteh) Tabrizi is a special food prepared in Tabriz. The word kofta is derived from Persian kūfta: In Persian, کوفتن kuftan means "to beat" or "to grind".[32]

There are also delicious confections, biscuits and cookies, some of which are Tabriz specialities including Ghorabiye, Eris, Nugha, Tasbihi, Latifeh, Ahari, Lovadieh, Lokum and etc.

Monuments and Landmarks

Tabriz was devastated by several earthquakes during history (e.g., in 858, 1041, and 1721) and as a result, from numerous monuments only few of them or part of them have survived until now. Moreover, some of the historical monuments have been destroyed fully or partially within construction projects (e.g. Ark of Tabriz is in a real hazard of destruction now, because of ongoing construction project of "Mosal'laye Emam" close to it). Nonetheless, there are still numerous monuments remaining until now which are listed as follows:[28].

File:Pol sangi.jpg
[[]]
Ruins of Rabe Rashidi University

Bazaars

Bridges (Historical)

Churches & mosques

Gates (historical)

Hamams (Old Turkish bath)

Monuments

Streets (famous)

Museums & historical houses[28]

Schools (Madrasah)

Shrines & Tombs

Parks and Gardens

Tabriz has 132 parks including 97 small parks, 31 regional and 4 city parks. According to 2005 statistics, area of parks in Tabriz is 2,595 km2 also area of green spaces of Tabriz is 8,548 km2 which means 5.6 sq.m per person. The oldest park in Tabriz called Golestan Park established at first Pahlavi's era in city center. Tabriz has 8 traveller-parks with capacity of 10.000 travellers as well.[28]

Wide view of Shah-goli park

Tourism

Souvenirs of Tabriz

handcrafts: Rug (well known worldwide), pottery and ceramics, silverware, Ghalamzani (toreutics) , Moarraq, Monabbat, embroider, wood engraving.[28]

confections: Ghorabiye, Latifa, Nugha, Eris, Lokum (turkish delight), Baklava.[28]

also: dry nut, shoe, local clothes, spices.[3]

Regional Tourist Attractions

Villages, Towns: Herbi&Bera, Jolfa (St. Stepanous Cathedral), kandovan (famous for its strange architecture), Kerghe, Lighvan, Seydava, Sharaf khanah (near Lake Urmia), Zonouz.

Lakes: Ammand dam-lake, Ghouri lake, Lake Urmia.

Mountains: Arasbaran forests, Eynali, Sahand (ski complex near Sahand mountain), Yum (ski complex of Misho mountains)

Economy

A sample of Tabriz rugs
Silver handcrafts of Tabriz

Industries

Tabriz is the 2'nd industrial city of Iran. Modern industries in this city include the manufacturing of machinary, vehicles, chemicals and petrochemical materials, refinery, cement, electrical and electronical equipment, home appliances, textiles and leather, nutrition and dairy factories and woodcraft.[3][28].

  • Iran Tractor Manufacturing Complex:

This complex is the biggest manufacturer of tractor in Iran which has some domestic & abroad branches too. It produces not only the tractor but also automotive parts, forging and casting products for related industries and a truck called Azarash. The biggest forging press of Middle East with capacity of 8000 Tones is located in this complex.

Small businesses

Handcrafts ateliers

Tabriz is the major center for production of the famous Iranian Rugs. Their high quality is greatly valued in world markets. Tabrizi rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. They often have very symmetrical and balanced designs. They usually have a single medallion that is surrounded with vines and palmettos. One of the main quality characteristics of Tabriz rugs is the weaving style, using special ties that guarantee the durability of the rug in comparison for example with Kashan rugs.

Shopping

Shopping centers are mostly located in city center including Grand Bazaar of Tabriz, pedestrian malls on Tarbiyat street, Shahnaz street and Ferdowsi street. Also, there are some malls & a lot of elegant & luxurious boutiques of jewelry, rugs, clothes, handcrafts, confectionary and nuts, home appliances and etc in Abressan intersection, Roshdiyeh district and Kouy Valiasr.[5]

The special feature of Tabriz malls is that most of them are designated to a particular order such as home appliances, jewelry, shoes, clothes, wedding ceremonies, ladies/babies/men specialties, leather products, handcrafts, agricultural products, computers, electronic components, industrial equipment, piping equipment, chemical materials, agricultural machines, stationery, books, rugs, construction stuff and others.

Likewise, there are seasonal/occasional shopping fairs opened mainly in Tabriz International Exhibition Center too.

Tabriz International Exhibition Center

Various fairs are periodically opened in Tabriz International Exhibition Center in determined dates during a year, where domestic & abroad companies expose and introduce their stuff, technologies and brands.[33]

Education

Danesh Sara (faculty of education)

Tabriz is a site for some of Iran's most prominent universities, the main university of the city is University of Tabriz established in 1947. University of Tabriz is the most prestigious university in north western part of Iran. There are 5 other public universities operating primarily in the city: Tabriz university of medical sciences, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz Arts university, Payam-e Noor university of Tabriz, Tarbiat Moallem university of Azarbaijan

Furthermore, a couple of Iranian universities have their branches in Tabriz, including: Imam Hossein University, Shahid Beheshti Training Teacher Center of Tabriz

Likewise, private universities are: Islamic Azad university of Tabriz, Daneshvaran Higher Education Institute, Seraj Higher Education Institute, University College of Nabi Akram, Khajeh Rashid university.

There are few technical colleges which serving to the students as well: Elmi-Karbordi University of Tabriz, Tabriz College of Technology,Roshdiyeh Higher Education Institute of Tabriz, Jahad Daneshgahi (ACECR) Higher Education Institute, East Azarbaijan Branch, Azzahra College of Technology, State Organization of Technical and Vocational Training

Research centres: East Azarbaijan Park of Science & Technology, Islamic Azad University- Science and Research branch of East Azerbaijan.[34]

Famous High Schools

former Roshdieh school
  • Memorial school (American school of Tabriz) was opened on 1891 and is one of the most famous schools of its type. After World War II the school's name was changed to Parvin High School under Iran education ministry's management. Currently it is divided into three separate high schools and the original building is under reconstruction.
  • Roshdieh school is the first modern Iranian school which was established by Haji-Mirza Hassan Roshdieh. Currently its building is used as the Tabriz branch of the National Iranian Documents and Library Office.
  • Vahdat technical college is another famous school in Tabriz. It was developed by the Germans during World War II. The main building has the shape of an 'A'.
  • Ferdowsi high school is one of the largest and most prominent academic high schools in Tabriz. The original building was constructed by German Engineers before World War II (to serve as Hospital). The building is in the shape of a letter 'H'.
  • Mansoor high school (Now divided into 2 high schools with new names) is one of the most highest ranking schools in Tabriz which was established about 50 years ago. One of the high schools called as Taleqani and the other as Motahhari.
  • Teez'houshan school (Shahid Madani) (Farzanegan) (SAMPAD/NODET) middle and high schools established in 1989 for high I.Q. talented students.

Religious Centres

  • Valiasr Religious School
  • Talebieh Islamic Science School
Tabriz Art university

Libraries

Tabriz National Library, also known as Central Library of Tabriz, is the most prestigious library in Tabriz, and its numerous unique handwriting old books made it a vulnerable source for researchers in Iranian literature. There are other libraries behind National library which are serving to public some of which are: Tarbiat library, library of Helal Ahmar, library of Shahid Motahhari, library of Shahriyar, library of Jafarieh and Farhangsara of Tabriz.

Infrastructure

Health systems

The Government of Iran operates the public hospitals in the Tabriz metropolitan region some of which are aligned with medical faculties. There are also a number of private hospitals and medical centers in the city.[5]

Boulevard of university.

Transportation

Inner City:

Most Tabriz residents travel by car through the system of roads and highways. Tabriz is also served by taxi and bus.

Tabriz has taxi and public bus network. There are also some private groups which provide services called Phone-taxi.[5]

Tabriz is the second city in Iran After Tehran that B.R.T system has been established in. It includes a distance about 18 km from Baseej square in the east to railway station in the west of the city. There is 50 bus stop in the path of B.R.T.

  • Metro Network (Subway Train Network)

Tabriz subway train network is still under construction and is not complete. The government of Iran had planned to finish 6 km of line No.1 of the network in 2006 but this was not achieved due to financial problems.[35]

Shahgholi metro Station.
Tabriz bus terminal.

International:

  • Roads

Tabriz is linked to Europe through Turkey's roads and Bazargan (Azerbaijani, Persian: بازرگان ) border, also Tehran-Tabriz freeway is almost complete except for the last 20 km between Tabriz and Bostan Abad.

  • Railways

The city is linked to Iran National Railways (IRIR, Persian: رجا ) also to Europe by Turkey's railways via Ghotour (Azerbaijani, Persian قطور) bridge in West Azarbaijan province of Iran. Tabriz was the first city in Iran to be served by railways with the construction of the Tabriz-Jolfa line. Tabriz Railway station is located in the west part of the city at the end of Khomeyni street.

  • Airport

Tabriz International Airport opened in 1950 and is the only international airport in East Azarbaijan (since 1991). Recently, it became the first Iranian airport to gain ISO9001-2000. Its international air routes are to the following cities[36]:

Domestic air routes to:Tehran, Mashhad, Kish Island, Bandar Abbas, Mahshahr, Asalouyeh, Isfahan, Ahvaz, Shiraz, Rasht.[37]

Sport

Sport is an important part of Tabriz's culture. The most popular sport in Tabriz is soccer. Tabriz is home to four Iranian major soccer teams: Tractor Sazi F.C., Machine Sazi Tabriz F.C., Shahrdari Tabriz F.C., Petrochimi Tabriz F.C.

Tabriz also has two stadiums for soccer: Bagh Shomal Stadium, with capacity of 20,000 and Yadegar-e-Emam Stadium with 71,000.

Tractor Sazi F.C.

Tractor Sazi F.C. is an Iranian football club based in Tabriz which plays in Iran's Pro League. The team was sponsored by Iran Tractor Manufacturing Co. (ITMCO). The club used to have a significant presence in the old Azadegan League (current IPL), but has been playing in Iran's second highest league since relegation in the 2001-02 season. They also provided Iran with some of the most talented players during the nineties. In 2009 Trakhtorsazi the wellknown team of Azarbaijan province improved to the first class league of Iran and has got the most enthusiased fans in Iran's league according to surveys.

Azerbaijan Cycling Tour is a professional cycling tour, which is held annually in part of Iranian Azerbaijan, is starting from Tabriz. Tabriz also have an UCI Continental cycling team thatcompeting UCI-sanctioned competitions through Asian continents. The team is: Tabriz Petrochemical Cycling Team

The city has several swimming pools that are parts of sport complexes, both public and private: Takhti swimming pool, Tabriz Petrochemical Company's sports complex, Bargh swimming pool, Sahand swimming pool, Bagh Shomal swimming pool, Kargaran sports complex, Hotel Elgoli swimming pool, Hotel Shahryar swimming pool, Azarsatrup sports complex, Sauna Tabriz, Azaran sauna & pool, Zamzam swimming pool, Aseman residential complex swimming pool.[5]

Media

Sahand TV main building

Television

Tabriz has one television Channel called "Sahand TV" that broadcasts in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages and it is government-run. It broadcasts internationally through satellite Intelsat 902.[38][39]

Radio

Tabriz has one government-controlled radio channel broadcasting in both Persian and Azerbaijani languages.[38]

Press

Tabriz has 14 weekly magazines and 8 main newspapers: Amin, Mahd Azadi, Asr Azadi [40], Fajr Azarbaijan, Saeb Tabriz, Peyam Noor, Navaye Misho and Saheb.[41]

Major notable people from Tabriz

For a complete list see: List of people from Tabriz

Artists

Military figures

Religious figures

Poets and writers

Politicians and reformists

Monir Vakili Nikjoo, first Iranian opera singer from Tabriz.

Scientists

  • Mohsen Hashtroodi, mathematician.
  • Javad Tabatabaei, political philosopher, historian, distinguished university professor.
  • Yasaman Farzan, ياسمن فرزانPhysicist.

Sister cities and twin towns

Tabriz is twinned with the following cities:

Consulates

Flag Country Address
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Aref st., Valiasr, Tabriz, Iran
Turkey Turkey Homafar st., Valiasr, Tabriz, Iran

Photo Gallery of Tabriz

For More Photos Go To:Tabriz City Photo Gallery.

Panoramic view of Tabriz from Eynali mountain, August 2009
Panoramic view of Tabriz from Mashrouteh Park, September 2009

See also

References

  1. ^ Iran - Statistical Centre retrieved 27 February 2008
  2. ^ Statistical Center of Iran: Results of national 2007 census
  3. ^ a b c d e f Editorial Board, East Azerbaijan Geography, Iranian Ministry of Education, 2000
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ a b c d e [2]
  6. ^ Gholam-Reza Sabri-Tabrizi. Iran: A Child's Story, a Man's Experience, International Publishers Co., 1989, p. 72, ISBN 0-7178-0682-0
  7. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica. "Tabriz", Online Edition, 2007
  8. ^ "Tabrīz." Microsoft Encarta 2007 [DVD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2006.
  9. ^ Samuel Graham Wilson. Persian Life and Customs, Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1896, p.323
  10. ^ a b Edward Backhouse Eastwick. Journal of a Diplomate's Three Years' Residence in Persia, Smith, Elder and Co., 1864, p. 327
  11. ^ V. Minorsky-[C.E. Bosworth], Blair, Sheila S. (2009) "Tabriz" Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. Brill.
  12. ^ William Bayne Fisher, J. A. Boyle (1968), The Cambridge History of Iran: The Land of Iran, 1st Edition, Cambridge University Press, p. 14
  13. ^ a b Minorsky, V., -(C.E. Bosworth); Blair, Sheila S., "Tabrīz", Encyclopaedia of Islam, 2nd Edition, Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-13974-5, 9789004139749
  14. ^ Andrew Burke and Mark Elliott. Iran, Lonely Planet, 2004, ISBN 1-74059-425-8, p. 133
  15. ^ a b David Morgan, The Mongols p. 142
  16. ^ V. Minorsky. "Jihān-Shāh Qara-Qoyunlu and His Poetry (Turkmenica, 9)", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 16, No. 2 (1954), p. 277
  17. ^ Jean Druing, "The Spirit of Sounds: The Unique Art of Ostad Elahi", Cornwall Books, 2003, p172:"Maraghi mentions the Turkish and the Shirvani tanbour, which had two strings tuned in second (which the Kurds and Lors call Farangi) and was quite popular among the inhabitants of Tabriz (a region which was not yet Turkish speaking at the time) "
  18. ^ صادقی, علی اشرف 1379: چند شعر به زبان کرجی, تبریزی و غیره ... در مجله ی زبان شناسی, سال پانزدهم, شماره ی دوم, پاییز و زمستان Ali Asghar Sadeqi, "Some poems in the Karaji, Tabrizi and others" in Zaban-Shenasi(Persian), Year 15,No.2(Fall and Winder),1379(2001).
  19. ^ http://www.etemademelli.ir/
  20. ^ www.ghalamnews.ir
  21. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk
  22. ^ http://www.cnn.com
  23. ^ Photos of Museum Site of Blue Mosque.
  24. ^ Richard Tapper. "Shahsevan in Safavid Persia", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, Vol. 37, No. 3, 1974, p. 324. See also, Lawrence Davidson, Arthur Goldschmid, "A Concise History of the Middle East", Westview Press, 2006, p. 153; and Britannica Concise. "Safavid Dynasty", Online Edition 2007
  25. ^ For a complete list of Firsts in Tabriz see: سرداري‌نيا، صمد. "تبريز شهر اولين‌ها"، تبريز: كانون فرهنگ و هنر آذربايجان، 1381
  26. ^ www.worldclimate.com, Climate data for Tabriz, 1963-1990
  27. ^ "آب و هوای تبریز". fa.wikipedia.org. http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AA%D8%A8%D8%B1%DB%8C%D8%B2. Retrieved May 17, 2009. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g http://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AA%D8%A8%D8%B1%DB%8C%D8%B2
  29. ^ 2007 census
  30. ^ During, J. (2001). "Azerbaijan". The new Grove dictionary of music and musicians. Macmillan. ISBN 1561592390. 
  31. ^ [3]
  32. ^ Alan S. Kaye, "Persian loanwords in English", English Today 20:20-24 (2004), doi:10.1017/S0266078404004043.
  33. ^ http://www.tabrizfair.ir/
  34. ^ [4]
  35. ^ Tabriz Metro
  36. ^ http://www.tabrizairport.ir
  37. ^ [5]
  38. ^ a b [6]
  39. ^ [7]
  40. ^ http://www.asreazadi.com
  41. ^ a b [8]
  42. ^ Baku#cite note-27,
  43. ^ Ho Chi Minh city#cite note-26,
  44. ^ [http://www.rosbalt.ru/2009/01/16/610380.html Tabriz and Kazan sister cities agreement]
  45. ^ Agreement between Tabriz and Vienna municipality

North, S.J.R., Guide to Biblical Iran, Rome 1956, p. 50

External links

Preceded by
Samarkand
Capital of Iran
1375–1514
Succeeded by
Qazvin


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

The poets tomb
The poets tomb

Tabriz is the capital of East Azerbaijan province, in the Azerbaijan region of Iran. Its an ancient city that its history is about 4500 years ago these informations beloges to digs that archaeologist find near the blue mosque.

Understand

Provincial capital of Eastern Azarbaijan, it is 310 km southeast of Bazargan (Iran- Turkey frontier); 159 km south of Jolfa on Iran-Azarbaijan Republic border, and can be reached by good road; rail (742 km from Tehran, with connections to Europe and Moscow), and air from Tehran and other major cities.

Geography

Situated at an altitude of 1,340 meters above sea level, 619 km northwest of Tehran, the second largest city in Iran until the late 1960's and one of its former capitals ( with a population of 1,400,000 according to 1992 census), Tabriz is in a valley to the north of the long ridge of Mount Sahand. The valley opens out into a plain that slopes down gently to the northern end of Lake Orumieh, 60 km to the west. The 160-km long Aji ,Chai or Talkheh River is the major river of the city, formed by merging of three smaller rivers, namely the Ab Nahand, Quri Chai, and Ojan Chai, all of which originate from the Sabalan Mountain and the heights in the southeastern part of the town. The river and streams join the Orumieh Lake after passing through the valleys between the Sorkhband and Yekkeh Chin mountain north of Tabriz and Osku district. Mehran River or Maidan Chai, also called Liqvan River, originates from the peaks between Karim and Sultan mountains overlooking the Liqvan village (a: major center of cheese production in Iran) near Esparakhoun and Qeshlaq. Its worst natural disadvantage, however, is its vulnerability to earthquakes, one of which utterly destroyed the city in 858. Rebuilt in a minor key, it was again devastated in 1041, when more than 40,000 people lost their lives.

Climate

By virtue of its situation, Tabriz has an agreeable summer climate, but the cold in winter is severe. Altogether, it has a continental climate with low humidity. The average annual rainfall is 288 mm.

History

The town has along and checkered history: Although the early history of Tabriz is shrouded in legend and mystery, the town's origins are believed to date back" to distant antiquity, perhaps even before the Sassanian era (224-651 AD). The oldest stone tablet with a reference to Tabriz is that of Sargon II, the Assyrian King. The tablet referrers to a place called Tauri Castle and Tarmkis. The historians believe that this castle was situated on the site of the present Tabriz. It was the capital of Azarbin the 3rd century AD and again under the Mongol Ilkhanid dynasty (1256-13 53), although for some time Maragheh supplanted it. During the reign of Aqa Khan of the Ilkhanids, as well as under the reign of Ghazan Khan, Tabriz reached the peak of 1 glory and Impotance. Many great artists and philosophers from allover the world traveled to Tabriz. During this same period 1 Khajeh Rashid od-Din Fazlollah, the i..: learned historian and Minister of Ghazan , Khan, built the famous Rob'e Rashidi center. In 1392, after the end of Mongol rule, the town was sacked by Tamerlane. It was soon restored under the Turkman tribe of r the Qara Qoyunlu, who established a short-lived local dynasty. Under the Safavids it rose from regional to national capital for a short period, but the second of the Safavid kings, Shah Tahmasb, moved the capital to Qazvin because of the vulnerability of Tabriz to Ottoman attacks. The town then went into a period of decline, fought over by the Iranians, Ottomans and Russians and struck by earthquake and disease.

Tabriz was the residence of the crown prince under the Qajar kings, themselves of Turkish stock, but the town did not return to prosperity until the second half of the 19th century .The greatest boost to Tabriz came with the opening up of Persia to the West at the turn of this century, when it became the main staging post between the interior of Iran and the Black Sea and, for a short time, the economic capital. In 1908 it was the center of a revolt against Mohammad Ali Shah, which was only put down with the brutal intervention of the Russians.

In the second Irano-Russian War the city was occupied by the Czar troops. however, it was returned to Iran following the signing of Turkmanchai Treaty, a peace and trade settlement that ended the Irano- Russian War of 1826-1828. The Iranian Constitutional Revolution originated in Tabriz and culminated during the reign of Mohammad Ali Shah of Qajar dynasty (1779-1925). Sat tar Khan and Baqer Khan were the two most prominent leading figures behind the movement. Tabriz was occupied by Russians several times in the first half of this century, including most of both world wars. A railway line to the border at Jolfa, built by the expansionist Russians, was of little importance until recently, but it has increased in significance in the '90s as a result of Iran's friendlier relations with its northern neighbors.

Get in

By plane

Daily flights from Tehran on Iran Air, Iran Aseman and other companies. Fare is 320,000 Rials for 1-way. Direct flights from Dubai have just started on Tue and Sat, operated by Kish Air (around 200 USD for 2-way). Direct flights from Istanbul (7 flights per week), operated by Turkish airlines (5 flights) and Iran air (2 flights); fare is around 250 USD for 2-way.There are also direct flights from Damsacus.

Flights to other Iranian cities are scarce. Ask your favourite Iranian travel agency for schedules.

By car

By the newly built bridge over the Urmia lake Tabriz is reachable from Urmia in 1.5 hours.

By train

Daily train from Tehran. 12 Hours travel (152,500 Rials for 1-way ).

Weekly to and from Istanbul, twice a week to Van, see [1].

By bus

Bus relations with major cities. 10 Hours travel from Tehran.

Get around

City transport, awaiting the Metro currently under construction (and still for a long time) is limited to Taxis, shared taxis and buses.

Taxis can be chartered for a modest fee (around 20 USD if you need a driver and car for the whole day to visit the region!)

Shared taxis are even more of a bargain, but you will need to speak a few words of Persian and risk your life by stepping on the side of the road and scream your destination at passing-by Paykans. However, the experience of sharing a car with 4 locals of both genders and all ages (+ driver) can be fun! Odds are the fare won't be more than 10 cents (1.000 Rials) for a 10-minutes trip. Some drivers even refuse to be paid, the pleasure of chatting with a foreigner about the various plagues of Iran being apparently enough to make their day. (be careful of tarof, though)

Buses are difficult to take (no map, no schedule) and definitely not worth the experience when compared to shared taxis despite being quasi-free.

See

With a very rich history, Tabriz used to house many historical monuments. Unfortunately, many of them were destroyed in repeated invasions and attacks of foreign forces, negligence of the ruling governments, as well natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. What remains now mostly dates back to the Ilkhanids, the Safavids, and the Qajars. Some of the monuments are unrivaled masterpieces of architecture. The Shahrdari Square is the center of the town, on the south-west of which stands the imposing edifice of Municipality. The railway station (5 km from the center of the town) is at the western edge of the town. The Quri Chai river runs through Tabriz, and most places of interest to the visitor are to the south of this river and alone or north of Imam Khomeini Avenue.

  • El Goli (formerly Shah Goli) A superb park around a square artificial pond. In the center, a small hall is on an island and hosts a restaurant. Very nice for eating some tchelokebab or sip some tea while enjoying the freshness of the park in summer.
  • Blue Mosque Originally built in 1465, this mosque which was once certainly superb, but was severely damaged in an earthquake in 1778, leaving only the entrance Iwan. It was reconstructed at early 1900 by the Iranian Ministry of Culture. The inside of the mosque is tiled with superb blue ceramic, unfortunately, many pieces went missing during the quake and were simply replaced by painting instead of tiles - some of the original tiles can be found around the entrance.
  • Ark-e-Alishah also known as Arg e Tabriz, is a remnant of a fortress built in the Ilkhanate period. Currently it was located in the center of Tabriz. Historians believe that it was used as a military castle but clerics claim that the structure was initially used as a mosque in its early days. After the Revolution, large parts of the building were destroyed by the clerics to prepare a new place for Friday prayers in Tabriz. The structure today stands 28 meters high, and is still used as part of a space for holding Friday prayers.
  • Constitution house a house retracing the story of the Iranian constitutional revolution in the early 20th century, Tabriz being a high place of the uprising. Quite well documented and well kept, although few English translations are available. The edifice is located next to the Tabriz grand bazaar, on Motahari Ave. During the years leading up to the Constitutional Revolution and afterwards, the house was used as the gathering place of the leaders, activists, and the sympathizers of the movement, among them Sattar Khan, Baqer Khan, Seqat ol-Eslam and Haji Mirza AqaFarshi. The two-story building was constructed in 1868 by Haj Vali Me'mar-e Tabrizi. It has numerous rooms and halls. The most beautiful parts of the house are a skylight and a corridor decorated with colorful glasses and mirrors.
  • Bazaar one of the most beautiful and largest in Iran and world. Some parts have been renovated and are truly wonderful. You will find mosques, bid selling halls, and all kind of trades possible. Worth to get lost inside for a few hours.
  • Azerbaidjan Museum a good place encompassing the long Iranian history. But poorly kept: very few translations and erratic classification make the trip inside the numerous dynasties intricate for first timers.

There are also numerous places to see around Tabriz. The mountainous region of south Azerbaidjan offers breathtaking views and excellent treks among castles, rocky paths and remote villages.

  • Orumyeh Lake a salted lake with salt beaches and improbable bathing spots (gender separate, of course). Numerous migratory birds stop there on their long trip for some rest and food.
  • Babak Castle breathtaking castle, nested on a rocky peak at an altitude of 2,700 m. Babak was apparently one of the last Zoroastrian heroes fighting the Islamic invasion, 1400 years ago. A 2-hours walk to get up there, but definitely worth it. What a view !
  • Kandovan a troglodytic village 2 hours away from Tabriz. Great for discovering both the odd beauty of the place and the daily life of an Iranian village, among sheep, donkeys, hens and cats... Women in printed chadors can go outside and playing kids are all around. Mullahs obviously don't bother going there too often. Resistant walking shoes are mandatory if you want to climb up the village. A living example of human adaptation to exceptionally unusual natural surroundings, Kanddvan village is located 50 km to the south of Tabriz, Osku, on the northern slopes of a valley at the foothills of Mount Sahand. A river originating from the Sahand peaks passes through the valley. There are a number of natural springs to the north of the river, the water from which has traditionally been used for the treatment of kidney stones, according to the locals. The physical structure of the village looks like images from fairy tales. Natural cones, scattered over a vast area, serve as human dwellings on rock formations which themselves seem to have been the work certain sculptors. The road from Tabriz goes through this natural artwork. On getting nearer to the dwellings, the visitor finds out that large families are living inside two or three of these hollow interconnected cones with features such as openings on their surface playing the role of actual windows. The lowest cones are used as stables and those on top as the living quarters.

The interiors of the dwellings, usually divided into a living and a bed room, are dimly lit; however, the villagers are used to it. The interconnecting corridors are very narrow. From the outside, the dwellings look so similar to each other that one may easily get lost in the village. Steep pathways and steps are made of rock pieces for animals as well as human beings. As the legend goes, the first people to settle here were the soldiers involved in military operations nearly 800 years ago, who found the cones by chance and used them as their temporary camouflage and accommodation. However, among archaeologists, it is considered to be of Pre-Islamic Period.

  • Mount Sahand big dome topping at around 3,700 m. Interesting to climb in summer, or for skying in winter (1 lift available, another in project)
  • Rob-e-RashidiThis complex was built 700 years ago . This place was a place that they do all surgeries in there. The books were made of leather . They teach science in there.
  • Gholestan Garden Is good place to relax under the shadows of trees.
  • Tabriz Art Museum Is the first art museum in Asia and Iran and the fifth in the world.
  • Poets Tomb Also known as Maghbarato-Shora Many poets are buried here, as well as Shahriyar.
  • Canonical palace This beautiful palace was built approximately 60 years ago.
  • El-Goli (former: Shahgoli) park. This place is worth staying 4-5 nights in. There is also a Tourist Info center there with rooms to stay in. Pars Hotel is approximately a 10 minute walk away. Visit this park in summer, because in winter the weather is quite cold, and people from places other than Tabriz can seldom bear it. In summer, El-goli park is a beautiful place to visit. People from different areas come to jog, exercise and play group sports. Especially in the mornings you can see bunch of old men organized in lines, jog around the pool you see in the picture and the exercise for a few minutes. The real fun begins after they finish exercising; they start singing and dancing and other people gather to enjoy. Up on the hill, (100 steps above the pool) there is a vast beautiful green area which is full of boys and girls doing sports in the mornings. In the afternoons, the area is full of families sitting there to have fun at night. You can see hundreds of tents and children laughing around.
  • Hot springs and Hydrotherapy Resorts in the north-west of Iran. Important and rich hydrotherapy centers such as "Sare Aine", Boostan Abad, and specially the coastal strip along Urmia Lake enjoy great popularity among all tourists. Situated 20 km off the city of Ardabile, Sare Aine Spa forms one of the most significant health resorts in Iran. Moreover, hot springs rich in phosphoric and other mineral properties, located in this region, substantially contain various medicinal benefits. As a picturesque natural phenomenon comprising distinctive medicinal and healing features, Urmia Lake definitely constitutes one of the main attractions of this scenic province

Buy

If you have (lots of) money, the Tabrizi carpets are among the finest in the world, and you will find masterpieces in shops and inside the Bazaar. Tabrizi rugs are among the most decorative rugs and frequently use colors like pink, red and cream. Rugs here are about 50% less than what you pay in the West, but you can typically only take 2-3 rugs back to your home country without paying a customs fee.

You can buy gold from Amir Bazar.

Tabrizi nuts are very famous.

Eat

Kabab, rice, Abgousht, Fried trout some restaurants serve them all, but if you step inside a more modest Tchelowkebabi, odds are you won't have much choice apart from the traditional rice and kebab. Kofteh Tabrizi Tabrizians most popular food; very delicious.

Drink

Tea, dough, tea, Zamzam Cola, tea, Fanta, tea...

You could say that Iran isn't really a destination for binge drinking. It's more the kind of place for Tea and Hubble Bubble (Qalyan) lovers. Or sipping a glass of dough over some Tchelowkebab.

"Nightlife" may not have the same meaning in Iranian towns. Apart from private parties, you won't find anything even vaguely close to a nightclub in the whole country. However, places for getting out at night in Tabriz include ice & juice houses, kebab restaurants, Qalyan (hubble bubble), tchaikhaneh and walking around the Valiasr district. Nothing really exciting, but good enough for spending the evening chatting with friends or trying to meet young locals.

Sleep

Recently Hotels and Guest Houses (Mosaferkhaneh) have to offer a same tariff for nationals and foreigners. In case of doubt, ask a local to compares your price by the one written on price board in Persian. Main place for regular Guest Houses in Tabriz is Ferdowsi Street and Amin Street. For Japanese Darya Guest House is more friendly. Some richer Turks often go Darya Hotel in Rah-Ahan Street, otherwise one of those in Ferdowsi Street. From best to worst:

  • Tabriz Shah-Goli PARS Hotel, [2]. Five-star but not worth the price. Often used by business travelers.
  • Shahriyar Hotel, five star, same as above.
  • Hotel International, Abresan Crossroads. 50$ single / 75$ double, with breakfast, for foreigners. New interior, very clean and quiet, semi-international standards (meaning new western bathroom, soap, clean towels, room service, buffet breakfast, TV, mini-bar, English spoken staff ...). Worth a good European 3*.
  • Hotel Azarbaijan, 375.000 Rls Double Room. Dirty and noisy, definitely not worth it.
  • Mashad Guest House, 70.000 Rls Single rooms. Near the tourist office ask there.
  • Ark Hotel inside Ark alley. Very impolite staff. May not relay messages left by your local contacts for you, by phone or orally. Especially if you are a female and message was left by male local or vice versa.
  • Hotel Morvarid, In front of Baghe Golestan (Fajr) (City center). Formally polite staff but will interfere and investigate your relations with locals! May not get your local contacts messages for you in your absence or let them wait for you in lobby. Will warn them they are not permitted to contact foreigners.  edit

Get out

There are comfortable night trains to Tehran. There is 2nd class sleeping train (6 people in one room) that leaves Tabriz at 8.30PM and arrives to Tehran at 9.30 AM. Price is 40 000 IR. The more comfortable choice is to take 1st class train for 170 000 IR. This train leaves at 5.30 PM and arrives to Tehran at 6 AM. There are 4 bed-rooms with TV and dinner is included in that price. To get the ticket you need to use some of travel agencies it the city or in the train station (this option only for recent day registration). For more info visit Iranian Passenger Railway [3]or Comprehensive Train Travel Site [4].

A view of Tabriz Hotel Pars.
A view of Tabriz Hotel Pars.
  • Hotel Pars (Hotel El Gholi) [5] (International, 5 star), Shah Goli park
  • Shahryar International Hotel [6] (5 star), Shah Gholi road
  • Hotel Gostaresh (4 star), Abrassan intersection
  • Tabriz International Hotel [7](4 star ), Daneshgah Sq.
  • Hotel Azarbaijan, Shahnaz Street
  • Hotel Ark, Shahnaz Street, Ark Alley
  • Hotel Darya (3 star), Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Park, Khomeyni Street
  • Hotel Sina, Gunga Bashi
  • Hotel Negin
  • Kandovan Tourism Cliff (Rocky) Hotel (5 star), located at Kandovan touristy village. It is the first of its kind in Iran and the second in the world after Turkey's rocky hotel.

And lots of low cost hostels in Ferdowsi Street.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TABRIZ, the capital of the province of Azerbaijan in Persia, situated in the valley of the Aji Chai, "Bitter River," at an elevation of 4400 ft. in 38° 4' N., 46° 18' E. Based on a census taken in 1871 the population of Tabriz was in 1881 estimated at 165,000, and is now said to be about 200,000.

The popular etymology of the name Tabriz from tab=fever, riz = pourer away (verb, rikhtan = pour away, flow; German rieseln?), hence "fever-destroying," is erroneous and was invented in modern times. It is related that Zobeideh, the wife of Harun-al-Rashid, founded the town in 791 after recovering there from fever, but the earlier chronicles give no support to this statement, and it is nowhere recorded that Zobeideh ever visited Azerbaijan, and the name Tabriz was known many centuries before her time. In 1842 Hammer-Purgstall correctly explained the name as meaning the "warm-flowing" (tab= warm, same root as tep in "tepid") from some warm mineral springs in the neighbourhood, and compared it with the synonymous Teplitz in Bohemia. In old Armenian histories the name is Tavresh, which means the same. The popular pronunciation to and tau for tab has given rise to the spellings Toris and Tauris met with in older travellers and used even now.

Overlooking the valley on the N.E. and N. are bold bare rocks, while to the S. rises the majestic cone of Sahand (12,000 ft.). The town possesses few buildings of note, and of the extensive ruins few merit attention. The ark, or citadel, in the southwest extremity of the city, now used as an arsenal, is a noble building of burnt brick with mighty walls and a tower 120 ft. in height. Among the ruins of old Tabriz the sepulchre of the Mongol king, Ghazan Khan (1295-1304), in a quarter once known as Shanb (generally pronounced Sham and Sham) i Ghazan, is no longer to be distinguished except as part of a huge tumulus. The great shanb (cupola or dome) and other buildings erected by Ghazan have also disappeared. They stood about 2 m. S.W. from the modern town, but far within the original boundaries. The "spacious arches of stone and other vestiges of departed majesty," with which Ker Porter found it surrounded in 1818, were possibly remains of the college (medresseh) and monastery (zavieh) where Ibn Batuta found shelter during his visit to the locality. On the eastern side of the city stand the ruins of the Masjed i Jehan Shah, commonly known as the Masjed i Kebud, or "Blue Mosque," from the blue glazed tiles which cover its walls. It was built by Jehan Shah of the Kara Kuyunli, or Black Sheep dynasty (1437-1467). 1 Tabriz is celebrated as one of the most healthy cities in Persia.

Tabriz was for a long period the emporium for the trade of Persia on the west, but since the opening of the railway through the Caucasus and greater facilities for transport on the Caspian, much of its trade with Russia has been diverted to Astara and Resht, while the insecurity on the Tabriz-Trebizond route since 1878 has diverted much commerce to the Bagdad road. According to consular reports the value of the exports and imports which passed through the Tabriz custom-house during the years 1867-73 averaged L593,800 and f1,226,660 (total for the year, I,820,460); the averages for the six years 1893-9 were £212,880 and £544,530. There are reasons to believe that these values were considerably understated. For the year 1898-9 the present writer obtained figures directly from the books kept by the custom-house official at Tabriz, and although, as this official informed him, some important items had not been entered at all, the value of the exports and imports shown in the books exceeded that of the consular reports by about io per cent. Since that time the customs of Azerbaijan have been taken over by the central customs department under Belgian officials, and it is stated that the trade has not decreased. British, Russian, French, Turkish and Austrian consulates and a few European commercial firms are established at Tabriz; there are also post and telegraph offices. Tabriz has suffered much from earthquakes, notably in 858, 1042 and 1721, each time with almost complete destruction of the city. (A. H.-S.)


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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /tæbˈriːz/

Proper noun

Singular
Tabriz

Plural
-

Tabriz

  1. A city in northwestern Iran, capital of East Azerbaijan Province. Fourth largest city of Iran with population of about 1,600,000. Historical names: Davrezh, Tavrezh, Tavrez, Tauris.

Translations


Simple English

Tabriz is the largest city in north-western Iran with a population of 1,597,319. Tabriz is situated north of the volcanic cone of Sahand and south of the Eynali mountain. It is the capital of East Azarbaijan Province.

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