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The Tabula Cortonensis (sometimes also Cortona Tablet) is a 2200-year-old, bronze artifact of Etruscan origin, discovered in Cortona, Italy. It may record for posterity the details of an ancient real estate transaction which took place in the ancient Tuscan city of Cortona, known to the Etruscans as Curtun. Its 40-line, two-sided inscription is the third longest inscription found in the Etruscan language, and the longest discovered in the 20th century. While the discovery was made in October 1992, its contents weren't published until seven years later in 1999.

Contents

Interpretation

The tablet is thought by some scholars like Larissa Bonfante and Nancy De Grummond to be a notarized record of the division of an inheritance or sale of real estate consisting of a vineyard (cf. lines 1 and 2: vinac), cultivated land (line 2: restm-c), and an estate located in the territory of Lake Trasimeno (cf. lines 35 and 36: celti nɜitisś tarsminaśś). The lake lies east of Cortona in modernday Western Umbria.

Physical description

The tablet measures 50 centimetres (20 in) by 30 centimetres (12 in), and is about between 2 millimetres (0.079 in) and 3 millimetres (0.12 in) thick.

When discovered, the tablet had been broken into eight pieces, of which only seven have been found (Larissa & Giuliano Bonfante. The Etruscan Language, p. 179. 2002). The missing piece is believed by Etruscanists to contain only names and not details of the estate.

Text

The text contains thirty-four known Etruscan words and an equal number of previously unattested Etruscan words. Moreover, a new alphabetic sign Ǝ (a reversed epsilon) is present on the tablet. This implies that, at least in the Etruscan dialect spoken in Cortona where this letter exclusively appears, the letter Ǝ marks a different sound from that of the letter E (Larissa & Giuliano Bonfante. The Etruscan Language, pp. 178-9. 2002).

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Contents

The following transcribes the special reversed epsilon as ɜ:

On the front
01: et . pɜtruiś . scɜvɜś . ɜliuntś . v
02: inac . restmc . cenu . tɜnθur . śar . cus
03: uθuraś . larisalisula . pesc . spante . tɜnθur .
04: sa . śran . śarc . clθii . tɜrsna . θui . spanθi . ml
05: ɜśieθic . raśnas IIIIC inni . pes . pɜtruś . pav
06: ac . traulac . tiur . tɜn[θ]urs . tɜnθa[ś] . zacinat . pr
07: iniserac . zal \\ cś . ɜsiś vere cusuθurśum . p
08: es . pɜtruśta . scɜv[aś] \\ nuθanatur . lart pɜtr
09: uni . arnt . pini . lart . [v]ipi . lusce . laris . salini .v
10: ɜtnal . lart . vɜlara . larθalisa . lart vɜlara
11: aulesa . vɜl . pumpu . pruciu . aule cɜlatina . sɜ
12: tmnal . arnza . fɜlśni . vɜlθinal . vɜl . luisna
13: lusce . vɜl uslna . nufresa . laru . slanzu . larz
14: a lartle vɜl aveś arnt . pɜtru . raufe \\ ɜpru
15: ś . ame . vɜlχe . cusu larisal . cleniarc . laris
16: [c]usu . l[a]risalisa larizac clan . larisal . pɜtr
17: u . scɜ[va]ś arntlei . pɜtruś . puia
18: cen . zic . ziχuχe . sparzɜśtiś śazleiś in
19: θuχti . cusuθuraś . suθiu . ame . tal suθive
20: naś . ratm . θuχt . ceśu . tl teltɜi . sianś . spa
21: rzɜte . θui . saltzic . fratuce . cusuθuraś . la
22: risalisula . pɜtruśc . scɜvaś . pesś . tarχian
23: eś \\ cnl . nuθe . malec . lart . cucrina . lausisa .
24: zilaθ meχl . raśnal [la]ris . cɜlatina lau
25: sa [cla]nc . arnt luscni [a]rnθal . clanc . larz
26: a . lart . turmna . salin[ial . larθ cɜlatina . a]
27: pnal . cleniarc . vɜlχe[ś][...][papal]
28: śerc . vɜlχe . cusu . aule[sa][...]
29: aninalc . laris . fuln[...][clenia]
30: rc . lart . pɜtce . uslnal[...][cucr]
31: inaθur . tɜcsinal . vɜl[...]
32: uś . larisc . cus . uslna[l][...]
On the back
33: aule salini . cusual
34: zilci . larθal . cusuś . titinal
35: larisalc . saliniś . aulesla . celti nɜitis
36: ś . tarsminaśś . sparza in θuχt ceśa .
37: ratm . suθiu . suθiusa . vɜlχeś . cusuśa
38: ulesla . vɜlθuruś . t[.]lniś . vɜlθurusla .
39: larθalc . cɜlatinaś . vetnal . larisalc . cɜ
40: latinaś . pitlnal

Sources

  • Luciano Agostiniani, Francesco Nicosia, 'Tabula Cortonensis'. Studia Archaelogica 105. Roma: "L'Erma" di Bretschneider, 2000.
  • Scarano Ussani & Torelli, La Tabula Cortonensis. Un documento giuridico, storico e sociale (Napoli, 2003).
  • de Simone, Carlo (2007) 'Alcuni termini chiave della Tabula Cortonensis', Rasenna: Journal of the Center for Etruscan Studies, Vol. 1: Iss. 1, Article 1.

Bibliography

(Derived directly from Grenoble website.[1])

Atti dell'Incontro di Studio, 22 giugno 2001, CNR (Roma, 2002):

  • Benelli, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, pp. 93-100.
  • Maggiani, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 11-15, 65-75.
  • Nicosia, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 17-25.
  • Bruschetti, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 27-38.
  • Peruzzi, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 39-42.
  • Roncalli, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 43-52.
  • Pandolfini–Angeletti, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 53-64.
  • Rix, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 77-86.
  • Facchetti, in Atti dell'Incontro di studio, op. cit., pp. 87-99.

Others:

  • De Simone, Annali della Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa, 3, 1998, pp. 1-122.
  • De Simone, Ocnus, 9-10, 2001-02, pp. 69-114.
  • De Simone, Incontri Linguistici, 25, 2002, pp. 77-85.
  • Eichner, in The Complete Linguist : A collection of papers in honor of Alexis Manaster Ramer (München, 2001), pp. 141-152.
  • Facchetti, Frammenti di diritto privato etrusco, (Firenze, 2000).
  • Facchetti, Appunti di morfologia etrusca. Con un’appendice sulla questione delle affinità genetiche dell’etrusco (Firenze, 2002).
  • Facchetti, Archivio Glottologico Italiano, 88, 2003, pp. 203-219.
  • Facchetti, Lingua Posnaniensis (Poznan, 2005), pp. 59-63.
  • Maggiani, Rivista di Archeologia, 25, 2001, pp. 94-114.
  • Rix, Incontri linguistici, 23, 2000, pp. 11-31.
  • Scarano Ussani & Torelli, La Tabula Cortonensis. Un documento giuridico, storico e sociale (Napoli, 2003).
  • Wylin, Studi Etruschi, 65-68, 2002, pp. 215-223.
  • Wylin, Archivio Glottologico Italiano, 87, 2002, pp. 88-108.
  • Wylin, Etruscan News, 3, 2003, pp. 11-12.
  • Zamboni, Ath, 90, 2002, pp. 431-441.

Notes and references

See also

External links


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