Tachycardia: Wikis

  
  

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Tachycardia
Tachycardia ECG paper.svg

ECG showing changes in tachycardia
ICD-10 I47.-I49., R00.0
ICD-9 427, 785.0
MeSH D013610
.Tachycardia comes from the Greek words tachys (rapid or accelerated) and kardia (of the heart).^ Conditions of excessively rapid heart beat are known as tachycardia.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When to see a doctor A number of conditions can cause a rapid heart rate and tachycardia symptoms.
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

^ Tachycardia: Rapid beating of the heart, conventionally applied to rates over 90 beats per minute.

.Tachycardia typically refers to a heart rate that exceeds the normal range for a resting heartrate (heartrate in an inactive or sleeping individual).^ Definition Tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Tachycardia is an arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm) defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
  • Tachycardia | LIVESTRONG.COM 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Filed under: Heart & Vascular Tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate.
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

In humans, the upper threshold of a normal heart rate is usually based upon age, sometimes it can be very dangerous depending on how hard the heart is working and the activity:[1]
  • 1-2 days: >159 beats per minute (bpm)
  • 3-6 days: >166 bpm
  • 1-3 weeks: >182 bpm
  • 1-2 months: >179 bpm
  • 3-5 months: >186 bpm
  • 6-11 months: >169 bpm
  • 1-2 years: >151 bpm
  • 3-4 years: >137 bpm
  • 5-7 years: >133 bpm
  • 8-11 years: >130 bpm
  • 12-15 years: >119 bpm
  • >15 years - adult: >100 bpm
.When the heart beats rapidly, the heart pumps less efficiently and provides less blood flow to the rest of the body, including the heart itself.^ Providers must evaluate the patient’s symptoms and clinical signs, including ventilation, oxygenation, heart rate, blood pressure, and level of consciousness, and look for signs of inadequate organ perfusion.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This will allow the blood to flow up better to the heart.
  • Tachycardia. April 2008 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.sdgonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Be aware that if your heart is beating rapidly, it may be difficult to feel your pulse and get an accurate count of your actual heart rate.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The increased heart rate also leads to increased work and oxygen demand for the heart (myocardium), which can cause a heart attack (myocardial infarction) if it persists.^ During an episode of SVT, the heart’s electrical system doesn't work right, causing the heart to beat very fast.
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes it is normal to have an increased heart rate—for example, during exercise, with a high fever, or when under stress.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]

^ Conversely, other conditions may lead to more rapid heart beat, for example, arrhythmias caused by re-entry in the A-V node.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This occurs because the decreased flow of necessary oxygen to the heart causes myocardial cells to begin to die off.^ If this occurs, the heart may not get enough oxygen, potentially causing chest pain ( angina ) or a heart attack .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]

^ Fetal hypoxia, congenital heart anomalies and fetal tachycardia also cause decreased variability.
  • Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular fibrillation occurs when rapid, chaotic electrical impulses cause the ventricles to quiver ineffectively instead of pumping necessary blood to the body.
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

.Acutely, this leads to angina; and chronically to ischemic heart disease.^ Prevent heart disease Treat or eliminate risk factors that may lead to heart disease.
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

^ It is commonly observed in patients with ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, pulmonary embolus, toxic ingestion (eg, alcohol), or chest trauma.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This arrhythmia is associated with rheumatic heart disease, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, pericarditis, thyrotoxicosis, alcohol intoxication, mitral valve prolapse and other disorders of the mitral valve, and digitalis toxicity.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]

Contents

Hemodynamic responses

. The body has several feedback mechanisms to maintain adequate blood flow and blood pressure.^ Clinicians can maintain the patient’s blood pressure and heart rate with isoflurane titration and improve vascular tone by administering low doses of phenylephrine.
  • Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: Dental treatment considerations -- Brooks and Francis 137 (4): 488 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In theory, this should help re-train the body to keep blood flowing upwards against gravity.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ With POTS-induced alterations in blood flow, it is hard for the body to get its circulation going in even a semi-useful fashion for a few hours.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

.If blood pressure decreases, the heart beats faster in an attempt to raise it.^ Have you ever had your blood pressure taken when your heart was beating fast?
  • Heart & Cardiology: SVT or Sinus Tachycardia?, sinus tachycardia, thyroid function 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: General]

^ Blood pressure and heart rhythm are recorded.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Because the heart beats too fast to circulate blood properly, a person with this condition can lose consciousness, and possibly die.
  • DHMC: Patient Resources 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.dartmouth.edu [Source type: General]

This is called reflex tachycardia. .This can happen in response to a decrease in blood volume (through dehydration or bleeding), or an unexpected change in blood flow.^ The current data suggest that the problem is not due to increased pooling in the venous capacitance vessels, but rather due to decreased blood flow in the skin [ 16 , 17 ].
  • The Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ My guess is that it relates to blood flow changes after lying down for most of the night.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Some patients seem even to have “panic attacks” that are more due to blood flow changes with POTS than to actual psychological panic.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

.The most common cause of the latter is orthostatic hypotension (also called postural hypotension).^ The most common cause of secondary POTS is diabetes mellitus.
  • Postural Tachycardia Syndrome - a knol by Blair 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a chronic, relatively common autonomic disorder typically affecting younger females.
  • Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: Dental treatment considerations -- Brooks and Francis 137 (4): 488 -- The Journal of the American Dental Association 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC jada.ada.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The most common cause of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is AVNRT .
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Fever, hyperventilation and severe infections can also cause tachycardia, primarily due to increase in metabolic demands.^ When supraventricular tachycardia occurs in someone with significant coronary artery disease , the heart may not receive enough blood to keep up with the demands of the increased heart rate.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Catheter ablation is effective for people with severely symptomatic supraventricular tachycardia due to AV nodal reentrant tachycardia or a concealed bypass tract.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preventing blood clots Some people with tachycardias have an increased risk of developing a blood clot that could cause a stroke or heart attack.
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC edition.cnn.com [Source type: General]
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC e.a.cnn.net [Source type: General]

Autonomic and endocrine causes

.An increase in sympathetic nervous system stimulation causes the heart rate to increase, both by the direct action of sympathetic nerve fibers on the heart and by causing the endocrine system to release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which have a similar effect.^ LCSD reduces the amount of catecholamines released in the heart when the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
  • Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A significant modulator of renin release is the sympathetic nervous system.
  • The Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The inhibitory influence on the heart rate is conveyed by the vagus nerve, whereas excitatory influence is conveyed by the sympathetic nervous system.
  • Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

Increased sympathetic stimulation is usually due to physical or psychological stress. .This is the basis for the so-called "Fight or Flight" response, but such stimulation can also be induced by stimulants such as ephedrine, amphetamines or cocaine.^ Illegal drugs, such as stimulants like cocaine, ecstasy, or methamphetamine, also can trigger episodes.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]

^ Also, it's usually important to avoid overuse of caffeine, nicotine, or alcohol and the use of illegal drugs, such as stimulants like cocaine, ecstasy, or methamphetamine.
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]

^ Certain drugs, such as stimulants (eg, nicotine, caffeine), medications (eg, atropine, salbutamol), recreational drugs (eg, cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy), and hydralazine, can also induce sinus tachycardia.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain endocrine disorders such as pheochromocytoma can also cause epinephrine release and can result in tachycardia independent nervous system stimulation.^ Most supraventricular tachycardia results from abnormal electrical connections in the heart that short-circuit the normal electrical system.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LCSD reduces the amount of catecholamines released in the heart when the sympathetic nervous system is activated.
  • Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PubMed ] Priori SG, Napolitano C. Cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders caused by mutations in the intracellular Ca2+ release channels.
  • Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia -- GeneReviews -- NCBI Bookshelf 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Hyperthyroidism can also cause tachycardia. [3]

Types of tachycardia (cardiac arrhythmias)

12 lead electrocardiogram showing a run of ventricular tachycardia (VT)
An electrocardiogram (ECG) can help distinguish between the various types of tachycardias, generally distinguished by their site of pacemaker origin:
.
.Tachycardias may be classified as either narrow complex tachycardias (supraventricular tachycardias) or wide complex tachycardias.^ Because ACLS providers may be unable to distinguish between supraventricular and ventricular rhythms, they should be aware that most wide-complex (broad-complex) tachycardias are ventricular in origin.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Professionals at the ACLS level should be able to recognize and differentiate between sinus tachycardia, narrow-complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and wide-complex tachycardia.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ECG findings include a regular narrow QRS complex, although P waves may not be visible.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

."Narrow" and "wide" refer to the width of the QRS complex on the ECG.^ Note that the QRS complexes are narrow and regular.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An irregular wide complex tachycardia with varying QRS morphology (left...electrocardiogram (ECG) were supraventricular tachycardia with aberrant conduction and QRS alternans, atrial tachycardia with anterograde conduction over an...
  • tachycardia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • tachycardia – FREE tachycardia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find tachycardia research 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, one of the initial steps in the evaluation of a child with tachycardia includes examination of the standard electrocardiogram (ECG), because assessing the width of the QRS complex aids in determining the origin of the arrhythmia and guides management decisions ( algorithm 1 ).
  • Causes of wide QRS complex tachycardia in children 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.uptodate.com [Source type: Academic]

.Narrow complex tachycardias tend to originate in the atria, while wide complex tachycardias tend to originate in the ventricles.^ Wide-complex tachycardia; V tach; Tachycardia - ventricular .
  • Ventricular Tachycardia - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia - NY Times Health Information 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]
  • Ventricular tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.clarian.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information - Walgreens 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.walgreens.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ventricular tachycardia - Lifespan 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.lifespan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ventricular tachycardia - Avera Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC averaorg.adam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.floridahospital.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Narrow complex tachycardia is common.
  • Narrow Complex Tachycardia | Doctor | Patient UK 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a rapid rhythm of the heart in which the origin of the electrical signal is in either the atria or the AV node.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - OrganizedWisdom Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC organizedwisdom.com [Source type: General]

.Tachycardias can be further classified as either regular or irregular.^ Ventricular tachycardia may be monomorphic (typically regular rhythm originating from a single focus with identical QRS complexes) or polymorphic (may be irregular rhythm, with varying QRS complexes).
  • Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.health-disease.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If irregular cannon A waves and/or irregular variation in S1 intensity is present, then a ventricular origin of a regular tachycardia is strongly suggested.
  • Supraventricular Arrhythmias Guideline Update 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.acc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The usual ventricular rate in bidirectional tachycardia ranges from 140 to 180 bpm and can be regular or irregular (1) .
  • Bidirectional Tachycardia: Two Cases and a Review -- Al-Khafaji et al. 95 (2): 310 -- Anesthesia & Analgesia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.anesthesia-analgesia.org [Source type: Academic]

Sinus tachycardia

Ventricular tachycardia

.Ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach) is a potentially life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia that originates in the ventricles.^ Ventricular Tachycardia Definition Ventricular tachycardia (V-tach) is a rapid heart beat that originates in...the ventricles) of the heart.
  • tachycardia – FREE tachycardia information | Encyclopedia.com: Find tachycardia research 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular tachycardia is an example of a more serious, potentially life-threatening kind.

^ Tachycardia can be life-threatening.
  • Tachycardia ; Seattle Washington WA 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.swedish.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is usually a regular, wide complex tachycardia with a rate between 120 and 250 beats per minute.^ However in ventricular tachycardia, the heart rate increases to between 120 and 200 beats per minute.
  • Ventricular tachycardia - information, symptoms and treatment 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ A heart rate over 100 beats a minute is called tachycardia.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ Irregular tachycardia at 84 beats per minute.
  • http://www.childsdoc.org/fall98/st/svt.asp 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.childsdoc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Ventricular tachycardia has the potential of degrading to the more serious ventricular fibrillation.^ What are the risks of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia?
  • Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation - New York Presbyterian Hospital 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ How are ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia diagnosed?
  • Ventricular Tachycardia and Ventricular Fibrillation - New York Presbyterian Hospital 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC nyp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular tachycardia is an example of a more serious, potentially life-threatening kind.

.Ventricular tachycardia is a common, and often lethal, complication of a myocardial infarction (heart attack).^ Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia can result in heart failure, pulmonary edema, myocardial ischemia, and/or myocardial infarction secondary to an increased heart rate in patients with poor left ventricular function.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is not only observed in healthy individuals, it is also common in patients with previous myocardial infarction, mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease, pericarditis, pneumonia, chronic lung disease, and current alcohol intoxication.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sosa E, Scanavacca M, d'Avila A, Oliveira F, Ramires JA. Nonsurgical transthoracic epicardial catheter ablation to treat recurrent ventricular tachycardia occurring late after myocardial infarction.
  • Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation: Evolution of Patients and Procedures Over 8 Years -- Sacher et al. 1 (3): 153 -- Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circep.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia is a phenomenon related to sudden deaths, especially in patients with severe heart disease (ischemia, acquired valvular heart and congenital heart disease) accompanied with left ventricular dysfunction.^ Most patients do not have structural heart disease.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rates of death, especially sudden cardiac death, increase as left ventricular function worsens.
  • Ventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.lupusmctd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) means that from time to time your heart beats very fast for a reason other than exercise, high fever, or stress.
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

[4] A case of a death from exercise-induced VT was the death on a basketball court of Hank Gathers, the Loyola Marymount basketball star, in March 1990.[5]
.Both of these rhythms normally last for only a few seconds to minutes (paroxysmal tachycardia), but if VT persists it is extremely dangerous, often leading to ventricular fibrillation.^ Episodes may last only a few seconds or several hours.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Episodes of atrial flutter may also last a few hours or several days, or the condition may persist unless treated.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Persistent SVT may lead to tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

Supraventricular tachycardia

Atrial fibrillation

.Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common cardiac arrhythmias.^ Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most common types of arrhythmia.

^ Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of supraventricular tachycardia.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - AOL Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Library - 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC myhealth.ucsd.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The University of Kansas Hospital - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.kumed.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Health Information > Supraventricular Tachycardia > Topic Overview 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.stjohnsmercy.org [Source type: General]
  • Mills-Peninsula Medical Group 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC mpmg.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also done for milder arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation .
  • Tachycardia - HealthLibrary 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC healthlibrary.epnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tachycardia – UPMC, Pittsburgh, PA, USA 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.upmc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tachycardia | Lifescript.com 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • News Archive - Valley Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.valleyhealthlink.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.halifaxhealth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.doctorsofusc.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is generally an irregular, narrow complex rhythm.^ A stable patient with a regular rhythm and a narrow QRS complex can be further investigated at a more relaxed pace.
  • What is the best approach to the evaluation of resting tachycardia for an adult? — The Journal of Family Practice 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.jfponline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is usually a narrow-complex tachycardia that has a regular, rapid rhythm; exceptions include atrial fibrillation (AF) and multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT).
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Case 49: sinus rhythm and narrow complex QRS with LVH and strain .
  • ECG case studies 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.hrt.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, it may show wide QRS complexes on the ECG if a bundle branch block is present.^ Avoid relying on atropine in type II second-degree or third-degree AV block or in patients with third-degree AV block with a new wide-QRS complex.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ECG findings include a regular narrow QRS complex, although P waves may not be visible.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Mobitz type II block, the block is most often below the AV node at the bundle of His or at the bundle branches; the block is often symptomatic, with the potential to progress to complete (third-degree) AV block.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.At high rates, the QRS complex may also become wide due to the Ashman phenomenon.^ Avoid relying on atropine in type II second-degree or third-degree AV block or in patients with third-degree AV block with a new wide-QRS complex.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ ECG findings include a regular narrow QRS complex, although P waves may not be visible.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Both patterns may display retrograde P waves after the QRS complexes.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.It may be difficult to determine the rhythm's regularity when the rate exceeds 150 beats per minute.^ Fetal heart rate is 150 to 160 beats per minute, and beat-to-beat variability is preserved.
  • Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Heart rate is more than 100 beats per minute and rhythm is usually regular.
  • Narrow Complex Tachycardia | Doctor | Patient UK 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An electrocardiogram was obtained and revealed AF with a ventricular rate of 150 beats per minute.
  • Tachycardia-Induced Heart Failure 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Depending on the patient's health and other variables such as medications taken for rate control, atrial fibrillation may cause heart rates that span from 50 to 250 beats per minute (or even higher if an accessory pathway is present).^ Specific causes for POTS may vary from patient to patient.
  • Local Vasoconstriction and Sympathoexcitation in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.nymc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A heart rate over 100 beats a minute is called tachycardia.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ A heart without atrial fibrillation contracts and pumps blood at a regular rhythm such as at a rate of 60 beats per minute.
  • Arrhythmias (Tachycardia, Cardiomyopathy, Myocardial Infarction) 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC drugs.nmihi.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, new onset atrial fibrillation tends to present with rates between 100 and 150 beats per minute.^ However in ventricular tachycardia, the heart rate increases to between 120 and 200 beats per minute.
  • Ventricular tachycardia - information, symptoms and treatment 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ A heart rate over 100 beats a minute is called tachycardia.
  • MayoClinic.com Health Library - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.riversideonline.com [Source type: General]

^ This elevated rate is greater than 100 beats per minute on average in an average adult.
  • Understanding Sinus Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

AV nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT)

.AV nodal reentrant tachycardia is the most common reentrant tachycardia.^ Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT).
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]

^ What is atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia , and what is atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia?
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reentry SVT may include AV nodal reentrant tachycardia or AV reentry tachycardia.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is a regular narrow complex tachycardia that usually responds well to the Valsalva maneuver or the drug adenosine.^ Note that the QRS complexes are narrow and regular.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ECG findings include a regular narrow QRS complex, although P waves may not be visible.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Professionals at the ACLS level should be able to recognize and differentiate between sinus tachycardia, narrow-complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), and wide-complex tachycardia.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However, unstable patients sometimes require synchronized cardioversion.^ If the patient becomes unstable at any time, proceed with synchronized cardioversion.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Synchronized cardioversion is recommended to treat (1) unstable SVT due to reentry, (2) unstable atrial fibrillation, and (3) unstable atrial flutter.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An unstable patient with wide-complex tachycardia is presumed to have VT, and immediate cardioversion is performed (Box 4 and see above).
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Definitive care may include catheter ablation.^ Your doctor may suggest a pacemaker if you have symptoms and if medicine or catheter ablation have not worked for you.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you take daily medicine for AVNRT or you have significant symptoms, you may want to consider having catheter ablation .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) , medicines can be taken—either daily or only when the fast heartbeat arises—or catheter ablation may be done.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]

AV reentrant tachycardia

.AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) requires an accessory pathway for its maintenance.^ AV reentrant tachycardia .
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ F. Antidromic AV reentrant tachycardia using an atriofascicular pathway.

^ A diagram of AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT).
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia -- Wang and Estes 106 (25): e206 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.AVRT may involve orthodromic conduction (where the impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back up to the atria through the accessory pathway) or antidromic conduction (which the impulse travels down the accessory pathway and back up to the atria through the AV node).^ Many impulses begin and spread through the atria, competing for a chance to travel through the AV node.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ However, in AVRT, 1 or more accessory pathways connect the atria and the ventricles.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The electrical impulse travels down the AV node to the ventricles and back to the atrium via extra fibers that connect the atria and ventricles.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia -- Wang and Estes 106 (25): e206 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Orthodromic conduction usually results in a narrow complex tachycardia, and antidromic conduction usually results in a wide complex tachycardia that often mimics ventricular tachycardia.^ Aberrant conduction during SVT results in a wide-complex tachycardia.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Irregular Tachycardias Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter Evaluation An irregular narrow-complex or wide-complex tachycardia is most likely atrial fibrillation with an uncontrolled ventricular response.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While the orthodromic AVRT is typically a narrow-complex tachycardia (see Media file 11 ), antidromic AVRT inscribes a bizarre, wide-complex tachycardia (see Media file 12 ).
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most antiarrhythmics are contraindicated in the emergency treatment of AVRT, because they may paradoxically increase conduction across the accessory pathway.^ Your body has no pain receptors inside of internal organs, so you can’t feel it when they burn away the accessory pathway.
  • Catheter Ablation for Tachycardia: FAQ 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.timberwoof.com [Source type: General]

^ Because ACLS providers may be unable to distinguish between supraventricular and ventricular rhythms, they should be aware that most wide-complex (broad-complex) tachycardias are ventricular in origin.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is therefore a primary goal of the present invention to provide a method for diagnosis and treatment of arrhythmias caused by re-entry in the A-V node or an accessory pathway.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

Junctional tachycardia

.Junctional tachycardia is an automatic tachycardia originating in the AV junction.^ Occasionally the QRS complexes may be narrow, possibly because of a junctional origin of the tachycardia with spread of activation over the His-Purkinje system (6) .
  • Bidirectional Tachycardia: Two Cases and a Review -- Al-Khafaji et al. 95 (2): 310 -- Anesthesia & Analgesia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.anesthesia-analgesia.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Definition Atrial tachycardia is defined as a supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) that does not require the atrioventricular (AV) junction, accessory pathways, or ventricular tissue for initiation and maintenance of the tachycardia .
  • Tachycardia - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several tachyarrhythmias have been associated with the development of HF, including AF, atrial flutter, automatic atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, automatic atrioventricular junctional tachycardia, and ventricular tachycardias.
  • Tachycardia-Induced Heart Failure 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC xnet.kp.org [Source type: Academic]

.It tends to be a regular, narrow complex tachycardia and may be a sign of digitalis toxicity.^ Narrow complex tachycardia is common.
  • Narrow Complex Tachycardia | Doctor | Patient UK 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.patient.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note that the QRS complexes are narrow and regular.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular tachycardia is a fast, regular beating of the ventricles that may last for only a few seconds or for much longer.
  • Premature beats, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and bradyarrhythmias 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Treatments

.Treatment of tachycardia is usually directed at chemical conversion (with antiarrhythmics), electrical conversion (giving external shocks to convert the heart to a normal rhythm) or use of drugs to simply control heart rate (for example as in atrial fibrillation).^ Definition Tachycardia is a faster than normal heart rate.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Atrial fibrillation is a rapid heart rate caused by chaotic electrical impulses in the atria.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Heart rate is controlled by electrical signals sent across heart tissues.
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

.The treatment modality used depends on the type of tachycardia and the hemodynamic stability of the patient.^ The treatment of tachycardia depends on its cause: .

^ Medical treatment depends on the cause and type of the tachycardia .
  • Tachycardia - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment depends on the type and severity of the arrhythmia.
  • Management of Arrhythmias (Abnormal Heart Beats) 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC my.clevelandclinic.org [Source type: General]

.If the tachycardia originates from the sinus node (sinus tachycardia), treatment of the underlying cause of sinus tachycardia is usually sufficient.^ The treatment of tachycardia depends on its cause: .

^ Tachycardia originating in the sinus node.
  • Tachycardia - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sinus tachycardias usually do not require treatment other than therapy for the underlying cause, if any.
  • Tachycardia - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, if the tachycardia is of a potentially lethal origin (ie: ventricular tachycardia) treatment with anti arrhythmic agents or with electrical cardioversion may be required.^ There are two other potential causes of ventricular tachycardia.
  • Ventricular Fibrillation/Ventricular Tachycardia - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.healthscout.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Ventricular Fibrillation/Ventricular Tachycardia- Health Encyclopedia and Reference 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.healthcentral.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The ventricular tachycardia may require also the use of concomitant anti-arrhythmic agents to prevent repeated firing of the ICD. .
  • Ventricular tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.shands.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ventricular tachycardia may be seen on: .
  • Ventricular tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.shands.org [Source type: Academic]

.Below is a brief discussion of some of the main tachyarrhythmias and their treatments.^ Note - Below are brief descriptions of some commonly used drugs for the treatment of POTS. This partial list is not a recommendation for any treatment, just the factual reporting of some of the drugs doctors most commonly prescribe.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome, Patient's Report 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC home.att.net [Source type: Academic]

.The electrocardiac management of atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter is either through medications or electrical cardioversion.^ Atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and atrial tachycardia: Introduction.
  • Tachycardia: Symptoms - MayoClinic.com 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Tachycardia - MayoClinic.com 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The differential diagnosis for supraventricular tachycardia includes atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and sinus tachycardia.
  • TheFetus.net - Supraventricular tachycardia-Gary M. Joffe, MD, Luis Izquierdo, MD, Anita Brown, RNC 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.thefetus.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Atrial flutter is similar to AF, but instead of the electrical signals spreading through the atria in a fast and irregular rhythm, they travel in a fast and regular rhythm.
  • Premature beats, atrial fibrillation, tachycardia, and bradyarrhythmias 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.nhlbi.nih.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pharmacologic management of these arrhythmias typically involves diltiazem or verapamil as well as beta-blocking agents such as atenolol.^ Other medications that may be prescribed either as an alternative or in combination with anti-arrhythmic medications are calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (Cardizem) and verapamil (Calan), or beta blockers, such as propranolol (Inderal) and esmolol (Brevibloc).
  • OhioHealth - Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Because the arrhythmia does not involve the AV node, nodal blocking agents such as adenosine and verapamil are usually unsuccessful in terminating this arrhythmia.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Supraventricular tachycardia is typically treated by the avoidance of factors, such as anxiety, digestive disturbances, or hyploglycemic episodes, where these factors are known to trigger episodes.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The decision to use electrical cardioversion depends heavily on the hemodynamic stability of the presenting patient; in general those patients who are unable to sustain their systemic functions are electrically converted although conversion to a normal sinus rhythm can be performed with amiodarone.^ A combination of digoxin and amiodarone converted the abnormal rhythm to sinus rhythm.
  • Welcome to the Heart Views Website 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.hmc.org.qa [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients who are hemodynamically unstable should be resuscitated immediately with cardioversion.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Normal electrical system of the heart .

.An interesting type of atrial fibrillation which must be carefully managed is when it appears in combination with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.^ This patient has Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In the case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, the condition may be inherited.
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Atrial fibrillation in a patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.
  • Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia: eMedicine Cardiology 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

.In this case, calcium channel blockers, beta-blockers and digoxin must be avoided to prevent precipitation of ventricular tachycardia.^ These medicines include antiarrhythmic medicines , calcium channel blockers , and beta-blockers .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have failed on beta blockers, midodrine, calcium channel blockers, florinef & mestinon.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Calcium channel blockers .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • CIGNA - Supraventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: General]
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Providence Health & Services 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.providence.org [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Here, procainamide or quinidine are often used. .Of note: patients who have been in atrial fibrillation for more than 48 hours should not be converted to normal sinus rhythm unless they have been anti-coagulated to an INR of 2-3 for at least 4 weeks.^ Variability should be normal after 32 weeks.
  • Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A person with atrial fibrillation has two options; they can remain in atrial fibrillation or restore sinus rhythm.

^ Seven patients were in stable sinus rhythm and two were in chronic atrial fibrillation.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.This is to help prevent blood clots embolizing from the heart chambers to the rest of the body where they can cause adverse events like a stroke.^ This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Tachycardia.

^ The benefit of the defibrillators in reducing sudden cardiac death was offset by an increased risk of other causes of death, presumably from myocardial ischemic events or heart failure.
  • Ventricular Tachycardia 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.lupusmctd.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In theory, this should help re-train the body to keep blood flowing upwards against gravity.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

.In the case of narrow complex tachycardias (junctional, atrial or paroxysmal), the treatment in general is to first give the patient adenosine (to slow conduction through the AV node) and then perform Valsalva maneuvers to slow the rhythm.^ These medications are indicated in the following circumstances: For stable, narrow-complex, reentry mechanism tachycardias (reentry SVT) if rhythm remains uncontrolled or unconverted by adenosine or vagal maneuvers (Class IIa) 25–27 For stable, narrow-complex, automaticity mechanism tachycardias (junctional, ectopic, multifocal) if the rhythm is not controlled or converted by adenosine or vagal maneuvers To control rate of ventricular response in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (Class IIa) 35,38 IV verapamil is effective for terminating narrow-complex reentry SVT, and it may also be used for rate control in atrial fibrillation.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For acute tachyarrhythmias, these agents are indicated for rate control in the following situations: For narrow-complex tachycardias that originate from either a reentry mechanism (reentry SVT) or an automatic focus (junctional, ectopic, or multifocal tachycardia) uncontrolled by vagal maneuvers and adenosine in the patient with preserved ventricular function (Class IIa) To control rate in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter in the patient with preserved ventricular function 36,37 The recommended dose of atenolol (ß 1 ) is 5 mg slow IV (over 5 minutes).
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Narrow–QRS-complex (SVT) tachycardias (QRS <0.12 second) in order of frequency — Sinus tachycardia — Atrial fibrillation — Atrial flutter — AV nodal reentry — Accessory pathway–mediated tachycardia — Atrial tachycardia (ectopic and reentrant) — Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) — Junctional tachycardia Wide–QRS-complex tachycardias (QRS 0.12 second) — Ventricular tachycardia (VT) — SVT with aberrancy — Pre-excited tachycardias ( advanced recognition rhythms using an accessory pathway) Irregular narrow-complex tachycardias are probably atrial fibrillation or possibly atrial flutter or MAT. The management of atrial fibrillation and flutter is discussed in the section "Irregular Tachycardias," below.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.If this does not convert the patient, amiodarone, calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers are commonly employed to stabilize the patient.^ These medicines include antiarrhythmic medicines , calcium channel blockers , and beta-blockers .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have failed on beta blockers, midodrine, calcium channel blockers, florinef & mestinon.
  • Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) « Mayo Clinic Podcasts 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC podcasts.mayoclinic.org [Source type: General]

^ Calcium channel blockers .
  • Supraventricular Tachycardia - Yahoo! Health 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC health.yahoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Clearwater,FL Supraventricular Tachycardia; Supraventricular tachycardia ... 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.mpmhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Again as in atrial fibrillation, if a patient is unstable, the decision to electrically cardiovert him/her should be made.^ Synchronized cardioversion is recommended to treat (1) unstable SVT due to reentry, (2) unstable atrial fibrillation, and (3) unstable atrial flutter.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In summary, we recommend expert consultation and initial rate control with diltiazem, ß-blockers, or magnesium for patients with atrial fibrillation and a rapid ventricular response.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with atrial fibrillation for > 48 hours are at increased risk for cardioembolic events and must first undergo anticoagulation before rhythm control.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.With wide complex tachyarrhythmias or ventricular tachyarrhythmias, in general most are highly unstable and cause the patient significant distress and would be electrically converted.^ Introduction In general ventricular tachycardias have wide QRS complexes.
  • Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal - Francis4 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.ipej.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But in most cases ventricular tachycardia is caused by heart disease, such as a previous heart attack , a congenital heart defect , hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy , or myocarditis .
  • Most Common Symptoms of Ventricular Tachycardia - Heart Disease - Health.com 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.health.com [Source type: General]
  • Exempla Healthcare Online Library 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.exempla.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Avoid relying on atropine in type II second-degree or third-degree AV block or in patients with third-degree AV block with a new wide-QRS complex.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.However one notable exception is monomorphic ventricular tachycardia which patients may tolerate but can be treated pharmacologically with amiodarone or lidocaine.^ Lidocaine Lidocaine is one of a number of antiarrhythmic drugs available for treatment of ventricular ectopy, VT, and VF. At this time there is good evidence that alternative agents are superior to lidocaine in terminating VT. 46 Lidocaine may be considered in the following conditions (although it is not considered the drug of choice): For stable monomorphic VT in patients with preserved ventricular function (Class Indeterminate).
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Gorgels AR, van den Dool A, Hofs A, Mulleneers R, Smees JL, Vos MA, Wellens HJ. Comparison of procainamide and lidocaine in terminating sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Somberg JC, Bailin SJ, Haffajee CI, Paladino WP, Kerin NZ, Bridges D, Timar S, Molnar J. Intravenous lidocaine versus intravenous amiodarone (in a new aqueous formulation) for incessant ventricular tachycardia.
  • Part 7.3: Management of Symptomatic Bradycardia and Tachycardia -- 112 (24 Supplement): IV-67 -- Circulation 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Above all, the treatment modality is tailored to the individual, and varies based on the mechanism of the tachycardia (where it is originating from within the heart), on the duration of the tachycardia, how well the individual is tolerating the fast heart rate, the likelihood of recurrence once the rhythm is terminated, and any co-morbid conditions the individual is suffering from.^ My heart beats fast, tachycardia.
  • Tachycardia. April 2008 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.sdgonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Conditions of excessively rapid heart beat are known as tachycardia.
  • Adenosine in the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia - Patent 4673563 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tachycardia is considered mild when the heart rate is 160 to 180 bpm and severe when greater than 180 bpm.
  • Interpretation of the Electronic Fetal Heart Rate During Labor - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians 10 January 2010 10:17 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

See also

References

  1. ^ Custer JW, Rau RE, eds. Johns Hopkins: The Harriet Lane Handbook. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby Elsevier Inc; 2008.
  2. ^ Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 17th Edition
  3. ^ Barker RL, Burton JR, Zieve, PD eds. Principles of Ambulatory Medicine. Sixth Edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippinocott, Wilkins & Williams 2003
  4. ^ "Ventricular tachycardia and ST segment elevation during Exercise". http://www.medinet.hochiminhcity.gov.vn/medic/nckh/nhthat/e_nhthat.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-21. 
  5. ^ "Basketball; As a Lawsuit Looms on Death of Gathers, Many Major Questions Remain Unanswered - New York Times". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE1DC103DF93AA15750C0A966958260&sec=health&pagewanted=print. Retrieved 2007-07-21. 

External links


Simple English

Tachycardia is the fast beating of the heart. In adults, it refers to heart rates higher than 100 beats per minute. Tachhycardia may be a normal physiological response to stress, but depending on the cause and how healthy the patient is, tachycardia could be harmful and need medical treatment. In some cases, tachycardia can cause death.

Tachycardia can be harmful in two ways. First, when the heart beats too rapidly, it may perform inefficiently. Second, the faster the heart beats, the more oxygen and nutrients the heart requires. This can be especially problematic for patients suffering from ischaemic heart disease.



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