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Tadeusz Komorowski
("Bór")
Tadeusz Bor Komorowski.jpg
Place of birth Lviv, Galicia
Place of death London, United Kingdom
Rank Generał dywizji
Battles/wars Great War
Polish-Bolshevik War
Polish Defensive War
Operation Tempest
Warsaw Uprising
World War II
Awards Order of the White Eagle (posthumously) Virtuti Militari Virtuti Militari Virtuti Militari Krzyz Zaslugi Krzyz Zaslugi Polonia Restituta Cross of the Valorous Cross of the Valorous Cross of the Valorous
Other work politician, writer

General Count Tadeusz Komorowski (Korczak Coat of Arms) (June 1, 1895 - August 24, 1966), better known by the name Bór-Komorowski (after one of his wartime code-names: Bór - "The Forest") was a Polish military leader.

Komorowski was born in Lviv, Austria-Hungary (now in Ukraine). In the First World War he served as an officer in the Austro-Hungarian Army, and after the war became an officer in the Polish Army, rising to command the Grudziądz Cavalry School.

Contents

The Uprising

After taking part in the fighting against the German invasion of Poland at the beginning of World War II in 1939, Komorowski, with the code-name Bór, helped organize the Polish underground in the Kraków area. In July, 1941, he became deputy commander of the Home Army (Armia Krajowa or "AK"), and in March, 1943, gained appointment as its commander, with the rank of Brigadier-General.

In mid 1944, as Soviet forces advanced into central Poland, the Polish government-in-exile in London instructed Bór-Komorowski to prepare for an armed uprising in Warsaw. The government-in-exile wished to return to a capital city liberated by Poles and not seized by the Soviets, and to prevent the Communist take-over of Poland which Stalin had clearly set in train.

The Warsaw Uprising began on August 1, 1944, and the insurgents of the AK seized control of most of central Warsaw. Elements of the Soviet Army stood only twenty kilometers (about twelve miles) away but on Stalin's orders gave no assistance: Stalin described the rising as a "criminal adventure." The British managed to drop some supplies by air but could give no direct assistance. The Germans employed large forces of Waffen-SS and regular troops, plus auxiliary forces made up of Soviet Army deserters, who acted particularly brutally, under the command of Erich von dem Bach.

In September, 1944, Bór-Komorowski was promoted to General Inspector of the Armed Forces (Polish Commander-in-Chief).

Aftermath

After two months of fierce fighting Bór-Komorowski surrendered to the Germans on October 2, on condition that Germany treat the AK fighters as prisoners-of-war, which they did. Bór-Komorowski went into internment in Germany (at Oflag IV-C). Despite pressure from Germans, he refused to issue orders of surrender to Home Army units in German controlled Poland who continued fighting [1]. Liberated at the end of the war, he spent the rest of his life in London, where he played an active rôle in Polish émigré circles. From 1947 to 1949 he served as Prime Minister of the Polish government-in-exile, which no longer had diplomatic recognition from most Western European countries. He wrote the story of his experiences in The Secret Army (1951). He died in London aged 71.[1]

See also

References

Political offices
Preceded by
Tomasz Arciszewski
Prime Minister of the Polish Republic in Exile
1947–1949
Succeeded by
Tadeusz Tomaszewski
Military offices
Preceded by
Stefan Rowecki
Commander of the Home Army
1943–1944
Succeeded by
Leopold Okulicki
Preceded by
Kazimierz Sosnkowski
General Inspector of the Armed Forces
1944–1946
Succeeded by
Władysław Anders
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