|Region||Central and South Luzon|
|Total speakers||First language (in the Philippines): 49 million|
|Writing system||Latin (Tagalog or Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin
|Official language in|| Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
|Regulated by||Commission on the Filipino Language|
|Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.|
Tagalog (pronounced /təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/ in English) is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 22 million people. It is related to Austronesian languages such as Indonesian, Malay, Javanese and Paiwan (of Taiwan), Cham (of Vietnam and Cambodia), and Tetum (of East Timor). It is the first language of the Philippines' Region IV (CALABARZON and MIMAROPA) and is the basis for the national and the official language of the Philippines, Filipino.
The word Tagalog derived from tagailog, from tagá- meaning "native of" and ílog meaning "river." Thus, it means "river dweller." Very little is known about the history of the language. However, according to linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust, the Tagalogs originated, along with their Central Philippine cousins, from Northeastern Mindanao or Eastern Visayas.
The first written record of Tagalog is in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, written in the year 900 and uses fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Malay, and Javanese. Meanwhile, the first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Cristiana (Christian Doctrine) of 1593. It was written in Spanish and two versions of Tagalog; one written in the Baybayin script and the other in the Latin alphabet. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish occupation, there were grammar and dictionaries written by Spanish clergymen such as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Laguna, 1613), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835) and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850). Poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer. His most famous work is the early 19th-century Florante at Laura.
In 1937, Tagalog was selected as the basis of the national language of the Philippines by the National Language Institute. In 1939, Manuel L. Quezon named the national language "Wikang Pambansâ" ("National Language"). Twenty years later, in 1959, it was renamed by then Secretary of Education, José Romero, as Pilipino to give it a national rather than ethnic label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non-Tagalogs, especially Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection.
In 1971, the language issue was revived once more, and a compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called Filipino rather than Pilipino. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language. The constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.
Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages such as Javanese, Indonesian, Malay,Cham (of Vietnam and Cambodia), Tetum (of East Timor), and Paiwan (of Taiwan). It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol and Visayas regions such as Bikol and the Visayan group including Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, and Cebuano.
At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars on various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog. However, there appear to be four main dialects of which the aforementioned are a part; Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque.
Some example of dialectal differences are:
Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.
One example are the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog dialects by the early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.
|Manileño Tagalog||Marinduque Tagalog||English|
|Susulat sina Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan.||Másúlat da Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan.||"Maria and Fulgencia will write to Juan."|
|Mag-aaral siya sa Maynila.||Gaaral siya sa Maynila.||"He will study in Manila."|
|Kainin mo iyan.||Kaina yaan.||"Eat that."|
|Tinatawag tayo ni Tatay.||Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay.||"Father is calling us."|
|Tutulungan ba kayó ni Hilario?||Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilario?||"Will Hilario help you (pl.)?"|
Northern dialects and the central dialects are the basis for the national language.
The Tagalog homeland, or Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon - particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, and large parts of Zambales. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands, Marinduque, Mindoro, and large areas of Palawan. It is spoken by approximately 64.3 million Filipinos, 96.4% of the household population. 21.5 million, or 28.15% of the total Philippine population, speak it as a native language.
Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. In 2003, the US Census bureau reported (based on data from the 2000 census) that it was the sixth most-spoken language in the United States, with over 1.2 million speakers.
Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.
In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages. After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines. In 1939 President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ (national language). In 1939, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino".
The 1973 constitution designated the Tagalog-based "Pilipino", along with English, as an official language and mandated the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino. The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language, mandating that as it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.
As Filipino, Tagalog has been taught in schools throughout the Philippines. It is the only one out of over 170 Philippine languages that is officially used in schools and businesses, (info from culturegrams) though Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines does specify, in part:
Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.
The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.
Besides the Philippines, the language enjoys relative minority status in Canada, the United Kingdom, and also Hong Kong, where street signs commonly display the language. In the United States, the language is used in censuses and elections.
Taglish and Englog are portmanteaus given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs.Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to outright code-switching where the language changes in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various of the languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog.
Code Mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are Filipinized by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use.
Although it is generally looked down upon, code-switching is prevalent in all levels of society; however, city-dwellers, the highly educated, and people born around and after World War II are more likely to do it. Politicians as highly placed as President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo have code-switched in interviews.
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Tagalog has 32 phonemes: 21 of them are consonants, 5 are vowels, and 6 are dipthongs. Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel, and begins in at most one consonant, except for borrowed words such as trak which means "truck", or tsokolate meaning "chocolate".
Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.
Stress is phonemic in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the last or the next-to-the-last (penultimate) syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress on words is highly important, since it differentiates words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. tayô(to stand) and tayo(us; we)
Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel *ə. In Bikol & Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.
Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *nɡajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.
Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.
Tagalog was written in an abugida, or alphasyllabary, called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi.
Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule.
There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.
A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the final vowel was just left out, leaving the reader to use context to determine the final vowels.
Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".
Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà:
In 1987 the department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet:
to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English.
The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga are abbreviations that are pronounced nang [naŋ] and mangá [mɐˈŋa]. Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent, among other uses. Mga (pronounced as "muh-NGA") denotes plurality as adding an s, es, or ies does in English (ex. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes)).
In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noóng (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling na todo/Todong gumaling).
The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word:
The po and opo are the traditionally used as polite words. It is mostly used for talking to elderly. (ex. Paki tapon naman po yung basura. - Please throw the trashes). The word opo can be used as yes. (ex. Gutom ka na ba? Opo. - Are you hungry? Yes). Also, po can be used for negation. (ex. Hindi ko po alam yan. - I don't know that).
Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed Bahasa (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed. About 40% of everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of Spanish loanwords.
Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of Austronesian origin with borrowings from Japanese, Sanskrit, Min Nan Chinese (also known as Hokkien), Javanese, Malay, Arabic, languages spoken on Luzon, and others, especially other Austronesian languages.
English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.
Other examples of Tagalog words used in English:
Yo-yo is reportedly a Tagalog word; however, no such word exists in Tagalog. In fact it is a word that came to the occidental culture through Filipinas in the spanish period, but its origin is chinese.
Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from balan͠gay, meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, dalaga etc.
For the Min Nan Chinese borrowings, the parentheses indicate the equivalent in standard Chinese.
|Tagalog||meaning||language of origin||original spelling|
|kumusta||how are you? (general greeting)||Spanish||cómo está|
|ensaymada||a kind of pastry||Mallorqui, a dialect of Catalan||ensaïmada|
|sayote (sa-yo-te)||chayote, choko||Nahuatl||chayotli|
|lumpia (/lum·pya/)||spring roll||Min Nan Chinese||潤餅 (春捲)|
|siopao (/syo·paw/)||steamed buns||Min Nan Chinese||燒包 (肉包)|
|pansit (/pan·set/)||noodles||Min Nan Chinese||扁食 (麵)|
|susi (su-se)||key||Min Nan Chinese||鎖匙|
|kuya (see Philippine kinship)||older brother||Min Nan Chinese||哥亞 (哥仔)|
|ate (/ah·te/) (see Philippine kinship)||older sister||Min Nan Chinese||亞姐 (阿姐)|
|bakya||wooden shoes||Min Nan Chinese||木履|
|hikaw||earrings||Min Nan Chinese||耳鈎 (耳環)|
|dalamhati||grief||Malay||dalam + hati|
|luwalhati||glory||Malay||luar + hati|
|aso||dog||South Cordilleran or Ilocano||aso|
|tayo||we (inc.)||South Cordilleran or Ilocano||tayo|
|ito,nito||it.||South Cordilleran or Ilocano||to|
Below is a chart of Tagalog and twenty other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words; the first thirteen languages are spoken in the Philippines and the other seven are spoken in Indonesia, East Timor, New Zealand, Hawaii, and Madagascar.
|Pangasinan||sakey||dua, duara||talo, talora||apat, apatira||too||abong||aso||niyog||ageo||balo||sikatayo||anto||pool|
Religious Literature remains to be one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into Tagalog, the first full translation to any of the Philippine languages. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been circulating. At present, there are three circulating Tagalog translations of the Holy Bible—the Magandang Balita Biblia (a parallel translation of the Good News Bible), which is the ecumenical version; the Ang Biblia, which is a more Protestant version published in 1909; and the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan, one of about sixty parallel translations of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures published by Jehovah's Witnesses. The latter was released in the year 2000. Jehovah's Witnesses previously published a hybrid translation: Ang Biblia was used for the Old Testament, while the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin was used for the New Testament.
When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. In fact, the Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982, while not published in English until 1985.
Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941 and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1960s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog. 
Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.
Isinilang na malaya at pantáy-pantáy sa karangalan at mga karapatán ang lahát ng tao. Pinagkalooban silá ng katwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan ang isá't isá sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.
(Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood.)
|Cardinal||Tagalog into spanish||Ordinal|
|2||dalawá||dos||pangalawá / ikalawa|
|3||tatló||tres||pangatló / ikatlo|
|4||apat||cuatro||pang-apat / ika-apat|
|5||limá||cinco||panlimá / ikalima|
|6||anim||seis||pang-anim / ika-anim|
|7||pitó||siete||pampitó / ikapito|
|8||waló||ocho||pangwaló / ikawalo|
|9||siyám||nueve||pansiyám / ikasiyam|
|10||sampû||dies||pansampû / ikasampu|
|11||labíng-isá||once||panlabíng-isá / pang-onse / ikalabing-isa|
|12||labing-dalawá||dose||panlabing-dalawá / pandose / ikalabindalawa|
|20||dalawampu||bente||pandalawampu / ikadalawampu|
|30||tatlompu||trenta||pantatlompu / ikatatlompu|
|40||apatnapu||kwenta||pang-apatnapu / ika-apatnapu|
|50||limampu||singkwenta||panlimampu / ikalimampu|
|60||animnapu||sesenta||pang-animnapu / ika-animnapu|
|70||pitompu||setenta||pampitompu / ikapitompu|
|80||walompu||otsenta||pangwalompu / ikawalompu|
|90||siyamnapu||nobenta||pansiyamnapu / ikasiyamnapu|
|100||(i)sán(g)daán||syento||pan(g)-(i)sán(g)daán / ika-(i)san(g)-daan|
|200||dalawádaán||dos syentos||pandalawadaan / ikadalawadaan|
|300||tatlodaán||tres syentos||pantatlodaan / ikatatlodaan|
|400||apat na daán||kwatro syentos||pang-apat na daán / ika-apat na daán|
|500||limadaán||singko syentos||panlimadaan / ikalimadaan|
|600||anim na daán||sais syentos||pang-anim na daán / ika-anim na daán|
|700||pitodaán||syete syentos||pampitodaan / ikapitodaan|
|800||walodaán||otso syentos||pangwalodaan / ikawalodaan|
|900||siyam na daán||nwebe syentos||pansiyam na daan / ikasiyam na daan|
|10,000||(i)san(g)laksa / sampung libo||dyes mil|
|100,000||(i)sangyuta / (i)sán(g)daáng libo||syento mil|
|2,000,000||dalawáng milyón||dos milyon|
|10,000,000||sampung milyón||dyes milyon|
|100,000,000||(i)sán(g)daáng milyon||syento milyon|
Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinanggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal)
He that does not look back to where he came from will never make it to his destination.
Ang hindî magmahál sa kanyang sariling wika ay mahigít pa sa hayop at malansang isdâ. (José Rizal)
One who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and a putrid fish.
Hulí man daw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin. (Hulí man raw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin.)
It was said that even if he is late and excellent, he still catches up.
Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.
Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never make fun of someone who just got up.
Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buong katawán.
The pain of a pinkie is felt by the whole body.
Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.
Regret always comes last.
Pagkáhába-haba man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.
Even the procession is long, its ending is the church.
Kung dî mádaán sa santong dasalan, daanin sa santong paspasan.
If it cannot be done through holy prayer, do it through holy speeding.
Tagalog can mean:
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Filipino is the national language of the Philippines. More or less the standard version of Tagalog, based on Tagalog (which in turn is partially based on the Malay language), Spanish, and English, Filipino is spoken by about 90 million people worldwide. The main difference with its grammar is that it is not word-order transitive like English. For example, the sentence Jill gives the book to Tom in Tagalog can't tell who's giving to whom without the personal markers si and ni. If an actor focus verb is used, Jill becomes si Jill (the subject), and Tom becomes ni Tom (the object). If a non-actor focus verb is used, then si and ni are reversed. This works something like active and passive voice in English, but neither form would seem passive in Tagalog.
Notably missing in Tagalog are the to be verbs, such as am, are, is, etc. This can be overcome in one of several ways:
The good news regarding word order in Filipino is that you can juggle the words just about any which way and still be understood (assuming the personal markers are attached to the correct person). Also, it's easy to substitute similar words within simple sentences -- like those found in this phrasebook. However, the bad news is that proper word order has a steep learning curve and can even be affected by the number of syllables. Also, Filipino is notorious for its large number of complicated verb forms which require several words in English. For example, "I accidentally spilled something" is all one very long, tongue-twisting word in Filipino.
Abbreviation (ng and mga)
Two very common words are always abbreviated:
Although Filipino words may seem long and tongue-twisting at first, pronunciation is easier than in many other languages. Long words are almost always based on smaller root words. The only foreign sound is an initial ng on a few words such as ngiti (smile). Unlike its neighboring languages (e.g. Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese) Filipino is NOT tonal. However, stressing the wrong syllable can often change the meaning of a word. Only very rarely does this occur in English (such as desert/dessert). Meanings in such cases can be either closely related such as buhay (alive or life), or totally unrelated such as hapon (afternoon or Japan).
Some phrases in this phrasebook still need to be translated. If you know anything about this language, you can help by plunging forward and translating a phrase.
Two ways to state YES and NO
In Tagalog, the question "Are you married?" is answered very differently from the question "Do you have children?" The key is the word "have" in the second question. Questions with "is/are there?" are also answered in this second way.
Oo (Yes, I am
Add po at (or near) the end of a sentence or question to make it formal and polite. Exception: after an interrogative po immediately follows. Sino po siya? Who is he/she? (formal) It is important to note that "opo" (po) and "oho" (ho) are only used to be polite to one's elders. Ho (not used in this phrasebook) is a dialectal version of po and can virtually always be interchanged with it. Although its use is very limited in Manila and the Northern Katagalugan (The Tagalog Homeland), many people use it in Southern Luzon, especially in Batangas, Cavite and Laguna. Po (or Ho) and Opo (or Oho) is most commonly heard to show respect to elders or superiors. Po (and ho) are incompatible with ka and ikaw (use kayo) and with mo (use nila).
Note: As shown above, markers (Si / Ni / Kay) are mandatory before a person's name -- no exceptions (other than one word answers, and after ay)
"Who does this belong to?" may be answered with either "It is
John's" "Kay John" or "John's bag" Bag
Like English, there is no gender assigned to common nouns, including those of Spanish origin. The only exception is Spanish-origin words refering to a type of person or occupation. But even here, the article (ang, ng, etc.) is gender neutral. Example: Ang abogado/a The lawyer or attorney (m/f). Ironically, Tagalog-origin words can even be more gender neutral than English. Example: kapatid brother or sister.
For plurals, add mga immediately before the noun. Example: Mga hayop Animals. Adding "_s" does not make anything plural, and is sometimes used on Spanish nouns regardless of whether the topic is plural or not. Example: mansanas apple; mga mansanas apples (from Spanish manzana) .
One point of confusion is the word Filipinas. It can mean either The Philippines (the country) or a group of Philippine females.
Separate adjectives are sometimes used to describe things and people (e.g. tall building, tall person). Adjectives without a noun are often ended with the article na which roughly translates as "already" or "now." This is usually dropped when translating back into English. Madumi na. [It's] dirty (now/already). In Tagalog, an article such as na or pa is required when no noun follows the adjective. Na is a bit more immediate (i.e. shorter time than expected) than pa, but both have similar usage.
Many nouns can become adjectives by adding the prefix Ma, such as Dumi (dirt) becoming Madumi (dirty).
Adjective-noun pairs must be linked. Na (not the same na as above) is used if the adjective ends in a constant, and _ng is used if it ends in a vowel. Magandang babae (beautiful girl). Malinis na kusina (clean kitchen).
Note: Tagalog always refers to what's burning and not the flames. Fire (controlled or in abstract) : Apoy
Note: In some cases Spanish numbers (with Filipino spelling) are used.
For numbers above 10, Spanish is frequently used.
"ng" is pronounced 'nang' (rhymes with sang)
A vowel ending number must be suffixed with "-ng" while consonant-ending numbers must be followed by "na", e.g. isaNG minuto (one minute) or apat NA minuto (four minutes).
The Filipino language borrowed its terms for the days of the week and months of the year from the Spanish language.
Dates can be written as follows:
Times are written as in English (as in 6:23 AM) but are spoken as in Spanish.
Most Philippine road signs are in English.
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Tagalog (plural Tagalog or Tagalogs)
Tagalog (not comparable)
From taga- (“‘native of’”) + ilog (“‘river’”).