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Tagalog redirects here. For other uses, see Tagalog (disambiguation).
Tagalog
Spoken in  Philippines
Region Central and South Luzon
Total speakers First language (in the Philippines): 49 million[1][2]
Ranking 24
Language family Austronesian
Writing system Latin (Tagalog or Filipino variant);
Historically written in Baybayin
Official status
Official language in  Philippines (in the form of Filipino)
Regulated by Commission on the Filipino Language
Language codes
ISO 639-1 tl
ISO 639-2 tgl
ISO 639-3 tgl
Tagalosphere.png

Tagalog (pronounced /təˈɡɑːlɒɡ/ in English)[3] is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 22 million people.[1] It is related to Austronesian languages such as Indonesian, Malay, Javanese and Paiwan (of Taiwan), Cham (of Vietnam and Cambodia), and Tetum (of East Timor). It is the first language of the Philippines' Region IV (CALABARZON and MIMAROPA) and is the basis[4] for the national and the official language of the Philippines, Filipino.[5]

Contents

History

The Tagalog Baybayin script.

The word Tagalog derived from tagailog, from tagá- meaning "native of" and ílog meaning "river." Thus, it means "river dweller." Very little is known about the history of the language. However, according to linguists such as Dr. David Zorc and Dr. Robert Blust, the Tagalogs originated, along with their Central Philippine cousins, from Northeastern Mindanao or Eastern Visayas.[6][7]

The first written record of Tagalog is in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, written in the year 900 and uses fragments of the language along with Sanskrit, Malay, and Javanese. Meanwhile, the first known book to be written in Tagalog is the Doctrina Cristiana (Christian Doctrine) of 1593. It was written in Spanish and two versions of Tagalog; one written in the Baybayin script and the other in the Latin alphabet. Throughout the 333 years of Spanish occupation, there were grammar and dictionaries written by Spanish clergymen such as Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala by Pedro de San Buenaventura (Pila, Laguna, 1613), Vocabulario de la lengua tagala (1835) and Arte de la lengua tagala y manual tagalog para la administración de los Santos Sacramentos (1850). Poet Francisco Baltazar (1788–1862) is regarded as the foremost Tagalog writer. His most famous work is the early 19th-century Florante at Laura.

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Tagalog and Filipino

In 1937, Tagalog was selected as the basis of the national language of the Philippines by the National Language Institute. In 1939, Manuel L. Quezon named the national language "Wikang Pambansâ" ("National Language").[8] Twenty years later, in 1959, it was renamed by then Secretary of Education, José Romero, as Pilipino to give it a national rather than ethnic label and connotation. The changing of the name did not, however, result in acceptance among non-Tagalogs, especially Cebuanos who had not accepted the selection.[9]

In 1971, the language issue was revived once more, and a compromise solution was worked out—a "universalist" approach to the national language, to be called Filipino rather than Pilipino. When a new constitution was drawn up in 1987, it named Filipino as the national language.[9] The constitution specified that as the Filipino language evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.

Classification

Tagalog is a Central Philippine language within the Austronesian language family. Being Malayo-Polynesian, it is related to other Austronesian languages such as Javanese, Indonesian, Malay,Cham (of Vietnam and Cambodia), Tetum (of East Timor), and Paiwan (of Taiwan). It is closely related to the languages spoken in the Bicol and Visayas regions such as Bikol and the Visayan group including Hiligaynon, Waray-Waray, and Cebuano.

Languages that have made significant contributions to Tagalog are especially Spanish and English and also Arabic, Sanskrit, Old Malay, Chinese, Javanese.

Dialects

At present, no comprehensive dialectology has been done in the Tagalog-speaking regions, though there have been descriptions in the form of dictionaries and grammars on various Tagalog dialects. Ethnologue lists Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Tanay-Paete, and Tayabas as dialects of Tagalog. However, there appear to be four main dialects of which the aforementioned are a part; Northern (exemplified by the Bulacan dialect), Central (including Manila), Southern (exemplified by Batangas), and Marinduque.

Some example of dialectal differences are:

  • Many Tagalog dialects, particularly those in the south, preserve the glottal stop found after consonants and before vowels. This has been lost in standard Tagalog. For example standard Tagalog ngayon (now, today), sinigang (broth stew), gabi (night), matamis (sweet), are pronounced and written ngay-on, sinig-ang, gab-i, and matam-is in other dialects.
  • In Teresian-Morong Tagalog, [ɾ] is usually preferred over [d]. For example, bundók, dagat, dingdíng, and isdâ become bunrók, ragat, ringríng, and isrâ, as well as their expression seen in some signages like "sandok sa dingdíng" was changed to "sanrok sa ringríng".
  • In many southern dialects, the progressive aspect prefix of -um- verbs is na-. For example, standard Tagalog kumakain (eating) is nákáin in Quezon and Batangas Tagalog. This is the butt of some jokes by other Tagalog speakers since a phrase such as nakain ka ba ng pating is interpreted as "did a shark eat you?" by those from Manila but in reality means "do you eat shark?" to those in the south.
  • Some dialects have interjections which are a considered a trademark of their region. For example, the interjection ala e! usually identifies someone from Batangas as does hane?! in Rizal and Quezon provinces.

Perhaps the most divergent Tagalog dialects are those spoken in Marinduque. Linguist Rosa Soberano identifies two dialects, western and eastern with the former being closer to the Tagalog dialects spoken in the provinces of Batangas and Quezon.

One example are the verb conjugation paradigms. While some of the affixes are different, Marinduque also preserves the imperative affixes, also found in Visayan and Bikol languages, that have mostly disappeared from most Tagalog dialects by the early 20th century; they have since merged with the infinitive.

Manileño Tagalog Marinduque Tagalog English
Susulat sina Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan. Másúlat da Maria at Fulgencia kay Juan. "Maria and Fulgencia will write to Juan."
Mag-aaral siya sa Maynila. Gaaral siya sa Maynila. "He will study in Manila."
Magluto ka! Pagluto! "Cook!"
Kainin mo iyan. Kaina yaan. "Eat that."
Tinatawag tayo ni Tatay. Inatawag nganì kitá ni Tatay. "Father is calling us."
Tutulungan ba kayó ni Hilario? Atulungan ga kamo ni Hilario? "Will Hilario help you (pl.)?"

Northern dialects and the central dialects are the basis for the national language.

Features

Geographic distribution

The Tagalog homeland, or Katagalugan, covers roughly much of the central to southern parts of the island of Luzon - particularly in Aurora, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Camarines Norte, Cavite, Laguna, Metro Manila, Nueva Ecija, Quezon, Rizal, and large parts of Zambales. Tagalog is also spoken natively by inhabitants living on the islands, Marinduque, Mindoro, and large areas of Palawan. It is spoken by approximately 64.3 million Filipinos, 96.4% of the household population.[10] 21.5 million, or 28.15% of the total Philippine population,[11] speak it as a native language.

Tagalog speakers are found in other parts of the Philippines as well as throughout the world, though its use is usually limited to communication between Filipino ethnic groups. In 2003, the US Census bureau reported (based on data from the 2000 census) that it was the sixth most-spoken language in the United States, with over 1.2 million speakers.[12]

Official status

Predominantly Tagalog-speaking regions in the Philippines. The color-schemes represent the 4 dialect zones of the language: Northern, Central, Southern, and Marinduque.

Tagalog was declared the official language by the first constitution in the Philippines, the Constitution of Biak-na-Bato in 1897.[13]

In 1935, the Philippine constitution designated English and Spanish as official languages, but mandated the development and adoption of a common national language based on one of the existing native languages.[14] After study and deliberation, the National Language Institute, a committee composed of seven members who represented various regions in the Philippines, chose Tagalog as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[9][15] President Manuel L. Quezon then, on December 30, 1937, proclaimed the selection of the Tagalog language to be used as the basis for the evolution and adoption of the national language of the Philippines.[15] In 1939 President Quezon renamed the proposed Tagalog-based national language as wikang pambansâ (national language).[9] In 1939, the language was further renamed as "Pilipino".[9]

The 1973 constitution designated the Tagalog-based "Pilipino", along with English, as an official language and mandated the development and formal adoption of a common national language to be known as Filipino.[16] The 1987 constitution designated Filipino as the national language, mandating that as it evolves, it shall be further developed and enriched on the basis of existing Philippine and other languages.[5]

As Filipino, Tagalog has been taught in schools throughout the Philippines. It is the only one out of over 170 Philippine languages that is officially used in schools and businesses, (info from culturegrams)[citation needed] though Article XIV, Section 7 of the 1987 Constitution of the Philippines does specify, in part:

Subject to provisions of law and as the Congress may deem appropriate, the Government shall take steps to initiate and sustain the use of Filipino as a medium of official communication and as language of instruction in the educational system.[5]

The regional languages are the auxiliary official languages in the regions and shall serve as auxiliary media of instruction therein.[5]

Other Philippine languages have influenced Filipino, primarily through migration from the provinces to Metro Manila of speakers of those other languages.

Besides the Philippines, the language enjoys relative minority status in Canada, the United Kingdom, and also Hong Kong, where street signs commonly display the language. In the United States, the language is used in censuses and elections.[17]

Code Mixing

Taglish and Englog are portmanteaus given to a mix of English and Tagalog. The amount of English vs.Tagalog varies from the occasional use of English loan words to outright code-switching where the language changes in mid-sentence. Such code-switching is prevalent throughout the Philippines and in various of the languages of the Philippines other than Tagalog.

Code Mixing also entails the use of foreign words that are Filipinized by reforming them using Filipino rules, such as verb conjugations. Users typically use Filipino or English words, whichever comes to mind first or whichever is easier to use.

Magshoshopping kami sa mall. Sino ba ang magdadrive sa shoppingan?
"We will go shopping at the mall. Who will drive to the shopping center anyway?"

Although it is generally looked down upon, code-switching is prevalent in all levels of society; however, city-dwellers, the highly educated, and people born around and after World War II are more likely to do it. Politicians as highly placed as President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo have code-switched in interviews.

The practice is common in television, radio, and print media as well. Advertisements from companies like Wells Fargo, Wal-Mart, Albertsons, McDonald's, and Western Union have contained Taglish.

The Chinese and the non-Tagalog communities in the Philippines also frequently code-switch their language, be it Cebuano or Min Nan Chinese, with Taglish.

Phonology

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.

Tagalog has 32 phonemes: 21 of them are consonants, 5 are vowels, and 6 are dipthongs.[18] Syllable structure is relatively simple. Each syllable contains at least a consonant and a vowel,[19] and begins in at most one consonant, except for borrowed words such as trak which means "truck", or tsokolate meaning "chocolate".

Vowels

Before appearing in the coastal region of Manila, Tagalog had three vowel phonemes: /a/, /i/, and /u/. This was later expanded to five vowels with the introduction of Kapampangan and Spanish words.

They are:

There are six main diphthongs; /ai/, /ei/, /oi/, /ui/, /au/, and /iu/.[18][19]

Consonants

Below is a chart of Tagalog consonants. All the stops are unaspirated. The velar nasal occurs in all positions including at the beginning of a word.

Table of consonant phonemes of Tagalog
Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k ɡ ʔ
Fricative s ɕ h
Affricate ts
Tap ɾ
Approximant l j w

Stress

Stress is phonemic in Tagalog. Primary stress occurs on either the last or the next-to-the-last (penultimate) syllable of a word. Vowel lengthening accompanies primary or secondary stress except when stress occurs at the end of a word. Stress on words is highly important, since it differentiates words with the same spellings, but with different meanings, e.g. ta(to stand) and tayo(us; we)

Sounds

Vowels

  • /a/ is raised slightly to [ɐ] in unstressed positions and also occasionally in stressed positions (inang bayan [inˈɐŋ ˈbɐjən])
  • Unstressed /i/ is usually pronounced [ɪ] as in English "bit"
  • At the final syllable, /i/ can be pronounced [i ~ e ~ ɛ], as [e ~ ɛ] is an allophone of [ɪ ~ i] in final syllables.
  • Unstressed /ɛ/ and /o/ can sometimes be pronounced [i ~ ɪ ~ e] and [u ~ ʊ ~ ɔ], except in final syllables. [o~ ʊ ~ ɔ] and [u ~ ʊ] were also former allophones.
  • Unstressed /u/ is usually pronounced [ʊ] as in English "book"
  • The diphthong /aɪ/ and the sequence /aʔi/ have a tendency to become [eɪ ~ ɛː].
  • The diphthong /aʊ/ and the sequence /aʔu/ have a tendency to become [oʊ ~ ɔː].
  • /e/ or /i/ before s-consonant clusters have a tendency to become silent.

Consonants

  • /k/ between vowels has a tendency to become [x] as in Spanish "José" or Arabic "Khadijah", whereas in the initial position it has a tendency to become [kx].
  • Intervocalic /ɡ/ and /k/ tend to become [ɰ] (see preceding), as in Arabic "ghair".
  • /ɾ/ and /d/ are sometimes interchangeable as /ɾ/ and /d/ were once allophones in Tagalog.
  • A glottal stop that occurs at the end of a word is often omitted when it is in the middle of a sentence, especially in the Metro Manila area. The vowel it follows is then usually lengthened. However, it is preserved in many other dialects.
  • /o/ tends to become [ɔ] in stressed positions.
  • /nij/, /sij/, /tij/, and /dij/ may be pronounced [nj ~ nij], [sj ~ sij], [tj ~ tij] and [dj ~ dij], respectively, especially in everyday vernacular.
  • /ts/ may be pronounced [ts], especially in but not limited to rural areas.
  • /ɾ/ can be pronounced [r].
  • /b/ can be pronounced [ɓ].

Historical changes

Tagalog differs from its Central Philippine counterparts with its treatment of the Proto-Philippine schwa vowel . In Bikol & Visayan, this sound merged with /u/ and [o]. In Tagalog, it has merged with /i/. For example, Proto-Philippine *dəkət (adhere, stick) is Tagalog dikít and Visayan & Bikol dukot.

Proto-Philippine *r, *j, and *z merged with /d/ but is /l/ between vowels. Proto-Philippine *nɡajan (name) and *hajək (kiss) became Tagalog ngalan and halík.

Proto-Philippine *R merged with /ɡ/. *tubiR (water) and *zuRuʔ (blood) became Tagalog tubig and dugô.

Grammar

Writing system

Baybayin

Tagalog was written in an abugida, or alphasyllabary, called Baybayin prior to the Spanish colonial period in the Philippines, in the 16th century. This particular writing system was composed of symbols representing three vowels and 14 consonants. Belonging to the Brahmic family of scripts, it shares similarities with the Old Kawi script of Java and is believed to be descended from the script used by the Bugis in Sulawesi.

Although it enjoyed a relatively high level of literacy, Baybayin gradually fell into disuse in favor of the Latin alphabet taught by the Spaniards during their rule.

There has been confusion of how to use Baybayin, which is actually an abugida, or an alphasyllabary, rather than an alphabet. Not every letter in the Latin alphabet is represented with one of those in the Baybayin alphasyllabary. Rather than letters being put together to make sounds as in Western languages, Baybayin uses symbols to represent syllables.

A "kudlit" resembling an apostrophe is used above or below a symbol to change the vowel sound after its consonant. If the kudlit is used above, the vowel is an "E" or "I" sound. If the kudlit is used below, the vowel is an "O" or "U" sound. A special kudlit was later added by Spanish missionaries in which a cross placed below the symbol to get rid of the vowel sound all together, leaving a consonant. Previously, the final vowel was just left out, leaving the reader to use context to determine the final vowels.

Example:

Ba Be Bo B (in Baybayin)

Baybayin is encoded in Unicode version 3.2 in the range 1700-171F under the name "Tagalog".

Latin alphabet

Until the first half of the 20th century, Tagalog was widely written in a variety of ways based on Spanish orthography. When the national language was based on Tagalog, grammarian Lope K. Santos introduced a new alphabet consisting of 20 letters called ABAKADA in school grammar books called balarilà:

A B K D E G H I L M N Ng O P R S T U W Y.[20][21][22]

In 1987 the department of Education, Culture and Sports issued a memo stating that the Philippine alphabet had changed from the Pilipino-Tagalog Abakada version to a new 28-letter alphabet:

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N Ñ Ng O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z[23][24]

to make room for loans, especially family names from Spanish and English.[25]

ng and mga

See also: ng (digraph)

The genitive marker ng and the plural marker mga are abbreviations that are pronounced nang [naŋ] and mangá [mɐˈŋa]. Ng, in most cases, roughly translates to "of" (ex. Siya ay kapatid ng nanay ko. She is the sibling of my mother) while nang usually means "when" or can describe how something is done or to what extent, among other uses. Mga (pronounced as "muh-NGA") denotes plurality as adding an s, es, or ies does in English (ex. Iyan ang mga damit ko. (Those are my clothes)).

  • Nang si Hudas ay madulás. - When Judas slipped.
  • Gumising nang maaga siya. - He woke up early.
  • Gumalíng nang todo si Juan dahil nag-ensayo siya. - Juan improved greatly because he practiced.

In the first example, nang is used in lieu of the word noóng (when; Noong si Hudas ay madulas). In the second, nang describes that the person woke up (gumising) early (maaga); gumising nang maaga. In the third, nang described up to what extent that Juan improved (gumaling), which is "greatly" (nang todo). In the latter two examples, the ligature na and its variants -ng and -g may also be used (Gumising na maaga/Maagang gumising; Gumaling na todo/Todong gumaling).

The longer nang may also have other uses, such as a ligature that joins a repeated word:

  • Sumalita nang sumalita sila. - They kept talking and talking.

po and opo

The po and opo are the traditionally used as polite words. It is mostly used for talking to elderly. (ex. Paki tapon naman po yung basura. - Please throw the trashes). The word opo can be used as yes. (ex. Gutom ka na ba? Opo. - Are you hungry? Yes). Also, po can be used for negation. (ex. Hindi ko po alam yan. - I don't know that).

Vocabulary and borrowed words

Spanish is the language that has bequeathed the most loan words to Tagalog. According to linguists, Spanish (5,000) has even surpassed Bahasa (3,500) in terms of loan words borrowed. About 40% of everyday (informal) Tagalog conversation is practically made up of Spanish loanwords.[citation needed]

Tagalog vocabulary is composed mostly of words of Austronesian origin with borrowings from Japanese, Sanskrit, Min Nan Chinese (also known as Hokkien), Javanese, Malay, Arabic, languages spoken on Luzon, and others, especially other Austronesian languages.

Due to trade with Mexico via the Manila galleon from the 16th to the 19th centuries, many words from Nahuatl, a language spoken by Native Americans in Mexico, were introduced to Tagalog.

English has borrowed some words from Tagalog, such as abaca, barong, balisong, boondocks, jeepney, Manila hemp, pancit, ylang ylang, and yaya, although the vast majority of these borrowed words are only used in the Philippines as part of the vocabularies of Philippine English.[citation needed]

Other examples of Tagalog words used in English:

  • boondocks: meaning "rural" or "back country," was imported by American soldiers stationed in the Philippines following the Spanish American War as a mispronounced version of the Tagalog bundok, which means "mountain."
  • cogon: a type of grass, used for thatching. This word came from the Tagalog word kugon (a species of tall grass).
  • ylang-ylang: a type of flower known for its fragrance.
  • Abaca: a type of hemp fiber made from a plant in the banana family, from abaká.
  • Manila hemp: a light brown cardboard material used for folders and paper usually made from abaca hemp.
  • Capiz: also known as window oyster, is used to make windows.

Yo-yo is reportedly a Tagalog word; however, no such word exists in Tagalog. In fact it is a word that came to the occidental culture through Filipinas in the spanish period, but its origin is chinese.

Tagalog has contributed several words to Philippine Spanish, like barangay (from balan͠gay, meaning barrio), the abacá, cogon, palay, dalaga etc.

Tagalog words of foreign origin chart

For the Min Nan Chinese borrowings, the parentheses indicate the equivalent in standard Chinese.

Tagalog meaning language of origin original spelling
kumusta how are you? (general greeting) Spanish cómo está
kabayo horse Spanish caballo
silya chair Spanish silla
kotse car Spanish coche
relo wristwatch Spanish reloj
litrato picture Spanish retrato
tsismis (chis-mis) gossip Spanish chismes
Ingles English Spanish inglés
tsinelas/sinelas slippers Spanish chinelas
karne meat Spanish carne
sapatos shoes Spanish zapatos
arina/harina flour Spanish harina
bisikleta bicycle Spanish bicicleta
baryo village Spanish barrio
swerte luck Spanish suerte
piyesta/pista feast Spanish fiesta
garahe garage Spanish garaje
ahente agent/salesman Spanish agente
ensaymada a kind of pastry Mallorqui, a dialect of Catalan ensaïmada
kamote sweet potato Nahuatl camotli
sayote (sa-yo-te) chayote, choko Nahuatl chayotli
sili chili pepper Nahuatl chilli
tsokolate (cho-co-la-te) chocolate Nahuatl chocolatl
tiangge market Nahuatl tianquiztli
sapote/tsiko chico (fruit) Nahuatl tzapotl
nars nurse English nurse
bolpen ballpoint pen English ballpen
bwisit annoyance, expletive English bullshit
pulis police English police
suspek suspect English suspect
traysikel tricycle English tricycle
lumpia (/lum·pya/) spring roll Min Nan Chinese 潤餅 (春捲)
siopao (/syo·paw/) steamed buns Min Nan Chinese 燒包 (肉包)
pansit (/pan·set/) noodles Min Nan Chinese 扁食 (麵)
susi (su-se) key Min Nan Chinese 鎖匙
kuya (see Philippine kinship) older brother Min Nan Chinese 哥亞 (哥仔)
ate (/ah·te/) (see Philippine kinship) older sister Min Nan Chinese 亞姐 (阿姐)
bakya wooden shoes Min Nan Chinese 木履
hikaw earrings Min Nan Chinese 耳鈎 (耳環)
kanan right Malay kanan
tulong help Malay tolong
sakit sick, pain Malay sakit
pulo island Malay pulau
anak child,son&daughter Malay anak
pinto door Malay pintu
tanghali afternoon Malay tengah hari
dalamhati grief Malay dalam + hati
luwalhati glory Malay luar + hati
duryan durian Malay durian
rambutan rambutan Malay rambutan
batik spot Malay batik
sarap delicious Malay sedap
asa hope Sanskrit आशा
salita speak Sanskrit चरितँ (cerita)
balita news Sanskrit वार्ता (berita)
karma karma Sanskrit कर्म
alak liquor Persian عرق (arak)
mangga mango Tamil மாங்காய்(mángáy)
bagay thing Tamil வகை(vagai)
hukom judge Arabic حكم
salamat thanks Arabic سلامة
bakit why Kapampangan obakit
akyat climb/step up Kapampangan ukyát/mukyat
at and Kapampangan at
bundok mountain Kapampangan bunduk
huwag don't pangasinan ag
aso dog South Cordilleran or Ilocano aso
tayo we (inc.) South Cordilleran or Ilocano tayo
ito,nito it. South Cordilleran or Ilocano to

Austronesian comparison chart

Below is a chart of Tagalog and twenty other Austronesian languages comparing thirteen words; the first thirteen languages are spoken in the Philippines and the other seven are spoken in Indonesia, East Timor, New Zealand, Hawaii, and Madagascar.

English one two three four person house dog coconut day new we what fire
Tagalog isá dalawá tatló apat tao bahay aso niyog araw bago tayo anó apóy
Bikol saro duwa tulo apat tawo harong ayam niyog aldaw ba-go kita ano kalayo
Cebuano usa duha tulo upat tawo balay iro lubi adlaw bag-o kita unsa kalayo
Waray usa duha tulo upat tawo balay ayam lubi adlaw bag-o kita ano kalayo
Tausug hambuuk duwa tu upat tau bay iru' niyug adlaw ba-gu kitaniyu unu kayu
Kinaray-a sara darwa tatlo apat taho balay ayam niyog adlaw bag-o kita, taten ano kalayo
Maranao isa dowa t'lo phat taw walay aso neyog gawi'e bago tano tonaa apoy
Kapampangan metung adwa atlu apat tau bale asu ngungut aldo bayu ikatamu nanu api
Pangasinan sakey dua, duara talo, talora apat, apatira too abong aso niyog ageo balo sikatayo anto pool
Ilokano maysa dua tallo uppat tao balay aso niog aldaw baro datayo ania apoy
Ivatan asa dadowa tatdo apat tao vahay chito niyoy araw va-yo yaten ango apoy
Ibanag tadday dua tallu appa' tolay balay kitu niuk aggaw bagu sittam anni afi
Gaddang antet addwa tallo appat tolay balay atu ayog aw bawu ikkanetam sanenay afuy
Tboli sotu lewu tlu fat tau gunu ohu lefo kdaw lomi tekuy tedu ofih
Indonesian satu dua tiga empat orang rumah/balai anjing kelapa/nyiur hari baru kita apa/anu api
Buginese sedi dua tellu eppa tau bola asu kaluku esso baru idi aga api
Bataknese sada dua tolu opat halak jabu biang harambiri ari baru hita aha api
Tetum ida rua tolu haat ema uma asu nuu loron foun ita saida ahi
Maori tahi rua toru wha tangata whare kuri kokonati ra hou taua aha ahi
Hawaiian kahi lua kolu kanaka hale 'īlio niu ao hou kākou aha ahi
Malagasy isa roa telo efatra olona trano alika voanio andro vaovao isika inona afo

Religious literature

Religious Literature remains to be one of the most dynamic contributors to Tagalog literature. In 1970, the Philippine Bible Society translated the Bible into Tagalog, the first full translation to any of the Philippine languages. Even before the Second Vatican Council, devotional materials in Tagalog had been circulating. At present, there are three circulating Tagalog translations of the Holy Bible—the Magandang Balita Biblia (a parallel translation of the Good News Bible), which is the ecumenical version; the Ang Biblia, which is a more Protestant version published in 1909; and the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin ng Banal na Kasulatan, one of about sixty parallel translations of the New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures published by Jehovah's Witnesses. The latter was released in the year 2000. Jehovah's Witnesses previously published a hybrid translation: Ang Biblia was used for the Old Testament, while the Bagong Sanlibutang Salin was used for the New Testament.

When the Second Vatican Council, (specifically the Sacrosanctum Concilium) permitted the universal prayers to be translated into vernacular languages, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines was one of the first to translate the Roman Missal into Tagalog. In fact, the Roman Missal in Tagalog was published as early as 1982, while not published in English until 1985.

Jehovah's Witnesses were printing Tagalog literature at least as early as 1941[26] and The Watchtower (the primary magazine of Jehovah's Witnesses) has been published in Tagalog since at least the 1960s. New releases are now regularly released simultaneously in a number of languages, including Tagalog. The official website of Jehovah's Witnesses also has some publications available online in Tagalog. [1]

Tagalog is quite a stable language, and very few revisions have been made to Catholic Bible translations. Also, as Protestantism in the Philippines is relatively young, liturgical prayers tend to be more ecumenical.

Examples

The Lord's Prayer (Ama Namin)

Ama namin, sumasalangit Ka,
Sambahin ang ngalan Mo.
Mapasaamin ang kaharian Mo.
Sundin ang loob Mo
Dito sa lupà, para nang sa langit.
Bigyan Mo kami ngayón ng aming kakanin sa araw-araw.
At patawarin Mo kami sa aming mga sala,
Para nang pagpapatawad namin
Sa mga nagkakasala sa amin.
At huwag Mo kaming ipahintulot sa tukso,
At iadya Mo kami sa lahát ng masamâ.
Sapagkat Iyo ang kaharián, at kapangyarihan,
At ang kadakilaan, magpakailanman.
Amen.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Isinilang na malaya at pantáy-pantáy sa karangalan at mga karapatán ang lahát ng tao. Pinagkalooban silá ng katwiran at budhi at dapat magpalagayan ang isá't isá sa diwa ng pagkakapatiran.

(Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood.)

Numbers

  Cardinal Tagalog into spanish Ordinal
1 isá uno una
2 dalawá dos pangalawá / ikalawa
3 tatló tres pangatló / ikatlo
4 apat cuatro pang-apat / ika-apat
5 limá cinco panlimá / ikalima
6 anim seis pang-anim / ika-anim
7 pitó siete pampitó / ikapito
8 waló ocho pangwaló / ikawalo
9 siyám nueve pansiyám / ikasiyam
10 sampû dies pansampû / ikasampu
11 labíng-isá once panlabíng-isá / pang-onse / ikalabing-isa
12 labing-dalawá dose panlabing-dalawá / pandose / ikalabindalawa
13 labing-tatlo trese panlabing-tatlo
14 labing-apat katorse panlabing-apat
15 labing-lima kinse panlabing-lima
16 labing-anim dise-sais panlabing-anim
17 labing-pito dise-syete panlabing-pito
18 labing-walo dise-otso panlabing-walo
19 labing-siyam dise-nwebe panlabing-siyam
20 dalawampu bente pandalawampu / ikadalawampu
30 tatlompu trenta pantatlompu / ikatatlompu
40 apatnapu kwenta pang-apatnapu / ika-apatnapu
50 limampu singkwenta panlimampu / ikalimampu
60 animnapu sesenta pang-animnapu / ika-animnapu
70 pitompu setenta pampitompu / ikapitompu
80 walompu otsenta pangwalompu / ikawalompu
90 siyamnapu nobenta pansiyamnapu / ikasiyamnapu
100 (i)sán(g)daán syento pan(g)-(i)sán(g)daán / ika-(i)san(g)-daan
200 dalawádaán dos syentos pandalawadaan / ikadalawadaan
300 tatlodaán tres syentos pantatlodaan / ikatatlodaan
400 apat na daán kwatro syentos pang-apat na daán / ika-apat na daán
500 limadaán singko syentos panlimadaan / ikalimadaan
600 anim na daán sais syentos pang-anim na daán / ika-anim na daán
700 pitodaán syete syentos pampitodaan / ikapitodaan
800 walodaán otso syentos pangwalodaan / ikawalodaan
900 siyam na daán nwebe syentos pansiyam na daan / ikasiyam na daan
1,000 (i)sán(g)libo mil  
2,000 dalawálibo dos mil  
10,000 (i)san(g)laksa / sampung libo dyes mil  
100,000 (i)sangyuta / (i)sán(g)daáng libo syento mil  
1,000,000 isáng milyón milyon  
2,000,000 dalawáng milyón dos milyon  
10,000,000 sampung milyón dyes milyon  
100,000,000 (i)sán(g)daáng milyon syento milyon  
1,000,000,000 isáng bilyón bilyon  
1,000,000,000,000 isáng kuwantilyón  

Common phrases

Pilipino [ˌpiːliˈpiːno]
  • English: Ingglés [ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs]
  • Tagalog: Tagalog [tɐˈɡaːloɡ]
  • What is your name?: Anó ang pangalan ninyo? (plural) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan nɪnˈjo], Anó ang pangalan mo?(singular) [ɐˈno aŋ pɐˈŋaːlan mo]
  • How are you?: kumustá [kʊmʊsˈta]
  • Good morning!: Magandáng umaga! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ uˈmaːɡa]
  • Good noontime! (from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m.): Magandáng tanghali! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ taŋˈhaːlɛ]
  • Good afternoon! (from 1 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.): Magandáng hapon! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ˈhaːpon]
  • Good evening!: Magandáng gabí! [mɐɡɐnˈdaŋ ɡɐˈbɛ]
  • Good-bye: paálam [pɐˈʔaːlam] (literal - "with your blessing")
  • Please: Depending on the nature of the verb, either pakí- [pɐˈki] or makí- [mɐˈki] is attached as a prefix to a verb. ngâ [ŋaʔ] is optionally added after the verb to increase politeness.
  • Thank you: salamat [sɐˈlaːmat]
  • That one: iyan [ʔiˈjan]
  • How much?: magkano? [mɐɡˈkaːno]
  • Yes: oo [ˈoːʔo]
  • No: hindî [hɪnˈdɛʔ]
  • Sorry: pasensya pô (literally - "patience") or paumanhin po [pɐˈsɛːnʃa poʔ] patawad po [pɐtaːwad poʔ] (literally - "forgiveness")
  • Because: kasí [kɐˈsɛ]
  • Hurry!: Dalí! [dɐˈli], Bilís! [bɪˈlis]
  • Again: mulí [muˈli] , ulít [ʊˈlɛt]
  • I don't understand: Hindî ko maintindihan [hɪnˈdiː ko mɐʔɪnˌtɪndiˈhan]
  • Where's the bathroom?: Nasaán ang banyo? [ˌnaːsɐˈʔan ʔaŋ ˈbaːnjo]
  • Generic toast: Mabuhay! [mɐˈbuːhaɪ] [literally - "long live"]
  • Do you speak English? Marunong ka bang magsalitâ ng Ingglés? [mɐˈɾuːnoŋ ka baŋ mɐɡsaliˈtaː naŋ ʔɪŋˈɡlɛs]
  • It is fun to live. Masaya ang mabuhay! [mɐˈsaˈja ʔaŋ mɐˈbuːhaɪ]
  • Mag-asawa sina Renz at Lalaine. "Renz and Lalaine are married."
  • Tao ba si Richard Relloso? "Is Richard Relloso human?"
  • Si Clarisse ay mahilig kumain. "Clarisse loves to eat."

Proverbs

Ang hindî marunong lumingón sa pinanggalingan ay hindî makaráratíng sa paroroonan. (José Rizal)
He that does not look back to where he came from will never make it to his destination.

Ang hindî magmahál sa kanyang sariling wika ay mahigít pa sa hayop at malansang isdâ. (José Rizal)
One who does not love his own language is worse than an animal and a putrid fish.

Hulí man daw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin. (Hulí man raw at magalíng, nakákahábol pa rin.)
It was said that even if he is late and excellent, he still catches up.

Magbirô ka na sa lasíng, huwág lang sa bagong gising.
Make fun of someone drunk, if you must, but never make fun of someone who just got up.

Ang sakít ng kalingkingan, ramdám ng buong katawán.
The pain of a pinkie is felt by the whole body.

Nasa hulí ang pagsisisi.
Regret always comes last.

Pagkáhába-haba man ng prusisyón, sa simbahan pa rin ang tulóy.
Even the procession is long, its ending is the church.

Kung dî mádaán sa santong dasalan, daanin sa santong paspasan.
If it cannot be done through holy prayer, do it through holy speeding.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000
  2. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=PH.
  3. ^ According to the OED and Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  4. ^ Andrew Gonzalez, FSC. "Language planning in multilingual countries: The case of the Philippines". http://www.sil.org/asia/ldc/plenary_papers/andrew_gonzales.pdf#search=%27andrew%20gonzalez%20fsc%27. Retrieved 2007-07-15. 
  5. ^ a b c d 1987 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Sections 6-9, Chanrobles Law Library, http://www.chanrobles.com/article14language.htm, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  6. ^ Zorc, David. 1977. The Bisayan Dialects of the Philippines: Subgrouping and Reconstruction. Pacific Linguistics C.44. Canberra: The Australian National University
  7. ^ Blust, Robert. 1991. The Greater Central Philippines hypothesis. Oceanic Linguistics 30:73–129
  8. ^ Mga Probisyong Pangwika sa Saligang-Batas
  9. ^ a b c d e Andrew Gonzalez (1998). "The Language Planning Situation in the Philippines" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 19 (5, 6): 487–488. doi:10.1080/01434639808666365. http://www.multilingual-matters.net/jmmd/019/0487/jmmd0190487.pdf. Retrieved 2007-03-24. 
  10. ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Educational Characteristics of the Filipinos, National Statistics Office, March 18, 2005, http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/sr05153tx.html, retrieved 2008-01-21 
  11. ^ Results from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing: Population expected to reach 100 million Filipinos in 14 years, National Statistics Office, October 16, 2002, http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2002/pr02178tx.html, retrieved 2008-01-21 
  12. ^ "Census:Languages of the United States" (PDF). United States. http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-29.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-16.  (figure 3, page 2)
  13. ^ 1897 Constitution of Biak-na-Bato, Article VIII, Filipiniana.net, http://www.filipiniana.net/ArtifactView.do?artifactID=L00000000001&page=1&epage=1, retrieved 2008-01-16 
  14. ^ 1935 Philippine Constitution, Article XIV, Section 3, Chanrobles Law Library, http://www.chanrobles.com/1935constitutionofthephilippines.htm, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  15. ^ a b Manuel L. Quezon III, Quezon’s speech proclaiming Tagalog the basis of the National Language, quezon.ph, http://www.quezon.ph/?page_id=1024, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  16. ^ 1973 Philippine Constitution, Article XV, Sections 2-3, Chanrobles Law Library, http://www.chanrobles.com/1973constitutionofthephilippines.htm, retrieved 2007-12-20 
  17. ^ EAC Issues Glossaries of Election Terms in Five Asian Languages Translations to Make Voting More Accessible to a Majority of Asian American Citizens. Election Assistance Commission. 06/20/2008.
  18. ^ a b Omniglot.com Tagalog Retrieved September 30, 2009.
  19. ^ a b Tagalog: Understanding the Language, lerc.educ.ubc.ca, http://www.lerc.educ.ubc.ca/LERC/courses/489/worldlang/tagalog_ind/Tagalog2/description.htm, retrieved 2008-09-26 
  20. ^ Linda Trinh Võ; Rick Bonus (2002), Contemporary Asian American communities: intersections and divergences, Temple University Press, pp. 96, 100, ISBN 9781566399388, http://books.google.com/books?id=7xp4qZta2GYC 
  21. ^ University of the Philippines College of Education (1971), "Philippine Journal of Education", Philippine Journal of Education 50: 556, http://books.google.com/books?id=k6oqAAAAMAAJ 
  22. ^ Perfecto T. Martin (1986), Diksiyunaryong adarna: mga salita at larawan para sa bata, Children's Communication Center, ISBN 9789711211189, http://books.google.com/books?id=Bv5HAAAAMAAJ .
  23. ^ Op. cit. Trinh 2002, pp. 96, 100
  24. ^ Renato Perdon; Periplus Editions (2005), Renato Perdon, ed., Pocket Tagalog Dictionary: Tagalog-English/English-Tagalog, Tuttle Publishing, pp. vi-vii, ISBN 9780794603458, http://books.google.com/books?id=4X1Musto3h0C .
  25. ^ Michael G. Clyne (1997), Undoing and redoing corpus planning, Walter de Gruyter, p. 317, ISBN 9783110155099, http://books.google.com/books?id=tM3PrFFSiVgC .
  26. ^ 2003 Yearbook of Jehovah's Witnesses p.155.

External links

Tagalog language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simple English

Tagalog[1] is one of the main languages spoken in the Philippines. More than twenty-two million people speak it as their first language. It originally was spoken by the Tagalog people of the Philippines, located mainly in Bulacan, Cavite, and some other parts of the Luzon Island , but is now spoken nationwide, like English. It is a mix of Spanish, Malay, and English. It originally was used with an abugida, the Baybayin script, but now the Latin alphabet is used to write the words.

Some Helpful Phrases

  • Kumusta: How are you?
  • Pagkain: food
  • Inumin: a drink/beverage
  • Tubig: water
  • Salamat: Thank you
  • Oo: Yes
  • Hindi: No
  • Opo: Yes sir/ma'am
  • Hindi po: No sir/ma'am
  • at: and
  • ng (pronounced "nang"): of/ of the
  • mga (pronounced "manga"): indicates plural form (like English s, only a single word)
  • Sila: they
  • Sino: who
  • Nasaan: where
  • Doon: there
  • Banyo: Bathroom
  • Wala: none
  • May ______ ba kayo?: Do you have ______?(formal)
  • Mayroon po: Response to "May ______ ba kayo", meaning "Yes, sir".
  • Wala po: Opposite of "Mayroon po".
  • Kayo: you (formal), informally, it refers to "you all".
  • Magkano ito?: How much is this?
  • po: ma'am or sir (used in sentences to be polite to an elder speaker)
  • Mabuhay!: Long Live
  • Sino Ka?: Who are you?
  • Ako po si (Pangalan)...: I am (Name)...

References

  1. English, Leo James (1990). "Tagalog, Pilipino". Tagalog-English Dictionary.  
This language has its own Wikipedia Project.



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