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Republic of Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон
Jumhurii Tojikiston
Flag Coat of Arms
AnthemSurudi Milli
Capital
(and largest city)
Dushanbe
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.55°N 68.8°E / 38.55; 68.8
Official language(s) Tajik[1][2]
Language for inter-ethnic
communication
Russian[3]
Demonym Tajikistani[4]
Government Unitary presidential republic
 -  President Emomalii Rahmon
 -  Prime Minister Oqil Oqilov
Independence
 -  Establishment of the Samanid Empire 875 AD 
 -  Declared September 9, 1991 
 -  Completed December 25, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 143,100 km2 (102nd)
55,251 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 1.8
Population
 -  2009 estimate 7,349,145[4] (97th)
 -  2000 census 6,127,000 
 -  Density 48.6/km2 (155th)
125.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $13.062 billion[5] (133rd)
 -  Per capita $2,022[5] (187)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $5.135 billion[5] 
 -  Per capita $795[5] 
Gini (2004) 33.59 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.688[6] (medium) (127th)
Currency Somoni (TJS)
Time zone TJT (UTC+5)
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .tj
Calling code 992
1 Estimate from State Statistical Committee of Tajikistan, 2008; rank based on UN figures for 2005.

Tajikistan (pronounced /təˈdʒɪkɨstæn/ or /təˈdʒiːkɨstæn/; Тоҷикистон IPA: [tɔd​͡ʒikɪsˈtɔn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhurii Tojikiston), is a mountainous landlocked country in Central Asia. Afghanistan borders it to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and People's Republic of China to the east. Tajikistan also lies adjacent to Pakistan but is separated by the narrow Wakhan Corridor.

Most of Tajikistan's population belongs to the Persian-speaking Tajik ethnic group, who share language, culture and history with Afghanistan and Iran. Once part of the Samanid Empire, Tajikistan became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in the 20th century, known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR). Mountains cover over 90% of this Central Asian republic.

After independence, Tajikistan suffered from a devastating civil war which lasted from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Trade in commodities such as cotton and aluminium wire has contributed greatly to this steady improvement.

Contents

Etymology

Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". Some believe the name Tajik is a geographic reference to the crown (Taj) of the Pamir Knot, but this is a folk etymology. The word Tajik was used to differentiate Persians from Turks in Central Asia, starting as early as the 10th century. The addition of 'k' might have been for the purpose of euphony in the set phrase Turk-o Tajik ("Turks and Tajiks") which in Persian-language histories is found as an idiomatic expression meaning "everyone."

Tajikistan frequently appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English, transliterated from the Russian Таджикистан (in Russian the phoneme /d​͡ʒ/ is represented as дж, i.e., dzh or dj.) Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources. Tadjikistan is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts.

Controversy surrounds the correct term used to identify people from Tajikistan. The word Tajik has been the traditional term used to describe people from Tajikistan and appears widely in literature. But the ethnic politics of Central Asia have made the word Tajik a controversial word, as it implies that Tajikistan is only a nation for ethnic Tajiks and not ethnic Uzbeks, Russians, etc.

Likewise, ethnic Tajiks live in other countries, such as China, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, United States of America, Russia making the term ambiguous.

History

Early history

Modern Tajiks regard the Samanid Empire as the first Tajik state. This monument in Dushanbe honors Ismail Samani, ancestor of the Samanids and a source of Tajik nationalism.

The territory of what is now Tajikistan has been inhabited continuously since 4000 BCE.[citation needed] It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, for the longest period being part of the Persian Empire.

Most of modern Tajikistan had formed parts of ancient Kamboja and Parama Kamboja kingdoms, which find references in the ancient Indian epics like the Mahabharata. Linguistic evidence, combined with ancient literary and inscriptional evidence has led many eminent Indologists to conclude that ancient Kambojas originally belonged to the Ghalcha-speaking area of Central Asia.

Acharya Yasaka's Nirukta[7] (7th century BCE) attests that verb Śavati in the sense "to go" was used by only the Kambojas. It has been shown that the modern Ghalcha dialects, Valkhi, Shigali, Sriqoli, Jebaka (also called Sanglichi or Ishkashim), Munjani, Yidga and Yaghnobi, mainly spoken in Pamirs and countries on the headwaters of the Oxus, still use terms derived from ancient Kamboja Śavati in the sense "to go".[8] The Yaghnobi language, spoken by the Yaghnobis in the Sughd Province around the headwaters of Zeravshan valley, also still contains a relic "Śu" from ancient Kamboja Śavati in the sense "to go".[9]

Further, Sir G Grierson says that the speech of Badakshan was a Ghalcha until about three centuries ago when it was supplanted by a form of Persian.[10] Thus, the ancient Kamboja, probably included the Badakshan, Pamirs and northern territories including the Yaghnobi region in the doab of the Oxus and Jaxartes.[11] On the east it was bounded roughly by Yarkand and/or Kashgar, on the west by Bahlika (Uttaramadra), on the northwest by Sogdiana, on the north by Uttarakuru, on the southeast by Darada, and on the south by Gandhara.

Numerous Indologists locate original Kamboja in Pamirs and Badakshan and the Parama Kamboja further north, in the Trans-Pamirian territories comprising Zeravshan valley, north up parts of Sogdhiana/Fargana — in the Sakadvipa or Scythia of the classical writers.[12]

Thus, in the pre-Buddhist times (7th–6th century BCE), the parts of modern Tajikistan including territories as far as Zeravshan valley in Sogdiana formed parts of ancient Kamboja and the Parama Kamboja kingdoms when it was ruled by the Indian Kambojas till it became part of Persian Achaemenid Empire. After the Persian Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great, the region became the northern part of Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.

Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan

From the last quarter of fourth century BCE until the first quarter of the second century BCE, it was part of the Bactrian Empire, from whom it was passed on to Scythian Tukharas and hence became part of Tukharistan. Contact with the Chinese Han Dynasty was made in the second century BCE, when envoys were sent to the area of Bactria to explore regions west of China.

Arabs brought Islam in the 7th century CE[citation needed]. The Samanid Empire supplanted the Arabs and enlarged the cities of Samarkand and Bukhara, which became the cultural centers of Tajiks (both of which are now in Uzbekistan). The Mongols would later take partial control of Central Asia, and later the land that today comprises Tajikistan became a part of the Emirate of Bukhara. A small community of Jews, displaced from the Middle East after the Babylonian captivity, migrated to the region and settled there after 600 BCE, though the majority of the recent Jewish population did not migrate to Tajikistan until the 20th century.

Russian presence

In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to spread into Central Asia during the Great Game. Between 1864 and 1885 it gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan from today's border with Kazakhstan in the north to the Caspian Sea in the west and the border with Afghanistan in the south. Tajikistan was eventually carved out of this territory, which historically had a large Tajik population.

After the overthrow of Imperial Russia in 1917, guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachi, waged a war against Bolshevik armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularization, practicing Muslims, Jews, and Christians were persecuted,[citation needed] and mosques, churches, and synagogues were closed.

Soviet Tajikistan

In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was created as a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic. The predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of Samarkand and Bukhara remained in the Uzbek SSR. Between 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians among Tajikistan's population grew from less than 1% to 13%.[13]

In terms of living conditions, education and industry Tajikistan was behind the other Soviet Republics. In the 1980s, it had the lowest household saving rate in the USSR,[14] the lowest percentage of households in the two top per capita income groups,[15] and the lowest rate of university graduates per 1000 people.[16]

By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990.[citation needed] The following year, the Soviet Union collapsed, and Tajikistan declared its independence.

The first nation to establish an embassy in Dushanbe was Iran, which was also one of the first countries to immediately recognize Tajikistan as an independent state in 1991.

Post-independence

A fighter in Tajikistan during the civil war.

The nation almost immediately fell into a civil war that involved various factions fighting one another; these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties. The non-Muslim population, particularly Russians and Jews, fled the country during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics.

Emomalii Rahmon came to power in 1994, and continues to rule to this day. Ethnic cleansing was controversial during the civil war in Tajikistan. By the end of the war Tajikistan was in a state of complete devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country.[17] In 1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmon and opposition parties (United Tajik Opposition).

Peaceful elections were held in 1999, but they were reported by the opposition as unfair, and Rahmon was re-elected by almost unanimous vote. Russian troops were stationed in southern Tajikistan, in order to guard the border with Afghanistan, until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, American, Indian and French troops have also been stationed in the country.

In 2008, the harshest winter in a quarter century caused financial losses of $850 million. Russia pledged $1 billion in aid.[18] Saudi Arabia sent about 10 planes carrying 80 tons of relief and emergency supplies in February and another 11 tons in March.[19]

Politics

President of Tajikistan, Emomali Rahmon

Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan was plunged into a civil war that saw various factions, allegedly backed by Russia and Iran, fighting one another. All but 25,000 of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly employed in industry, fled to Russia. By 1997, the war had cooled down, and a central government began to take form, with peaceful elections in 1999.

"Longtime observers of Tajikistan often characterize the country as profoundly averse to risk and skeptical of promises of reform, a political passivity they trace to the country’s ruinous civil war," Ilan Greenberg wrote in a news article in The New York Times just before the country's November 2006 presidential election.[20]

Tajikistan is officially a republic, and holds elections for the President and Parliament. It is, however, a one party dominant system, where the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan routinely has a vast majority in Parliament. The parliamentary elections in 2005 aroused many accusations from opposition parties and international observers that President Emomali Rahmon corruptly manipulates the election process. The most recent elections, in February 2010, saw the ruling PDPT lose 4 seats in Parliament, yet still maintain a comfortable majority. OSCE election observers said the 2010 polling "failed to meet many key OSCE commitments" and that "these elections failed on many basic democratic standards."[21][22] The government insisted that only minor violations had occurred, which would not affect the will of the Tajik people.[21][22]

The presidential election held on November 6, 2006 was boycotted by "mainline" opposition parties, including the 23,000-member Islamist Islamic Renaissance Party. Four remaining opponents "all but endorsed the incumbent", Rahmon.[20]

Tajikistan has given Iran its support in Iran's membership bid to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, after a meeting between the Tajik President and the Iranian foreign minister.[23]

Administrative divisions

Tajikistan consists of 4 administrative divisions. These are the provinces (viloyat) of Sughd and Khatlon, the autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan (abbreviated as GBAO), and the Region of Republican Subordination (RRP – Raiony Respublikanskogo Podchineniya in transliteration from Russian or NTJ – Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ in Tajik; formerly known as Karotegin Province). Each region is divided into several districts (Tajik: Ноҳия, nohiya or raion), which in turn are subdivided into jamoats (village-level self-governing units) and then villages (qyshloqs). As of 2006, there were 58 districts and 367 jamoats in Tajikistan.[24]

Division ISO 3166-2 Capital Area (km²) Pop (2008)
Sughd TJ-SU Khujand 25,400 2,132,100
Region of Republican Subordination TJ-RR Dushanbe 28,600 1,606,900
Khatlon TJ-KT Qurghonteppa  24,800 2,579,300
Gorno-Badakhshan TJ-BG Khorugh 64,200 218,000

Source: Population and area from State Statistical Committee of Tajikistan.[24]

Geography

Satellite photograph of Tajikistan
Overview Map of Tajikistan
Mountains of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 meters (approx. 10,000 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north (part of the Fergana Valley), and in the southern Kofarnihon and Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya. Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon valley.

Mountain Height Location
Ismoil Somoni Peak (highest) 7,495 m 24,590 ft     North-western edge of Gorno-Badakhshan (GBAO), south of the Kyrgyz border
Ibn Sina Peak (Lenin Peak) 7,174 m 23,537 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range, north-east of Ismoil Somoni Peak
Peak Korzhenevskaya 7,105 m 23,310 ft     North of Ismoil Somoni Peak, on the south bank of Muksu River
Independence Peak (Revolution Peak) 6,974 m 22,881 ft     Central Gorno-Badakhshan, south-east of Ismoil Somoni Peak
Akademiya Nauk Range 6,785 m 22,260 ft     North-western Gorno-Badakhshan, stretches in the north-south direction
Karl Marx Peak 6,726 m 22,067 ft     GBAO, near the border to Afghanistan in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range
Mayakovskiy Peak 6,096 m 20,000 ft     Extreme south-west of GBAO, near the border to Afghanistan.
Concord Peak 5,469 m 17,943 ft     Southern border in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range
Kyzylart Pass 4,280 m 14,042 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range

The Amu Darya and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea. There are over 900 rivers in Tajikistan longer than 10 kilometers.

About 2% of the country's area is covered by lakes, the best known of which are the following:

Lesser known lakes (all in the Pamir region) include

  • Bulunkul
  • Drumkul
  • Rangkul
  • Sasykkul
  • Shorkul
  • Turumtaikul
  • Tuzkul
  • Yashilkul

Economy

A young man selling dried fruit at a local market

Following the Civil War of 1992 - 1997, Tajikistan was the poorest country in Central Asia as well in the former Soviet Union. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon exports of cotton and aluminum, the economy is highly vulnerable to external shocks. In FY 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, thus helping keep the peace. International assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production.

On August 21, 2001, the Red Cross announced that a famine was striking Tajikistan, and called for international aid for Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The GDP of Tajikistan expanded at an average rate of 9.6 % over the period of 2000–2004 according to the World Bank data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan), which seem to have degraded economically ever since.[25] Tajikistan is an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO).

The recently completed Anzab tunnel which connects the previously hard to access Northern part of the country to the capital Dushanbe has been labeled as part of the new Silk Road. It is part of a road under construction that will connect Tajikistan to Iran and the Persian Gulf through Afghanistan.

A new bridge between Afghanistan and Tajikistan has been built which will help the country have access to trade lines with South Asia. The bridge was built by the United States.[26]

The primary sources of income in Tajikistan are aluminium production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers.[27]

Aluminium industry is represented by the state-owned Talco - the biggest aluminium plant in Central Asia and one of the biggest in the world.[28]

Tajikistan has great hydropower potential, and has focused on attracting investment for projects for internal use and electricity exports. Tajikistan is home to the hydroelectric power station Nurek with the highest dam in the world.[29] The latest development is the Russia's RAO UES energy giant working on Sangtuda-1 hydroelectric power station (670 MW capacity) commenced operations on 18 January 2008.[30][31]

Other projects at the development stage include Sangduta-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by Chinese SinoHydro and Rogun power plant with a projected dam height of 335 metres (1,099 ft) to be built by Russia's UES.[32][33][34] Other energy resources include sizable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum.

Foreign remittance flows from Tajik migrant workers abroad, mainly in Russia, has become by far the main source of income for millions of Tajikistan's people and represents additional 36.2 % of country's GDP directly reaching the poverty-stricken population.[35] According to some estimates about 20% of the population lives on less than US$1.25 per day.[36] Migration from Tajikistan and the consequent remittances have been unprecedented in their magnitude and economic impact. Tajikistan has achieved transition from a planned to a market economy without substantial and protracted recourse to aid (of which it by now receives only negligible amounts), and by purely market-based means, simply by exporting its main commodity of comparative advantage — cheap labor.[37] The World Bank Tajikistan Policy Note 2006 concludes that remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's robust economic growth during the past several years, have increased incomes, and as a result helped significantly reduce poverty.[38]

Drug trafficking is the major illegal source of income in Tajikistan as it is an important transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; some opium poppy is also raised locally for the domestic market.[39] However with the increasing assistance from international organizations, such as UNODC, and cooperation with the US, Russian, EU and Afghan authorities a level of progress on fight against illegal drug-trafficking is being achieved.[40]

Tajikistan holds the third place in the world for heroin and raw opium confiscations (1216.3 kg of heroin and 267.8 kg of raw opium in the first half of 2006).[41][42] Drug money corrupts the country's government; according to some experts the well-known personalities that fought on both sides of the civil war and have held the positions in the government after the armistice was signed are now involved in the drug trade.[39] UNODC is working with Tajikistan to strengthen border crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams. It also helped to establish Tajikistani Drug Control Agency.[43]

Demographics

Elderly man from Tajikistan

Tajikistan has a population of 7,349,145 (July 2009 est.).[4] Tajiks who speak the Tajik language (a variety of Persian) are the main ethnic group, although there is a sizable minority of Uzbeks and a small population of Russians, whose numbers are declining due to emigration.[44] In 1989, ethnic Russians made up 7.6% of the population.[45] The Pamiris of Badakhshan are considered to belong to the larger group of Tajiks. All citizens of Tajikistan are called Tajikistanis[4]

The official and vernacular language of Tajikistan is Tajik. The constitution mentions Russian as the "language for interethnic communication"[46] even if its use is banned in government documents[2]. Nevertheless it is widely used in business and other fields. Despite its poverty, Tajikistan has a high rate of literacy with an estimated 99.5% of the population having the ability to read and write.[4] The majority of the population follow Sunni Islam. There is also a sizeable minority of Ismailis and following increased nationalism after the 1992–1997 Civil War, a growing interest in and conversions to Zoroastrianism.

Bukharian Jews had lived in Tajikistan since the 2nd century BC, but today almost none are left. There is also a small population of Yaghnobi people who have lived in the mountainous district of Sughd Viloyat for many centuries. The German population in Tajikistan was 38,853 in 1979.[47] Nearly one million Tajik men worked abroad in 2009.[48]

Health

The state's Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare reported that 104,272 disabled people are registered in Tajikistan (2000). This group of people suffers most from poverty in Tajikistan. The government of Tajikistan and the World Bank considered activities to support this part of the population described in the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.[49] Public expenditure on health was at 1 % of the GDP in 2004.[50] In the early 2000s, there were 203 physicians per 100,000 people.[50] Infant mortality was 59 for 1,000 live births in 2005.[50]

Culture

Tajik family celebrating Eid

Historically, Tajiks and Persians come from very similar stock, speaking variants of the same language and are related as part of the larger group of Iranian peoples. The Tajik language is the mother tongue of around 80% of the citizens of Tajikistan. The main urban centers in today's Tajikistan include Dushanbe (the capital), Khujand, Kulob, Panjakent and Istaravshan.

The Pamiri people of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province in the southeast, bordering Afghanistan and China, though considered part of the Tajik ethnicity, nevertheless are distinct linguistically and culturally from most Tajiks. In contrast to the mostly Sunni Muslim residents of the rest of Tajikistan, the Pamiris overwhelmingly follow the Ismaili sect of Islam, and speak a number of Eastern Iranian languages, including Shughni, Rushani, Khufi and Wakhi. Isolated in the highest parts of the Pamir Mountains, they have preserved many ancient cultural traditions and folk arts that have been largely lost elsewhere in the country.

The Yaghnobi people live in mountainous areas of northern Tajikistan. The estimated number of Yaghnobis is now about 25,000. Forced migrations in the 20th century decimated their numbers. They speak the Yaghnobi language, which is the only direct modern descendant of the ancient Sogdian language.

Tajikstan artisans created the Dushanbe Tea House, which was presented in 1988 as a gift to the sister city of Boulder, Colorado.[51]

Education

2002-2005 public spending on education was 3.5 % of the GDP.[50] According to a UNICEF-supported survey indicates that about 25 percent of girls in Tajikistan fail to complete compulsory primary education because of poverty and gender bias.[52] Literacy is general in Tajikistan.[50]

Schools and their systems

Schools in Tajikistan provide all students with a middle school education. It means that when students finish their school year, they will go to universities, colleges, institutes or other places in order to receive a higher education. There are three kinds of schools. They are: Lyceum, Gymnasium (school) and Middle schools. So all schools have the same same type of teaching. But there might be some differences. For example in the Middle schools they will teach as government says there are not so many things that students can do, like out of government says. Lyceum is a special type of school that provides students with outdoor activities and additional activities, but they also follow what government says. Gymnasium (school) is similar to Lyceum, but there you can see that students can study in any language they want ( they have Russian language, Tajik language. File:Students of Tajikistan

Religion

Tajikistan considers a secular state with a Constitution providing for freedom of religion. The Government has declared two Islamic holidays, Id Al-Fitr and Idi Qurbon, as state holidays. According to a 2009 U.S. State Department release, the population of Tajikistan is 98% Muslim, (approximately 95% Sunni and 3% Shia).[53] The remaining 2% of the population are Jews, Zoroastrians and ethnic Russian followers of Russian Orthodoxy. The great majority of Muslims fast during Ramadan, although only about one third in the countryside and 10% in the cities observe daily prayer and dietary restrictions.

Relationships between religious groups are generally amicable, although there is some concern among mainstream Muslim leaders that minority religious groups undermine national unity. There is a concern for religious institutions becoming active in the political sphere. The Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP), a major combatant in the 1992–1997 Civil War and then-proponent of the creation of an Islamic state in Tajikistan, constitutes no more than 30% of the government by statute. Membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir (Party of Emancipation), a party which today aims for a nonviolent overthrow of secular governments and the unification of Tajiks under one Islamic state, is illegal and members are subject to arrest and imprisonment. Numbers of large mosques appropriate for Friday prayers are limited and some feel this is discriminatory.

By law, religious communities must register by the State Committee on Religious Affairs (SCRA) and with local authorities. Registration with the SCRA requires a charter, a list of 10 or more members, and evidence of local government approval prayer site location. As noted above, religious groups who do not have a physical structure are not allowed to gather publicly for prayer. Failure to register can result in large fines and closure of place of worship. There are reports that registration on the local level is sometimes difficult to obtain.[54]

Sport

Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports, such as hill walking, mountain biking, and more challenging mountain climbing. Facilities are limited so tourists need to be largely self sufficient and plan carefully. Mountain climbing tours to the Fann Mountains and the Pamirs, including the 7,000 m peaks in the region, are seasonally organized by local and international alpine agencies.

Football is a popular sport. The Tajikistan national football team competes in the FIFA and AFC leagues. It also hosts many football clubs.

Government

Chiefs of State and Cabinet Members of Government

Pres. Emomali RAHMON

Prime Min. Oqil OQILOV

Dep. Prime Min. Murodali ALIMARDON

Dep. Prime Min. Asadullo GHULOMOV

Dep. Prime Min. Ruqiya QURBANOVA

Min. of Agriculture Qosim QOSIMOV

Min. of Culture Mirzoshohrukh ASRORI

Min. of Defense Sherali KHAYRULLOYEV, Col. Gen.

Min. of Economic Development & Trade Farrukh HAMRALIEV

Min. of Education Abdujabbor RAHMONOV

Min. of Energy & Industry Sherali GUL

Min. of Finance Safarali NAJMUDDINOV

Min. of Foreign Affairs Hamrokhon ZARIFI

Min. of Health Nusratullo SALIMOV

Min. of Internal Affairs Abdurahim QAHOROV

Min. of Justice Bakhtiyor KHUDOYOROV

Min. of Labor & Social Security Shukhurjon ZUHOROV

Min. of Land Improvement & Water Economy Saidi YOQUBZOD

Min. of Transport & Communications Olimjon BOBOEV

Chmn., State Committee on National Security Khayridin ABDURAHIMOV

Chmn., State Committee on State Property Davlatali SAIDOV

Chmn., State Committee on Statistics Mirgand SHABOZOV

Prosecutor Gen. Sherhon SALIMZODA

Dir., Drug Control Agency Rustam NAZAROV, Lt. Gen.

Chmn., National Bank Sharif RAHIMZODA

Ambassador to the US Abdujabbor SHIRINOV

Permanent Representative to the UN, New York Sirojidin ASLOV

Transport

See also

References and footnotes

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.

  1. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Tajikistan, November 6, 1994, Article 2.
  2. ^ a b According to the law signed on Oct. 6, 2009, government documents must be written only in Tajik (http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jLJnxvR7y69z29eejXVylsz4UvWA).
  3. ^ Despite legal dispositions imposing government documents to be written only in Tajik, the Constitution keeps mentionning Russian as the "language for interethnic communication" (http://www.tajik-gateway.org/index.phtml?lang=ru&id=874)
  4. ^ a b c d e The World Factbook, People of Tajikistan
  5. ^ a b c d "Tajikistan". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=923&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=78&pr.y=4. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  6. ^ "Human Development Report 2009: Tajikistan". The United Nations. http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/country_fact_sheets/cty_fs_TJK.html. Retrieved 2009-10-18. 
  7. ^ Nirukta II.2.
  8. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 456ff, 468, 473, 474, 476, 500, 511, 524 etc; Journal of Royal Asiatic Society of Asia, 1911, pp 801-802, Sir Griersen; India as Known to Panini, 1968, p 49, Dr V. S. Aggarwala; Geographical Data in the Early Puranas, A Critical Study, 1972, p 164, Dr M. R. Singh; Bharata Bhumi aur uske Nivasi, Samvat 1987, pp 297-305, Dr J. C. Vidyalankar; Geographical and Economical Studies in the Mahabharata, Upayana Parva, p 37, Dr Motichandra; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 127-28, 167, 218, Dr J. L. Kamboj; Sindhant Kaumudi Arthaprakashaka, 1966, pp 20-22, Acharya R. R. Pande.
  9. ^ Proceedings and Transactions of the ... All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118; Indian Culture, 1934, p 193, Indian Research Institute; Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, Dr G. A. Grierson; cf: History and Archeology of India's Contacts with Other Countries from the... , 1976, p 152, Dr Shashi P. Asthana - Social Science; Geographical and Economic Studies in the Mahābhārata: Upāyana Parva, 1945, p 39, Dr Moti Chandra - India; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, p 128, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan).
  10. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, X, p. 456, Sir G Grierson; Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, pp 107-108.
  11. ^ Dr J. C. Vidyalankara, Proceedings and Transactions of 6th A.I.O. Conference, 1930, p 118; cf: Linguistic Survey of India, Vol X, pp 455-56, Dr G. A. Grierson.
  12. ^ See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Proceedings and Transactions of the All-India Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankara; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī - Kamboja (Pakistan).
  13. ^ Tajikistan - Ethnic Groups, U.S. Library of Congress
  14. ^ Boris Rumer, Soviet Central Asia: A Tragic Experiment, Unwin Hyman, London, 1989, p. 126.
  15. ^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p. 115 (Russian).
  16. ^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p. 210 (Russian).
  17. ^ Tajikistan: rising from the ashes of civil war. United Nations
  18. ^ Tajikistan loses $850 million from cold winter. Trading Markets.com
  19. ^ Tenth Saudi relief plane leaves for Tajikistan. Saudi Embassy
  20. ^ a b Greenberg, Ilan, "Media Muzzled and Opponents Jailed, Tajikistan Readies for Vote," The New York Times, November 4, 2006 (article dateline November 3, 2006), page A7, New York edition
  21. ^ a b "Change you can't believe in". The Economist. 2010-03-04. http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displayStory.cfm?story_id=15612447&source=hptextfeature. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  22. ^ a b "Tajikistan elections criticised by poll watchdog". BBC. 2010-03-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/8543214.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  23. ^ "Press TV - Iran makes move to join SCO". Presstv.ir. 2008-03-24. http://www.presstv.ir/detail.aspx?id=48781&sectionid=351020101. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  24. ^ a b Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (Russian)
  25. ^ "BBC's Guide to Central Asia". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/guides/456900/456938/html/nn4page1.stm. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  26. ^ "US Army Corps of Engineer, Afghanistan-Tajikistan Bridge". US Army Corps of Engineer. http://www.aed.usace.army.mil/Snapshots.asp?PageNo=2. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  27. ^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". US Department of State, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs. December 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5775.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  28. ^ "Алюминий по-таджикски (Tajikistani Aluminium)" (in Russian). "Эксперт Казахстан" (Ekspert Kazakhstan) #23. 2004-12-06. http://www.expert.ru/printissues/kazakhstan/2004/23/23ka-kpov3/. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  29. ^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)". ICOLD World Register of Dams. 1998. http://npdp.stanford.edu/damhigh.html. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  30. ^ "Первая очередь Сангтудинской ГЭС в Таджикистане будет запущена 18 января (First stage of the Sangtuda HPS launched on 18 January)" (in Russian). Vesti. 2007-12-25. http://npdp.stanford.edu/damhigh.html. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  31. ^ "Sangtuda-1 HPS launched on January 18, 2008". Today Energy. 2008-01-05. http://www.energytoday.eu/articles/81528.php. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  32. ^ "Iran participates in power plant project in Tajikistan". IRNA. 2007-04-24. http://www2.irna.com/en/news/view/line-18/0704240278195019.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  33. ^ "Chinese To Build Tajik Hydroelectric Plant". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 2007-01-18. http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/01/c7eca5d9-67f9-4659-88f9-696875ac873e.html. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  34. ^ "РАО «ЕЭС России» построит «Рогунскую ГЭС» в Таджикистане (RAO UES to construct Rogun HPS in Tajikistan)" (in Russian). EnergyLand.info. 2007-09-14. http://www.energyland.info/news/world_news/2007/09/14/news_1264. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  35. ^ Dilip Ratha, Sanket Mohapatra, K. M. Vijayalakshmi, Zhimei Xu (2007-11-29). "Remittance Trends 2007. Migration and Development Brief 3" (PDF). World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTDECPROSPECTS/Resources/476882-1157133580628/BriefingNote3.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  36. ^ "UNDP: Human development indices - Table 3: Human and income poverty (Population living below national poverty line (2000-2007))" (PDF). http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDI_2008_EN_Tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  37. ^ Alexei Kireyev (January 2006). "The Macroeconomics of Remittances: The Case of Tajikistan. IMF Working Paper WP/06/2" (PDF). IMF. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2006/wp0602.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  38. ^ "Tajikistan Policy Note. Poverty Reduction and Enhancing the Development Impact of Remittances. Report No. 35771-TJ" (PDF). World Bank. June 2006. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2006/08/22/000160016_20060822094201/Rendered/PDF/357710TJ.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  39. ^ a b Silk Road Studies, Country Factsheets, Eurasian Narcotics: Tajikistan 2004
  40. ^ Roger McDermott (2006-01-10). "Dushanbe looks towards Afghanistan to combat drug trafficking". Eurasia Daily Monitor. http://www.jamestown.org/publications_details.php?volume_id=414&issue_id=3579&article_id=2370646. Retrieved 2008-03-08. 
  41. ^ CIA World Factbook. Tajikistan, transnational issues
  42. ^ Overview of the drug and crime situation in Central Asia. Factsand Figures, Coordination and Analysis Unit of the UNODC Regional Office for Central Asia
  43. ^ Fighting Drugs, Crime and Terrorism in the CIS Dushanbe, 4 October 2007
  44. ^ Russians left behind in Central Asia, Robert Greenall, BBC News, 23 November 2005.
  45. ^ Tajikistan - Ethnic Groups. Source: U.S. Library of Congress.
  46. ^ http://www.tajik-gateway.org/index.phtml?lang=ru&id=874
  47. ^ Russian-Germans in Tajikistan. Pohl, J. Otto. "Russian-Germans in Tajikistan." Neweurasia, 29 March 2007.
  48. ^ Deployment of Tajik workers gets green light. Arab News. May 21, 2007.
  49. ^ "Tajikistan - Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and joint assessment". World Bank. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/main?pagePK=64193027&piPK=64187937&theSitePK=523679&menuPK=64187510&searchMenuPK=64187283&siteName=WDS&entityID=000094946_02112004011765. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  50. ^ a b c d e http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/data_sheets/cty_ds_TJK.html
  51. ^ The Dushanbe-Boulder tea house. Retrieved on 2 May 2009
  52. ^ http://www.unicef.org/media/media_27308.html
  53. ^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5775.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  54. ^ TAJIKISTAN: Religious freedom survey, November 2003 -Forum 18 News Service, 20 November 2003

Further reading

  • Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzadeh
  • Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia by Monica Whitlock
  • Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation by Shirin Akiner
  • Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Frederic Grare
  • Tajikistan and the High Pamirs by Robert Middleton, Huw Thomas and Markus Hauser, Odyssey Books, Hongkong 2008 (ISBN 978-9-622177-73-4)

External links

Government

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : Central Asia : Tajikistan
noframe
Flag
Image:ti-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Dushanbe
Government Republic
Currency Somoni (TJS)
Area total: 143,100 km2
water: 400 km2
land: 142,700 km2
Population 7,211,884 (July 2008 est.)
Language Tajik Persian (official). Tajik-Persian is the main official language. Russian is also can be useful in most cities. Tajik is useful for markets and cabdrivers -- even a few words will be appreciated.
Religion Sunni Muslim 85%, Shi'a Muslim 5%.
Electricity 220 V, 50 Hz
Calling Code +992
Internet TLD .tj
Time Zone UTC +5

Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia that borders Afghanistan to the south, China to the east, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and Uzbekistan to the west and northwest. The ancient Silk Road passed through it. The nation is unique in that the majority culture is non-Turkic, unlike its neighbors to the north and west and east.

  • Pamir mountains, with passes between 3200 and 4500 meters, and Lake Karakol.
  • Zeravshan valley including the Fan Mountains, one of Central Asia's prime trekking and climbing destinations.
Map of Tajikistan
Map of Tajikistan

Climate

Mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in the Pamir Mountains.

Terrain

The Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate Tajikistan's landscape. The western Fergana Valley is in north, and the Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys are in the southwest.

The country's lowest point is at Syr Darya (300 m), and it's highest point is at Qullai Ismoili Somoni (7,495 m)

History

The region covering today's Tajikistan was part the of Persian empires for much of its history. This region has been an important place for flourishing Persian culture and language.

In recent history, Tajikistan has experienced three changes in government and a five-year civil war since it gained independence from the USSR in 1991. A peace agreement among rival factions was signed in 1997 and implemented in 2000. The central government's less than total control over some areas of the country has forced it to compromise and forge alliances among factions. Attention by the international community in the wake of the war in Afghanistan has brought increased economic development assistance, which could create jobs and increase stability in the long term. Tajikistan is in the early stages of seeking World Trade Organization membership and has joined NATO's Partnership for Peace.

Get in

Visas

Following the trends of other Central Asian countries, visas are increasingly easy to obtain, particularly for nationals of wealthy countries. This policy is designed to stimulate tourist activity in Tajikistan. The big change has been the abolition of OVIR registration for visits under 30 days, and the ease with which you can get a visa at Dushanbe airport. No Letter of Invitation is necessary. To save time you can complete and print a form before arrival [1]. Best to use the Tajik form, bring 2 passport photos, a handful of photocopies of your passport and $50. Takes 10 minutes. If crossing a land border then get a visa prior to arrival. The embassies in Vienna and London are the more professional. You may struggle to get a visa at some consulates who will simply say 'get it at the airport' (eg Kabul), which isn't useful if you want to arrive by land.

By car

Private cars and minivans run between Samarkand in Uzbekistan and Penjikent daily. From Osh in Kyrgyzstan minivans go to Murgab every few days for $15; hitch hiking on Kamaz trucks and ZIL petrol tankers is also possible anywhere enroute for $10.

By plane

There are flights from Moscow's Domodedovo airport to Dushanbe on Tajikistan Airlines, Domodedovo Airlines, and Samara Airlines. Tajikistan Airways flies Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Bishkek, Almaty, Sharjah, and Istanbul. In the past, they have also flown to Urumchi and New Delhi. Turkish Airlines operates a popular twice-weekly flight to Istanbul (arrives in Dushanbe Monday and Thursday in the very early morning). Tajikistan Airlines operates a domestic flight from Dushanbe to Khujand and costs approximately 75 USD. There are flights twice per week from Urumqi, China to Dushanbe, for about $350 one-way. Kam Air and Ariana both fly to Kabul every week. There is also Somon Air that fly weekly once from Dubai to Dushanbe, mostly Tuesdays.

By boat

There is currently a ferry operating across the Pyanj river between Afghanistan and Tajikistan that costs roughly $10 one way. However, the opening of the U.S. funding bridge over the Pyanj will likely end this service, which crosses roughly three times per day and does not run on Sundays.

By train

The train to Moscow is popular with migrant workers. It crosses through Uzbekistan (twice) and Turkmenistan and takes around five days. Transit visas are required for all countries.

Train 367 - 08:08 leaves Dushanbe (Mondays & Wednesdays). 14:04 Arrives Khujand next day. Final destination Kanibadam.

Train 368 - 16:34 leaves Khujand (Fridays & Sundays). 22:36 arrives Dushanbe the next day.

Train 335 - Khujand-Samarqand-Saratov is three times a week. 18:44 depart Khujand (Mon, Thur, Sat) 02:15 arrives Samarqand.

Train 336 - 06:10 departs Samarqand (Wed, Fri, Sunday) 14:27 arrives Khujand.

Get around

By minivan / shared taxi

Scheduled minivans run between the major cities but otherwise hiring a vehicle or sharing one with other passengers is the only way to travel around the country. Prices are generally per person, not for the vehicle, and divided by the number of passengers.

SUV's can be hired and leave daily from Khujand's large minibus terminal located just outside the city. Prices are negotiable but should be in the range 60 USD per person. Assure the vehicle is fit for long road travel, inspect spare tire.

By plane

As the country is broken into many isolated areas by mountain passes that are closed in winter, travel during this time is by air only, if the planes are flying. Tajik Air [2] operates several daily flights to Khojand (between 35 and 70 minutes, depending on the plane) and Khorog, a thrilling plunge through mountain peaks. This flight does not go if it is windy. Ticket vendors next to the Green Market in Dushanbe can provide a reliable estimate of their timetable. Make sure you arrive early for your flight. Also, passports and visas will be checked on domestic flights, so bring them with you.

Talk

Tajik-Persian is the main official language. Russian is also useful in most cities and it is normal to hear Russian in the streets of Dushanbe. Some people use Russian as their language. Tajik-Persian is useful for markets and cabdrivers. Even a few words will be appreciated. Tajik dialect of Persian is intelligible for the Persian-speakers of Iran and Afghanistan.

Buy

Somoni (TJS, Tajik: cомонӣ) is the national currency. As of December, 2009, US$ 1 roughly equals to 4.38 somoni, while € 1 equals to 6.30 somoni.

  • Traditional Tajik padded coats. Comfortable and perfect for the colder weather in the mountains. The ensemble can be completed with a hat and sash.
  • Mercedes Benz (approx. $7000) cars and Land Cruisers from Dushanbe's Sunday Car Market. Also available: Russian cars, jeeps, minivans, and an assortment of other models.
  • Vodka. Ruski Standard is the best one by far.
  • Rugs and carpets. The good ones are imported from Afghanistan or Uzbekistan.

Food in Tajikistan is very different than food in the Middle East or in East Asia. It is very much Russian influenced. If you like Russian food, you will probably have a good culinary experience. If you find Russian food bland, you may have a rough time here.

  • Plov. The national dish is made with rice, beef or mutton, and carrots.
  • Sambusa (baked pastries)
  • Shashlik (shish-kebab). Grilled-on-coal fish, liver, chicken, mutton and beef.
  • Tushbera soup(like ravioli, pasta with meat in)
  • Ugro soup (handmade spaghetti soup served with cheese cream and basilic)
  • Jiz-biz (fired freshcut lamb or mutton on its own juice)
  • Dolma (steamed rolls with grape leafs and meat inside, served with sour cream and red pepper
  • Mantu (steamed pasta with meat inside, served with sour cream and fried onions.
  • Shurbo (fresh vegetable soup with lamb or beef, served with green onion and basilic)
  • Many types of bread like chappoti, kulcha, nan, fatir, qalama etc.
  • Damlama - like English stew, steamed lamb or beef with vegetables in its own juice.
  • Khash - soup with sheeps' legs and arms, joints and tendons.

Yammy-yammy!

Take care with street food and do NOT eat unwashed vegetables and fruits. It's best to soak them in distilled water and cook thoroughly.

  • Green tea. Tajiks customarily pour a small amount out three times and return it to the pot.
  • Compote. A distilled fruit punch.

Sleep

Sleeping options in Tajikistan include the following:

Hotels. In Dushanbe, there are a small number of large hotels. The Hyatt Regency just built recently and opens doors in March 2009. Another one of big hotels is "Tajikistan" (recently renovated), located in the central city. Most are ex-Soviet era and tend to be over priced and in poor condition. There are a couple of newly built hotels offering western standards of accommodation for around from $70 to $220 per room.

MSDSP Guesthouses,

The Aga Khan's Mountain Societies Development Support Programme has a network of guesthouses in places like Kalaikhum and Khorog, offering a good standard of accommodation. Full board is around $40 per person

Formal Homestays.

The French NGO ACTED is establishing a network of Homestays in the Pamir region, around Murgab, For around $10 per person per night you get a comfortable bed in a family home. The facilities are basic, i.e. no running water and an outside toilet, but guests can expect comfortable clean rooms, good local food, and a very warm welcome.

Independent Guesthouses.

In Dushanbe, Khorog, and Murghab there are a small but growing number of independent guesthouses. These are similar in standard and price to the ACTED homestays.

Online Accomodation (couchsurfing).

Many cities of Tajikistan offer free accomodation in homestays through the couchsurfing.com

Learn

Books can be ordered through Amazon. Internet access is unrestricted.

Work

At embassies, NGOs [3], some hotels. A few hundred expatriates live in Dushanbe. Several ads each week in the electronic newsletter WhatsOnInDushanbe. For investors, cf. [4] and similar publications.

Stay safe

Some factional fighting spilling over from nearby Afghanistan (as well as local warlordism) still occurs in Tajikistan. Visitors should keep abreast of the security situation and not take any unneccessary risks. After sunset, it is not advisable to walk around outside alone; and generally do not travel unaccompanied to rural areas. Any concern you should have during your stay in Tajikistan, please write about as soon as possible it to your embassy or the European Commission – External Relations Directorate General in B-1049 Brussels [roselyne.mancheron@cec.eu.int].

Stay healthy

DO NOT drink tap water. There is no working purification system, and outbreaks of typhoid and cholera (rarely) are common. Other preventable endemic illnesses are hepatitis A, rabies, poliomyelitis and tick-borne encephalitis. The occasional anthrax case comes in, but it's rare nowadays. There are, during the hot season, a few pockets where malaria can occur. There is now an English-speaking comprehensive primary care clinic in operation by the name of Prospekt Medical [5], right behind the Embassy of China. In the Pamir mountains, the risk of altitude sickness is substantial - one may read up on this here: [6] (in English) or [7] (in German). In case of ANY accident, call your embassy. Health insurance and medical evacuation insurance are recommended.

Longer stays may consider the hiring of private drivers and home security guards. Rent out secure known owners places. [8]

Respect

Tajikistan is a somewhat conservative society. Women should be fairly modest in public. Although some Tajiks can be extremely friendly, it is not uncommon for people to be equally rude. While this is a Persian-speaking country, do not expect the red carpet treatment that tourists receive in Iran and Afghanistan.

  • United States - 109A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Zarafshon, Dushanbe 734019, tel: +992-37-229-23-00, fax: +992-37-229-2309. The consular section is open from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Friday and closed on U.S. and Tajik holidays.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Ti-map.gif

Alternative spellings

Proper noun

Tajikistan

  1. Country in Central Asia. Official name: Republic of Tajikistan.

Related terms

Translations

External links

See also


Simple English

Republic of Tajikistan
File:Flag of File:Tajikistan
Official flag Coat of Arms
National information
National anthem: Surudi milli
About the people
Official languages: Tajik
Population: (# of people)
  - Total: 7,320,815 (July 2006 est.) (ranked 95th)
  - Density: 48/km² per km²
Geography / Places
[[Image:|250px|none|country map]] Here is the country on a map.
Capital city: Dushanbe
Largest city:
Area
  - Total: 143,100 km² (ranked 92nd)
  - Water:400 km² km² (0.3%%)
Politics / Government
Established: Independence from
Soviet Union:
 September 9, 1991
Leaders: President Emomali Rahmonov
Prime Minister Okil Okilov
Economy / Money
Currency:
(Name of money)
Somoni
International information
Time zone: +5
Telephone dialing code: 992
Internet domain: .tj

Tajikistan is a country in Asia.

Geography

Tajikistan is one of the new countries in central Asia. It is west of China, north of Afghanistan and Pakistan, that is separated by a narrow 14 km strip of land in the Pamirs, east of Uzbekistan and south of Kyrgyzstan.

File:Ti-map.gif
A map of Tajikistan

Tajikistan is landlocked and it is in the middle of the continent of Asia.

Its total area is only about 143,100 km². It is slightly smaller than Wisconsin, USA. Tajikistan’s borders are 3,651 km long.

The climate has hot summers and mild winters.

File:Duschanbe
Dushanbe railway station

Almost all of the country (85 percent) is mountainous with river-valleys running across, however high altitude mountains of Pomir are in the eastern part of the country, (which is beginnings of Hymalayas in the west). The climate there is semiarid to polar. The mountains cover an area of about 120,000 km². There are other countries within the mountain range. The mountains are between 3600 to 4400m high.

History

The land that is now Tajikistan has been lived in since 4,000 BC. It has been under the rule of various empires throughout history, mostly the Persian Empires.

In the year 800, Islam came to Tajikistan.

In 1868, Tajikistan became a Russian Colony. It later became a part of the Soviet Union .

On 9 September 1991, after long periods of mass protests against Soviet Government, Parliament of Tajikistan declared independence from Soviet Union, and held first presidential elections. Rahmon Nabiev who run the country during Soviet Union in the late 1970s and early 1980s, become president. He was unable to bring any much needed reforms to the country, and so there were protests in the capital city, Dushanbe. The government responded by organising a pro-government demonstration, mainly made of old Communist Party members and people from the southeast of the country brought to the city. Anti-government protests did not stop, so the government gave weapons to the pro-government demonstrator. Then the Opposition armed themselves.

After this bloody civil war broke out. In which all of the new democratic parties, political organisations and movements together with the political Islamic movements created an alliance, opposing the old communist government and southerners.

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, many American and French Soldiers came into the country.

Political information

Tajikistan is a republic. The capital city is Dushanbe. The official language is Tajik,which is a dialect of farsi (Persian).

Tajikistan is also a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the CIS. Tajikistan is number eight in size of the CIS.








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