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Tamil
தமிழ் tamiḻ
Pronunciation [t̪ɐmɨɻ]
Spoken in .India, Sri Lanka and Singapore, where it has official status; with significant minorities in Canada, United States, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar and Réunion, and emigrant communities around the world.^ It’s also one of the official languages of Singapore, Malaysia and Sri Lanka where many Tamils live.
  • Page Title 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kolam.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In both India and Sri Lanka, Tamil has the status of an official language.
  • Penn Language Center // Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.plc.sas.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has got official language status in Tamil Nadu (a state of India), in the countries Sri-Lanka, Malaysia and Singapore.

[1]
Total speakers 66 million native[2]
Ranking 20, 16,[1] 15(native speakers)
Language family Dravidian
Writing system Tamil script
Official status
Official language in . India (Tamil Nadu, Puducherry),[3][4]
 Sri Lanka,[5] and
 Singapore.
^ After Ceylon adopted a new constitution and became Sri Lanka in 1972, Tamil minorities continued to protest the lack of protection for Tamil rights in the new constitution.
  • Tamil - Language Information & Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsintl.com [Source type: Reference]

^ But some among Sri Lanka's Tamil community and the influential Tamil diaspora doubt whether he really is dead.
  • tamil videos - by Video Site 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.dvbs.eu.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is the first official language of India's Tamil Nadu state.
  • Penn Language Center // Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.plc.sas.upenn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 ta
ISO 639-2 tam
ISO 639-3 tam
Tamilspeakers.png
Distribution of native Tamil speakers in India and Sri Lanka
Indic script
This page contains Indic text. .Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts.^ Of course, you can see things in the whole blot or in parts of it, and images may overlap.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the translation can be made both ways then you will see < - > and if the dictionary is non-searchable it will have - without any arrows.
  • Online Language Dictionaries and Translators 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.word2word.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are instances when the consonant sound may occur without the need of a vowel.
  • BhashaIndia :: TamilScript 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC bhashaindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

More...
Tamil A.svg .Tamil is written in a non-Latin script.^ In Tamilistan and other countries of the former Soviet Union, Tamil is currently written in the Cyrillic alphabet, although it was written in both the Latin alphabet and the Persian alphabet in certain parts of its history.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is written in an alpha-syllabic system derived from the Ashokan Brahmi script.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first six lines of the inscription are written in Tamil language, in Tamil script, A final half line is written in Chinese.
  • The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ismaili.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tamil text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the ISO 15919 standard.
.Tamil (தமிழ் tamiḻ; [t̪ɐmɨɻ] Tamil.ogg ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.^ The Tamil language is a Dravidian language.
  • Tamil language - online conversations | BoardReader 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC boardreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil Tamil may refer to: The Tamil language, is considered by most scholars to be one of the Dravidian languages spoken in the Indian subcontinent.
  • Taiko Tackle (football) Tamil Tigers Table Of Integrals 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamils are ethnically, linguistically and culturally related to the other Dravidian peoples of the Indian subcontinent .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Puducherry.^ It is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Puducherry (Pondicherry).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It has official status in India, Sri Lanka and Singapore, and it is the administrative language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
  • Tamil English dictionary and English Tamil dictionary - FREELANG 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.freelang.net [Source type: General]

^ Legal status Tamil is the official Language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore.^ It is one of the two languages of Sri Lanka and one of the three languages of Singapore and Malaysia.
  • Learn Tamil Tutor CD, To learn the language of Tamil Nadu 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.letuslearntamil.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu , and also has official status in Sri Lanka and Singapore.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Sri Lanka's official languages are Sinhala, Tamil and English.
  • LINGUAMÓN - Casa de les Llengües > Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www10.gencat.net [Source type: Reference]

.It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of India and the first Indian language to be declared as a classical language by the government of India in 2004. Tamil is also spoken by significant minorities in Malaysia, Mauritius and Réunion as well as emigrant communities around the world.^ Sanskirt and Tamil are two languages of India attested millennia later.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is one of the two classical traditions of India, the other being Sanskrit.
  • www.tamilar.org - Tamil History, Ancient Tamil, Tamil Archeological facts, Tamil - A historical and linguistic perspective - Online Entertainment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two literary languages: Classical and Modern Standard Tamil.
  • Learn to Speak Tamil today. Tamil language CD-ROM £19.99 with FREE P&P 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.flightline.co.uk [Source type: General]

[1]
.Tamil literature has existed for over two thousand years.^ Tamil literature has existed for over two thousand years.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Historically...literature witnessed a rather late start in Tamil as compared to its counterpart in Marathi...innovative Dalit creative writings in Tamil which we have witnessed in recent years...
  • Tamil Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The written Tamil language has changed over the years with the result that classical literature is as much a part of everyday Tamil life and modern literature.
  • Tamil To English Translation,English To Telugu Translation,Tamil To English Translation Services,English To Telugu Translation Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.adithmultilingual.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .The earliest epigraphic records found date from around the third century BCE.^ The earliest epigraphic records found date from around the third century BCE. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from the 3rd century BC to 6th century AD. Inscriptions in Tamil Language from 1st century BCE and 2nd century CE have been discovered in Egypt and Thailand.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil tradition dates the oldest works to several millennia ago, but the earliest examples of Tamil writing we have today are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE, which are written in an adapted form of the Brahmi script (Mahadevan, 2003).
  • Tamil language - information, news about Tamil & Tamilnadu 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nilacharal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the ancient grammatical works available, the Tolkappiyam was the earliest and it was written around the third century B.C. There are over two hundred and fifty references in Tolkaappiyam which, provide substantial evidence of the existence of many classical and grammatical works in Tamil prior to Tolkaappiyam itself.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from the 300 BCE – 300 CE.[9][10] Inscriptions in Tamil Language from 1st century BCE and 2nd century CE have been discovered in Egypt and Thailand.^ The earliest epigraphic records found date from around the third century BCE. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from the 3rd century BC to 6th century AD. Inscriptions in Tamil Language from 1st century BCE and 2nd century CE have been discovered in Egypt and Thailand.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest known inscriptions in the Telugu language date from the 6th century AD” .
  • transcurrents » Blindness Of Sinhala Demagogues And Tamil Liberators 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC transcurrents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But this is the nature of dating tamil literature.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11][12] .The first two ancient manuscripts from India,[13][14] to be acknowledged and registered by UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 & 2005 were in Tamil.^ The first known manuscripts in India were written in Tamil.
  • Radical Notes » Tamil Eelam: Historical Right to Nationhood (II) 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC radicalnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first two ancient manuscripts from India to be acknowledged and registered by UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 & 2005 were in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sanskirt and Tamil are two languages of India attested millennia later.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions – about 55,000 – found by the Archaeological Survey of India in India are in the Tamil language.^ Tamil has one of the largest number of epigraphical inscriptions in India, estimated to be 25,000.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Learn: Tamil is a language of India .
  • Tamil - Keyboards - Tavultesoft 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tavultesoft.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil is a more logical language than most other languages.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies.^ A report from 2001stated that 1,863 daily newspapers were published in Tamil.
  • LINGUAMÓN - Casa de les Llengües > Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www10.gencat.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The launch of the Tamil-language site will bring to eight the number of languages other than English in which the WSWS publishes material on a daily or near-daily basis.
  • World Socialist Web Site launches Tamil-language site 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.wsws.org [Source type: News]

^ Tamils published their own literature and newspapers to counter the ideology-religion of the missionaries.
  • Radical Notes » Tamil Eelam: Historical Right to Nationhood (II) 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC radicalnotes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Contents

Classification

.Tamil belongs to southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around twenty-six languages native to the Indian subcontinent.^ Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent.
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil belongs to southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around twenty-six languages native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tamil language is the state language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (i.e.
  • The Tamil Language: Facts and Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .It is also classified as being part of a Tamil language family, which alongside Tamil proper, also includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups[19] such as the Irula, and Yerukula languages (see SIL Ethnologue).^ Great Information about Tamil Language....
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ A linguistic area is a euphemism for a language family.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tamil language is a member of the Dravidian family of languages.
  • The Tamil Language: Facts and Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam.^ In the end all major Indian languages are Dravidian just as Tamil Malayalam, Kannada Telugu and so forth are .
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kamal has appeared in movies made in six languages, including the four major South Indian languages - Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
  • Tamilo.com Tamil Actor Profile 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamiloprofile.com [Source type: General]

^ The origin of Malayalam as a separate language distinct from Tamil and the development of a literature may be assessed as one of the major contributions of the Nambudiris.
  • எறும்புகள்/Erumbugal » Blog Archive » [Tolkaappiyar] Malayalam: Motivated genesis of a language 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamil.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Until about the ninth century, Malayalam was a dialect of Tamil.^ ProtoTamil- Malayalam, the common stock of Tamil and Malayalam, apparently disintegrated over a period of four of five centuries from the ninth century onwards, resulting in the emergence of Malayalam as a language distinct from Tamil.
  • Malayalam Language and Literature - kerala.com 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is a temporal gap of almost two centuries between the ninth century peninsular inscription of Takuapa and the earliest Tamil-language inscription found in Sumatra.
  • The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ismaili.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The influence of Sanskrit on Malayalam language came to be felt only about eight centuries ago, and therefore, the areas of difference between Tamil and Malayalam are not many.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .Although many of the differences between Tamil and Malayalam evidence a pre-historic split of the western dialect,[21] the process of separation into a distinct language, Malayalam was not completed until sometime in the 13th or 14th century.^ According to linguists this separation was completed by the 13th or 14th century.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They gradually separated into distinct languages.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was not until the 13th or 14th century that Tamil and Malayalam became completely separate languages.
  • LINGUAMÓN - Casa de les Llengües > Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www10.gencat.net [Source type: Reference]

[22]

History

Ancient Tamil inscription at the Brihadeeswara Temple in Thanjavur
.As a Dravidian language, Tamil descends from Proto-Dravidian.^ The Tamil language is a Dravidian language.
  • Tamil language - online conversations | BoardReader 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC boardreader.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduction Tamil is a member of the Dravidian languages.
  • http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Tamil-Linux-HOWTO.html 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dravidian language of the Tamils.
  • Tamil Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC, possibly in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India.^ In the historical past Proto-Dravidian was spoken throughout India.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dravidian languages were spoken throughout India until the arrival of speakers of Indo-Aryan tongues.
  • LINGUAMÓN - Casa de les Llengües > Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www10.gencat.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Today Proto-Dravidian speakers are increasingly mingling with other linguistic groups and learning their languages.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were the culture associated with the Neolithic complexes of south India.^ Tamil, a Dravidian language of south India is comparable to Sanskrit in its antiquity and textual traditions.

^ The term Dravidian, which refers to the language of South India, is of a later origin.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Dravidian languages were spoken throughout India until the arrival of speakers of Indo-Aryan tongues.
  • LINGUAMÓN - Casa de les Llengües > Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www10.gencat.net [Source type: Reference]

[23] .The next phase in the reconstructed proto-history of Tamil is Proto-South Dravidian.^ Tamil, a Dravidian language of south India is comparable to Sanskrit in its antiquity and textual traditions.

^ When Praakrit and Paali became popular in the North, the Proto-Dravidian language lost its ground there, and confined itself entirely to the South.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or was the Tamil of the Tolkappiyam era a different language, a proto-Dravidian parent language from which the modern dialects of Malayalam, Telugu, Kannada and modern Tamil gradually diverged?
  • Tamil is the oldest language in world? - Yahoo! Answers India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The linguistic evidence suggests that Proto-South Dravidian was spoken around the middle of the second millennium BC, and that proto-Tamil emerged around the third century BC. The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil are generally taken to have been written shortly thereafter.^ In Tamil, the spoken and written varieties are not the same.

^ Tamil is the earliest written literary language of the Dravidian linguistic family and is spoken by well over sixty million, principally in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka and by minorities in Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Kenya, United Kingdom, France, Germany, Australia, the West Indies, and other states of the Indian federation, not to mention several isolated pockets in the oceans, such as, Mauritius and the Fiji islands.

^ The earliest Tamil inscriptions date from 200 BC. The Tamil language has its own script descended from the southern Indian Pallava script and old Brahmi script.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24]
.Scholars categorise the attested history of the language into three periods, Old Tamil (300 BC – 700 CE), Middle Tamil (700–1600) and Modern Tamil (1600–present).^ With more than 77 million speakers, an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence, Tamil is one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ With more than 77 million speakers an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence Tamil is today one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The written Tamil language has changed over the years with the result that classical literature is as much a part of everyday Tamil life and modern literature.
  • Tamil To English Translation,English To Telugu Translation,Tamil To English Translation Services,English To Telugu Translation Services 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.adithmultilingual.biz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Etymology

.The exact period when the name "Tamil" came to be applied to the language is unclear, as is the precise etymology of the name.^ The earliest text that describes the language of the classical period dates back to 200 BC. Status Tamil is spoken as a native language by 62 million people in India.
  • Professional Tamil Translation Services | Sure Languages 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: Reference]

^ When the Tamil language entered the public sphere of the modern period (in the sense of Habermas as defined by other scholars (Crosslay, Nick and Roberts, John M (eds.

^ Ample evidence came in from various source from the nineteenth century to assert the distinctiveness and independence of Tamil language, literature and culture.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The earliest attested use of the name is in a text that is perhaps as early as the 1st century BCE.[26]
Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miḻ > tam-iḻ 'self-speak', or 'one's own speech'.[27] Kamil Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iḻ, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", and "-iḻ" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternately, he suggests a derivation of tamiḻ < tam-iḻ < *tav-iḻ < *tak-iḻ, meaning in origin "the proper process (of speaking)".[28] (see Southworth's derivation of Sanskrit term for "others" or Mleccha)

Old Tamil

.The earliest records in Old Tamil are short inscriptions from around the second century BCE in caves and on pottery.^ The earliest Tamil writing is attested in inscriptions and potsherds from the 5th century bce .
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The earliest Tamil inscriptions date from c.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script called Tamil Brahmi.^ The earliest inscriptions in the Tamil country written in the Tamil-Brahmi script are almost exclusively in the Tamil language.
  • Orality to literacy: Transition in Early Tamil Society 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.frontlineonnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Orality to literacy: Transition in Early Tamil Society 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.flonnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The earliest Tamil inscriptions date from 200 BC. The Tamil language has its own script descended from the southern Indian Pallava script and old Brahmi script.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil tradition dates the oldest works to several millennia ago; the earliest examples of Tamil writing we have today are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BC, which are written in an adapted form of the Brahmi script (Mahadevan, 2003).

[29] .The earliest long text in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could be as old as the first century BC.[25] A large number of literary works in Old Tamil have also survived.^ Which is the earliest grammar in Tamil?
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is the oldest of the surviving Dravidian languages.
  • Ancient and Unique Nature of Tamil – Part 1 « கற்க… நிற்க … 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC karkanirka.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Authors and their Literary works .
  • Tamil Language and Culture Discussion Groups 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC web.singnet.com.sg [Source type: General]
  • Tamil Language and Culture Discussion Groups 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC web.singnet.com.sg [Source type: General]

.These include a corpus of 2,381 poems collectively known as Sangam literature.^ Pathuppattu, an anthology of ten poems, and Ettuthokai, a collection of eight anthologies, are two major Sangam Classics.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The crown jewel of Tamil Literature is 'thirukuRaL', also known as the 'kuRaL', which is placed anywhere from 1st to 5th century CE. Authored by the saintly Thiruvalluvar, these are a collection of 1330 couplets, divided into three sections.
  • www.tamilar.org - Tamil History, Ancient Tamil, Tamil Archeological facts, Tamil - A historical and linguistic perspective - Online Entertainment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to these, there is another set of poems known as Pathinenkizhkankku that includes the following: 1.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These poems are usually dated to between the first and fifth centuries AD,[30] which makes them the oldest extant body of secular literature in India.^ Date - oldest first .
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Urdu speaking "Tamil Muslims" of Vellore, Tamil Nadu | TwoCircles.net 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.twocircles.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil, the oldest and truest of the Dravidian speeches, boasts of this literary tradition of more than 2,200 years, the most remarkable body of secular poetry extant in India.
  • Tamil Language,official Language of Tamil Nadu,Regional Languages of Tamil Nadu 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indiasite.com [Source type: General]

^ External chronological records and internal linguistic evidence, however, indicate that the oldest extant works were probably compiled sometime between the 2nd century BCE and the 3rd century CE. The earliest extant literary text is the Tolkāppiyam, a work on poetics and grammar which describes the language of the classical period, dated on linguistic grounds to the 1st or 2nd century BCE. Geographic distribution Tamil is the first language of the majority in Tamil Nadu, India and North Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

[31] Other literary works in Old Tamil include two long epics, Cilappatikāram and Maṇimēkalai, and a number of ethical and didactic texts, written between the fifth and eighth centuries A.D.[32]
.Old Tamil preserved many features of Proto-Dravidian, including the inventory of consonants,[33] the syllable structure,[34] and various grammatical features.^ Like the other Dravidian languages , Tamil is characterized by a series of retroflex consonants (/ḍ/, /ṇ/, and /ṭ/) made by curling the tip of the tongue back to the roof of the mouth.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Even though Tamil is characterised by its use of retroflex consonants similar to the other Dravidian languages, it also uses a unique liquid l (ழ்).
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[35] .Amongst these was the absence of a distinct present tense – like Proto-Dravidian, Old Tamil only had two tenses, the past and the "non-past". Old Tamil verbs also had a distinct negative conjugation (e.g.^ Tenses of each Tamil Verb are conjugated, and the .

^ Tamil youth in the UK Hello everyone, I'm a 20 year old Sri Lankan Tamil (Jaffna) Christian who has lived in the United States for the past 13 years.
  • tamilyouth : Messages : 2-31 of 40 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC groups.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.kāṇēṉ "I do not see", kāṇōm "we do not see")[36] Nouns could take pronominal suffixes like verbs to express ideas: e.g.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Like the other Dravidian languages, it is characterized by its use of retroflex consonants and by its agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.peṇṭirēm "we are women" formed from peṇṭir "women" + -ēm and the first person plural marker.^ PRONOUNS both in Tamil and Malay have much in common, the intimate second persons and polite forms and the inclusive and exclusive first person plurals, with one difference however: pronouns in Tamil are declined like nouns into seven cases.

^ In Tolkaappiyam we have ‘-ba” alone as a plural person marker as Ta.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[37]
.Despite the significant amount of grammatical and syntactical change between Old, Middle and Modern Tamil, Tamil demonstrates grammatical continuity across these stages: many characteristics of the later stages of the language have their roots in features of Old Tamil.^ With more than 77 million speakers, an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence, Tamil is one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ With more than 77 million speakers an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence Tamil is today one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last week, Housing and Local...another middle class mantra: Close down Tamil schools and we will wipe out many of the...
  • Tamil Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Tamil 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Middle Tamil

.The evolution of Old Tamil into Middle Tamil, which is generally taken to have been completed by the eighth century AD,[25] was characterised by a number of phonological and grammatical changes.^ As mentioned before, a large number of manuscripts of Tamil literary works of the past were discovered and printed in the last and the present centuries.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Tamil novels, in general, need to change their underlying assumptions about the role and function of such challenged characters in their stories.

^ According to Hinduism both Tamil and Sanskrit are old that is the reason why Alwar's( Vaishnava Saints) sung the Sanskrit Veda(marai) into tamil.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In phonological terms, the most important shifts were the virtual disappearance of the aytam, an old phoneme,[38] the coalescence of the alveolar and dental nasals,[39] and the transformation of the alveolar plosive into a rhotic.[40] In grammar, the most important change was the emergence of the present tense. .The present tense evolved out of the verb kil, meaning "to be possible" or "to befall". In Old Tamil, this verb was used as an aspect marker to indicate that an action was micro-durative, non-sustained or non-lasting, usually in combination with a time marker such as .^ Tenses of each Tamil Verb are conjugated, and the .

^ Closely related to Tamil, Malayalam differs from it in such aspects as the absence of personal endings on verbs.
  • Kerala - Gateway To Paradise ( Kerala Language, Malayalam, Mallu, Malayalam 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kerala.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nice aspects include: explanation of alphabet, lengthy and quite useful vocabulary lists, fun easy-to-read stories in Tamil, and lessons that are easy to follow and not too overwhelming.
  • Amazon.com: Tamil for Beginners (9780614166644): Books 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.In Middle Tamil, this usage evolved into a present tense marker – kiṉṟ – which combined the old aspect and time markers.^ Dialects Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Here in this paper we try to portray the strategy thus evolved to translate English Text books of linguistics into Tamil by means of MTA. .

[41]
.Middle Tamil also saw a significant increase in the Sanskritisation of Tamil.^ I am allowing this post through, this once, simply as an addition to previous threads in this forum on the significance of (Vedic and Tantric) Soma and also on the Sanskrit/Tamil relationship.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During the period of the epics also the intermixing of Sanskrit words with Tamil continued to increase.
  • www.tamilar.org - Tamil History, Ancient Tamil, Tamil Archeological facts, Tamil - A historical and linguistic perspective - Online Entertainment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the period of the Pallava dynasty onwards, a number of Sanskrit loan-words entered Tamil, particularly in relation to political, religious and philosophical concepts.^ The major addition to the alphabet was the incorporation of Grantha letters to write unassimilated Sanskrit words, although a few letters with irregular shapes were standardized during the modern period.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ You can trace 95% of the words in malayalam to either English, Sanskrit or to Tamil.
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such unreasonable attitude became obvious in analysing the origin of words that were common to Sanskrit and Tamil.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .Sanskrit also influenced Tamil grammar, in the increased use of cases and in declined nouns becoming adjuncts of verbs,[43] and phonology.^ Tamil is purely Tamil, no sanskrit influence.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rich and varied Tamil literature includes an indigenous grammar that was created independently from that of Sanskrit.
  • Professional Tamil Translation Services | Sure Languages 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.sure-languages.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Like the other Dravidian languages, it is characterized by its use of retroflex consonants and by its agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44] .The Tamil script also changed in the period of Middle Tamil.^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Some English words that can be written in Tamil script will not display correctly if typed exactly as they are written, as the keyboard automatically makes some of the changes listed above.
  • Tamil Anjal Paangu Keyboard Help - Tavultesoft KeymanWeb Help 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC help.keymanweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the megalithic/Iron Age pottery in Tamil Nadu is datable between the third century B.C. and third century A.D., the Indus script belongs to the period 2600 B.C. to 1900 B.C. of the mature Harappan period.
  • Tamil is the oldest language in world? - Yahoo! Answers India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC in.answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.Tamil Brahmi and Vaṭṭeḻuttu, into which it evolved, were the main scripts used in Old Tamil inscriptions.^ The Tamil writing system evolved from the Brahmi script.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The Tamil Grantha script also is used.
  • Kerala - Gateway To Paradise ( Kerala Language, Malayalam, Mallu, Malayalam 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kerala.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that nearly all the early Tamil inscriptions are Jain cave inscriptions, we should take into account that the language used by Jain monks was Pakrit which has resulted in increase of northern words in inscriptions when compared to the literature.
  • Tamil History « கற்க… நிற்க … 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC karkanirka.wordpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From the eighth century onwards, however, the Pallavas began using a new script, derived from the Pallava Grantha script which was used to write Sanskrit, which eventually replaced Vaṭṭeḻuttu.^ The Tamil Grantha script also is used.
  • Kerala - Gateway To Paradise ( Kerala Language, Malayalam, Mallu, Malayalam 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.kerala.cc [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Malayalam, a Dravidian language with about 35 million speakers. It is spoken mainly in the south west of India, particularly in Kerala, the Laccadive Islands and neighboring states, and also in Bahrain, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, UAE and the UK. Kerala is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. Kerala Chat & Malayalam Forums on site. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.keralacafe.com [Source type: General]

^ The major addition to the alphabet was the incorporation of Grantha letters to write unassimilated Sanskrit words, although a few letters with irregular shapes were standardized during the modern period.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ From the 13th century onwards, the entrance gates to the temples, called gopurams in Tamil, also began to grow bigger, and more elaborate.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.Middle Tamil is attested in a large number of inscriptions, and in a significant body of secular and religious literature.^ As mentioned before, a large number of manuscripts of Tamil literary works of the past were discovered and printed in the last and the present centuries.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Classical literature and inscriptions also describe a number of Velirs , or minor chieftains, who collectively ruled over large parts of central Tamil Nadu .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is why the number of people of Tamil descent whose first name is "Marie" and "Jean" is today significant.
  • Indentured immigration and social accomodation in La Reunion 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .These include the religious poems and songs of the Bhakthi poets, such as the Tēvāram verses on Saivism and Nālāyira Tivya Pirapantam on Vaishnavism,[47] and adaptations of religious legends such as the 12th century Tamil Ramayana composed by Kamban and the story of 63 shaivite devotees known as Periyapurāṇam.^ One finds it used in the poems of the hymnodists and Kampan, composed in the seventh century and the twelfth century respectively.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These views based mainly on Tolkaappiyam and Classical Tamil, I belief may NOT be applicable to the Archaic situation such as Sumerian where such phonemes seem to exist.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Tamil is well known to be much older that Kannada and don't F**kin put forth such statements without know what you are saying.
  • languagehat.com: HISTORY OF KANNADA. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Iraiyaṉār Akapporuḷ, an early treatise on love poetics, and Naṉṉūl, a 12th century grammar that became the standard grammar of literary Tamil, are also from the Middle Tamil period.^ This was followed by final stages of Tamil – Kannada split and beginning of ancient Tamil literature, which was accompanied by conscious efforts of grammarians and body formed by poetic bards to set up some kind of norm – a literary standard.
  • Ancient and Unique Nature of Tamil – Part 1 « கற்க… நிற்க … 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC karkanirka.wordpress.com [Source type: General]

^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In the early 21st century more than 66 million people were Tamil speakers.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[49]

Modern Tamil

.The Nannul remains the standard normative grammar for modern literary Tamil, which therefore continues to based on Middle Tamil of the 13th century rather than on Modern Tamil.^ A grammar of modern Tamil.

^ With more than 77 million speakers, an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence, Tamil is one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ With more than 77 million speakers an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence Tamil is today one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .Colloquial spoken Tamil, in contrast, shows a number of changes.^ The former refers to the classical Tamil used exclusively by literati in their works and the latter refers to the colloquial Tamil, spoken by the people.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1990 population census showed that there was an 8 per cent drop in the number of Tamil speaking households compared to 1980.
  • Library Provision to the Tamil community in Singapore 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC libres.curtin.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How much more beneficial it would be if sketches were allowed that used colloquial Tamil or even Tamil as it is spoken in films (or in India)!
  • TMK - Thamizh Munnetra Kazhagam of South Africa » PROUDLY SOUTH AFRICAN, PUTTING TAMIL FIRST. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamil.blat.co.za [Source type: General]

.The negative conjugation of verbs, for example, has fallen out of use in Modern Tamil[51] – negation is, instead, expressed either morphologically or syntactically.^ Tenses of each Tamil Verb are conjugated, and the .

^ Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Database Sorting : Using this facility, you can import Tamil data from Access database in TAB encoding and sort them in either Ascending or Descending order as per the Tamil alphabetical order.
  • India's Premier Digital Print Web Multimedia Design Studio & Training Plus Online Store 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cadgraf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • India's Premier Digital Print Web Multimedia Design Studio & Training Plus Online Store 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cadgraf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .Modern spoken Tamil also shows a number of sound changes, in particular, a tendency to lower high vowels in initial and medial positions,[53] and the disappearance of vowels between plosives and between a plosive and rhotic.^ Dialects Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The two vowels ru ( ) and lu ( ), which are there in Devanagari, are not there in Tarr.ih The short-nature u () and i ( ) sounds are in Tamil, but there are no letters to indicate them.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The classical works, Tolkappiyam and Nannul do not, for instance, lay down a schema similar to Grauls sevenfold classification which Arden has popularised in his modern grammar of spoken Tamil.

[54]
.Contact with European languages also affected both written and spoken Tamil.^ On the dichotomy of spoken and written language.

^ Tamil is an international language spoken in different countries like India, Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

^ It shows significant social and regional variations and is known for its diglossic nature, in as much as it possesses distinct written and spoken forms, affecting syntax, lexicon and phonetics.

.Changes in written Tamil include the use of European-style punctuation and the use of consonant clusters that were not permitted in Middle Tamil.^ Three periods have been distinguished through analyses of grammatical and lexical changes: Old Tamil (from about 450 bce to 700 ce ), Middle Tamil (700–1600), and Modern Tamil (from 1600).
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Nice aspects include: explanation of alphabet, lengthy and quite useful vocabulary lists, fun easy-to-read stories in Tamil, and lessons that are easy to follow and not too overwhelming.
  • Amazon.com: Tamil for Beginners (9780614166644): Books 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Dravidian languages ( in Dravidian languages: South Dravidian phonological development ; in Dravidian languages: Tamil ) introduction of punctuation ( in punctuation: Punctuation in Asian and African languages ) translation of Bible ( in biblical literature: Non-European versions ) spoken in .
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The syntax of written Tamil has also changed, with the introduction of new aspectual auxiliaries and more complex sentence structures, and with the emergence of a more rigid word order that resembles the syntactic argument structure of English.^ Interrogation is effected by changing the order of the words, i.e.

^ Structurally, Tamil is a verb-final language that allows flexibility regarding the order of the subject and the object in a sentence.
  • Tamil language -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ She has written widely, both in Tamil and English, on gender, popular culture, caste, and politics of Tamil Nadu.

[55] .Simultaneously, a strong strain of linguistic purism emerged in the early 20th century, culminating in the Pure Tamil Movement which called for removal of all Sanskritic and other foreign elements from Tamil.^ Tamil is purely Tamil, no sanskrit influence.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early Tamil epigraphy from the earliest times to the sixth century A.D. / Iravatham Mahadevan.

^ In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Tamilars migrated to some British colonies in search of employment and thus there are substantial Tamil populations in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji and South Africa.
  • Information about Tamilars, Tamil Language, Tamil Nadu, Tamil History - Online Entertainment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56] .It received some support from Dravidian parties and nationalists who supported Tamil independence.^ Pope was one of the earlier european linguists who attempted to unfold the beauties of the dravidian languages (tamil, kannada, telugu, malayalam...
  • Amazon.com: A Tamil Handbook: A Handbook of the Tamil Language (9780836416787): G. U. Pope: Books 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamils stateless, who prior to Independence enjoyed the same rights as other Ceylonese.
  • EelamWeb� - History of Tamil Eelam 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eelamweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Dravidian movement, which began in Tamil Nadu, claimed to uplift the socially repressed classes, but drew its main support from the middle classes.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] .This led to the replacement of a significant number of Sanskrit loanwords by Tamil equivalents.^ Unlike Sanskrit there is no dual number in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is why the number of people of Tamil descent whose first name is "Marie" and "Jean" is today significant.
  • Indentured immigration and social accomodation in La Reunion 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am allowing this post through, this once, simply as an addition to previous threads in this forum on the significance of (Vedic and Tantric) Soma and also on the Sanskrit/Tamil relationship.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[58]

Geographic distribution

Distribution of Tamil speakers in South India and Sri Lanka (1961).
.Tamil is the first language of the majority in Tamil Nadu, India and Northern Province, Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.^ Tamil: a language of India.

^ In India (excepting Tamil Nadu) and Sri Lanka the following institutions have programs for Tamil studies: .
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore.
  • Language Translation Services – Professional Tamil Translation Services worldwide 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.verbatimsolutions.com [Source type: Reference]

.The language is spoken by small groups of minorities in other parts of these two countries such as Karnataka, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra in case of India and Colombo, the hill country, in case of Sri Lanka.^ There are today two groups of Tamils in Sri Lanka.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other languages spoken in India are also spoken elsewhere.
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So is in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka and other locales.
  • Urdu speaking "Tamil Muslims" of Vellore, Tamil Nadu | TwoCircles.net 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.twocircles.net [Source type: Original source]

.There are currently sizable Tamil-speaking populations descended from colonial-era migrants in Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Réunion, South Africa, Indonesia[59], Thailand[60], Burma, and Vietnam.^ There is also a significant Tamil-speaking Muslim population in Sri Lanka .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A colonial-era photograph of a Tamil couple.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are currently sizeable Tamil-speaking populations descended from colonial-era migrants in Singapore, Malaysia, South Africa, and Mauritius.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.Many in Guyana, Fiji, Suriname, and Trinidad and Tobago have Tamil origins,[61] but only a small number speak the language.^ Find a Tamil-speaking language partner .

^ This is available for Tamil language only.
  • Kamban Software - Products 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamil.kamban.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last but not least, the Tamil language has begun to be re-learned by people of Tamil origin, notably by the children, who can now officially study it in the public schools.
  • Indentured immigration and social accomodation in La Reunion 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Groups of more recent migrants from Sri Lanka and India exist in Canada (especially Toronto), USA, European Union, United Kingdom, Australia, many Middle Eastern countries, and most of the western European countries.^ Ethnic groups in Sri Lanka .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also a number of Tamil emigrant communities scattered around the world, especially in central Sri Lanka , Malaysia , South Africa , Singapore , and Mauritius with more recent emigrants found in New Zealand , Australia , Canada , the United States , and Europe .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast, lower-middle to lower class Sri Lankans would not learn English until later, if at all, and most commonly used a vernacular.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

Legal status

.Tamil is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and one of the 22 languages under schedule 8 of the constitution of India.^ Tamil: a language of India.

^ Tamil is the official language in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry.Tamil is classed as a South Dravidan Language, and is one of the major dravidan Language of south India.

^ Tamil shall also be an official language.
  • groundviews » Language Barriers 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.groundviews.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is also one of the official languages of the union territories of Pondicherry[62] and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands[63] Tamil is also one of the official languages of Sri Lanka and Singapore.^ It is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu , and also has official status in Sri Lanka and Singapore.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamils are the majority in the union territory of Pondicherry , a former French colony.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.In Malaysia, 543 primary education government schools are available fully in Tamil medium[64].^ The divergence is a striking one of which Sri Lankans along with their government were quite aware, as this excerpt from Primary and Secondary Education, section (b) attests: .
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Regardless of what percentage of people choose English-medium schools – if given the choice – the state government’s role in forcing them one way or the other is questionable.

^ Being in the minority, for example, Tamil students often attended vernacular schools in which the medium of instruction was Sinhala.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.In addition, with the creation in 2004 of a legal status for classical languages by the government of India and following a political campaign supported by several Tamil associations[65][66] Tamil became the first legally recognised Classical language of India.^ Tamil has now attained the classical language status, he added.
  • World Tamil Conference/Coimbatore | C.R. Jayaprakash blogs on Media & Environment 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC blog.crjayaprakash.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Template:Cite web Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and was recognised as a classical language by the government of India .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil: a language of India.

The recognition was announced by the then President of India, Dr. Abdul Kalam, in a joint sitting of both houses of the Indian Parliament on June 6, 2004.[67][68][69]

Dialects

Region specific variations

.Tamil is a diglossic language.^ I already pointed out that Tamil is a diglossic language.

^ The very nature of the diglossic situation in Tamil demands the teaching/learning of both the written and spoken varieties in the context of second language teaching/learning.

^ This problem is accentuated for the fiction writers in Tamil, which being diglossic, has lexical and grammatical differences also in the way the language is written and spoken.

[70][71] .Tamil dialects are primarily differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil.^ Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated by the disparate phonological changes and sound shifts that have evolved from Old Tamil.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact vaTTezuttu is none other than the old Tamil script.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dialects Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.For example, the word for "here"—iṅku in Centamil (the classic variety)—has evolved into iṅkū in the Kongu dialect of Coimbatore, inga in the dialect of Thanjavur, and iṅkai in some dialects of Sri Lanka.^ Thus the word for "here" - iṅku in Centamil (the classic variety) - has evolved into iṅkū in the Kongu dialect of Coimbatore, inga in the dialect of Thanjavur, iṅkane in the dialect of Tirunelveli, iṅkuṭṭu in the dialect of Ramanathapuram, iṅkale and iṅkaṭe in various northern dialects and iṅkai in some dialects of Sri Lanka .
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ In Sri Lanka the standard is based on the dialect of Jaffna.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Our English speaking lite in Sri Lanka have evolved their own pronunciation that differs on one side from the British or American English and from local sub-standard English.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.Old Tamil's iṅkaṇ (where kaṇ means place) is the source of iṅkane in the dialect of Tirunelveli, Old Tamil iṅkaṭṭu is the source of iṅkuṭṭu in the dialect of Madurai, and iṅkaṭe in various northern dialects.^ Dialects Tamil dialects are mainly differentiated from each other by the fact that they have undergone different phonological changes and sound shifts in evolving from Old Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus the word for "here" - iṅku in Centamil (the classic variety) - has evolved into iṅkū in the Kongu dialect of Coimbatore, inga in the dialect of Thanjavur, iṅkane in the dialect of Tirunelveli, iṅkuṭṭu in the dialect of Ramanathapuram, iṅkale and iṅkaṭe in various northern dialects and iṅkai in some dialects of Sri Lanka .
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The main dialects include Sri Lanka, Northern, Western, Central, Eastern and Southern Tamil.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even now in Coimbatore area it is common to hear "akkaṭṭa" meaning "that place". Although Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions.^ Of course, there are a few exceptions.
  • groundviews » Language Barriers 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.groundviews.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although most Tamil dialects do not differ significantly in their vocabulary, there are a few exceptions.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several regional and caste dialects of Tamil that distinction between the literary and colloquial forms of the language.
  • Tamil language Course, Tamil Language, Learn Tamil in India 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.indovacations.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The dialects spoken in Sri Lanka retain many words and grammatical forms that are not in everyday use in India,[72] and use many other words slightly differently.^ It also has adapted many words from Sanskrit, other India languages and English.
  • Malayalam, a Dravidian language with about 35 million speakers. It is spoken mainly in the south west of India, particularly in Kerala, the Laccadive Islands and neighboring states, and also in Bahrain, Fiji, Israel, Malaysia, Qatar, Singapore, UAE and the UK. Kerala is a state on the tropical Malabar Coast of southwestern India. Kerala Chat & Malayalam Forums on site. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.keralacafe.com [Source type: General]

^ The dialects spoken in Sri Lanka retain many words that are not in everyday use in India , and use many other words slightly differently.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many grammatical forms are common.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73]

Loanword variations

.The dialect of the district of Palakkad in Kerala has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has also been influenced by Malayalam syntax and also has a distinct Malayalam accent.^ The dialect of the Iyers of Palakkad has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has also been influenced by Malayalam syntax and also has a distinct Malayalam accent.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The dialect of the Iyers of Palakkad has a large number of Malayalam loanwords, has been influenced by Malayalam syntax, and has a distinct Malayalam accent.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malayalam emerged as yet another distinct language in Kerala.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similarly, Tamil spoken in Kanyakumari District has unique words and phonetic style than Tamil spoken at other parts of Tamil Nadu.^ Main article: Districts of Tamil Nadu .
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil language is a older than any other languages...
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Even though Tamil is characterised by its use of retroflex consonants similar to the other Dravidian languages, it also uses a unique liquid l (ழ்).
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.The uniqueness of words and phonetics is such that, someone from Kanyakumari district is easily identified by the spoken Tamil.^ Such unreasonable attitude became obvious in analysing the origin of words that were common to Sanskrit and Tamil.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The borrowed words were to strictly conform to the Tamil phonetic system and to be written in the Tamil script.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the learned variety of the spoken language there were perhaps more such words with less assimilation.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hebbar and Mandyam dialects, spoken by groups of Tamil Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the eleventh century, retain many features of the Vaishnava paribasai, a special form of Tamil developed in the ninth and tenth centuries that reflect Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values.^ The Sankethi , Hebbar , and Mandyam dialects, the former spoken by groups of Tamil Iyers , and the latter two by Vaishnavites who migrated to Karnataka in the 11th century , retains many Vaishnavite religious and spiritual values.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first are the Sri Lankan Tamils , who either descend from the Tamils of the old Jaffna kingdom or who migrated to the East coast.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of us have personal experiences of people who have changed their identity from Sinhala to Tamil or vice versa, that is, in this birth itself.
  • transcurrents » Blindness Of Sinhala Demagogues And Tamil Liberators 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC transcurrents.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74] .Several castes have their own sociolects which most members of that caste traditionally used regardless of where they come from.^ Perhaps they are either using Internet resources at home or buying their own books.
  • Library Provision to the Tamil community in Singapore 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC libres.curtin.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of them ( especially the young guys who use computer) knows english and they like english MORE THAN malayalam(beleive it or not !
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much before brahmi scripts could become popular the Tamils possessed a script of their own which they put to use in their commercial transactions and in their writings.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is often possible to identify a person's caste by their speech.[75] .Tamil in Sri Lanka incorporates loan words from Portuguese,Dutch and English also.^ In addition, Tamil speaking populations are found in Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Fiji Islands and South Africa.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here you can browse the dictionary for Tamil or English meanings and use the powerful search facility to search for words in Tamil or English.
  • India's Premier Digital Print Web Multimedia Design Studio & Training Plus Online Store 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cadgraf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • India's Premier Digital Print Web Multimedia Design Studio & Training Plus Online Store 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.cadgraf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They argued that the pure Tamil words would be limited and all thoughts could not be expressed with them along and the example of English was cited to borrow freely for development.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spoken and literary variants

.In addition to its various dialects, Tamil exhibits different forms: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language (sankattamiḻ), a modern literary and formal style (centamiḻ), and a modern colloquial form (koṭuntamiḻ).^ There is little difference in syntax between ancient and modern Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Classical Tamil tradition seems to differ from this.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spoken and literary variants In addition to its various dialects, Tamil exhibits different forms: a classical literary style modelled on the ancient language (caṅkattamiḻ), a modern literary and formal style (centamiḻ), and a modern colloquial form ( koṭuntamiḻ ).
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.These styles shade into each other, forming a stylistic continuum.^ These styles shade into each other, forming a stylistic continuum.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ These territories which were isolated from each other and administered as separate areas were brought together into one administrative unit by the British in 1833.
  • EelamWeb� - History of Tamil Eelam 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.eelamweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are only a few to talk about; we have a few others which do not fall into any of these "standards."
  • http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Tamil-Linux-HOWTO.html 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.^ For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ The written form is more basic than any other dialect for deriving the various dialectal forms.

^ The various forms of these participials in both their positive and negative forms (and also, for example, by their use of pronominal suffixes in relative participial nouns) serve a number of purposes normally taken up by the finite verb in their various conjugated forms and the relative pronoun or clause in other grammars.

[76]
.In modern times, centamiḻ is generally used in formal writing and speech.^ In modern times, centamiḻ is generally used in formal writing and speech.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ This diglossia was perpetuated by schooling through the control of schools by those public intellectuals, who were a privy to the formal variety of Tamil used to write poetry and to the political and cultural reward this language through education offered in the pre-modern Tamil nation.

^ For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.For instance, it is the language of textbooks, of much of Tamil literature and of public speaking and debate.^ Last but not least, the Tamil language has begun to be re-learned by people of Tamil origin, notably by the children, who can now officially study it in the public schools.
  • Indentured immigration and social accomodation in La Reunion 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lib.berkeley.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the US there are about ten universities that have programs for Tamil language and literatures, and culture etc.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first, which took place in March 1932, opened council debates to be conducted in vernacular languages of Sinhala and Tamil.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

In recent times, however, koṭuntamiḻ has been making inroads into areas that have traditionally been considered the province of centamiḻ. .Most contemporary cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koṭuntamiḻ, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience.^ Most contemporary cinema, theatre and popular entertainment on television and radio, for example, is in koṭuntamiḻ, and many politicians use it to bring themselves closer to their audience.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, it is possible to write centamiḻ with a vocabulary drawn from caṅkattamiḻ, or to use forms associated with one of the other variants while speaking koṭuntamiḻ.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ To mobilize the newly franchised adults, these politicians found themselves invoking primordial loyalties as the most reliable political appeal.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

.The increasing use of koṭuntamiḻ in modern times has led to the emergence of unofficial ‘standard' spoken dialects.^ The increasing use of koṭuntamiḻ in modern times has led to the emergence of unofficial 'standard' spoken dialects.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ This has led to a situation in Tamil that using the spoken language in fiction means using the dialects (which includes the variety the urban educated class, which mixes Tamil speech with English words and phrases).

^ In India, the 'standard' koṭuntamiḻ is based on 'educated non-brahmin speech', rather than on any one dialect, but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.In India, the ‘standard' koṭuntamiḻ is based on ‘educated non-brahmin speech', rather than on any one dialect,[77] but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai.^ In India, the 'standard' koṭuntamiḻ is based on 'educated non-brahmin speech', rather than on any one dialect, but has been significantly influenced by the dialects of Thanjavur and Madurai.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ With more than 77 million speakers, an ancient history, a rich and continuous literature, and an international and modern presence, Tamil is one of the major languages of the world.
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

^ Why do people from India always seem to talk about one language being "older" than another?
  • languagehat.com: HISTORY OF KANNADA. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Sri Lanka the standard is based on the dialect of Jaffna.^ ISBN 81-259-0461-1 in the Jaffna peninsula and parts of northern Sri Lanka.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our English speaking lite in Sri Lanka have evolved their own pronunciation that differs on one side from the British or American English and from local sub-standard English.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nallur Kandaswamy temple in Jaffna There is little consensus on the history of the Tamil-speaking parts of Sri Lanka prior to the Chola period.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Writing system

An eleventh century vaṭṭeḻuttu inscription, from the Brihadisvara temple in Thanjavur
.Tamil is written using a script called the vaṭṭeḻuttu.^ Tamil is written in an alpha-syllabic system derived from the Ashokan Brahmi script.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first six lines of the inscription are written in Tamil language, in Tamil script, A final half line is written in Chinese.
  • The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ismaili.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The borrowed words were to strictly conform to the Tamil phonetic system and to be written in the Tamil script.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Tamil script consists of 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the āytam.^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These vowels and consonants can form up to 216 compound characters by combining with each other which results in a total of 247 characters.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vowels and consonants combine to form 216 compound characters, giving a total of 247 characters.^ These vowels and consonants can form up to 216 compound characters by combining with each other which results in a total of 247 characters.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For a typist, apart from remembering the vowels and consonants, he/she has to remember the keys for combination letters as well.
  • Kamban Software - Products 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamil.kamban.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.All consonants have an inherent vowel a, as with other Indic scripts.^ Part-0: The Tamil script: Alphabet Chart Learn to write: Vowels Consonants Similarities Transliteration Scheme (includes info on Tamil poetry and Music) Numbers .
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uyir by itself, such as aeoui, will be all ethereal, with no solidity, while consonant clusters such as brkjtp will be all hard and lifeless as stones without the enlivening vowels.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In scriptual form, Tamil is made up of 247 scripts which comprise of 12 vowels 18 consonants and 1 aytham.
  • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This inherency is removed by adding an overdot called a puḷḷi, to the consonantal sign. For example, is ṉa (with the inherent a) and ன் is (without a vowel). .Many Indic scripts have a similar sign, generically called virama, but the Tamil script is somewhat different in that it nearly always uses a visible puḷḷi to indicate a dead consonant (a consonant without a vowel).^ Tamil-Linux is a failure, so are many indic linux.
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like many of the Indic scripts, it's only relatively recently that fonts capable of producing the complex ligatures required from a string of Unicode characters have been available.
  • languagehat.com: HISTORY OF KANNADA. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: Original source]

.In other Indic scripts, it is generally preferred to use a ligature or a half form to write a syllable or a cluster containing a dead consonant, although writing it with a visible virama is also possible.^ Like many of the Indic scripts, it's only relatively recently that fonts capable of producing the complex ligatures required from a string of Unicode characters have been available.
  • languagehat.com: HISTORY OF KANNADA. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.languagehat.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Much before brahmi scripts could become popular the Tamils possessed a script of their own which they put to use in their commercial transactions and in their writings.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand without etymology (some form of it) there is no writing.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Tamil script does not differentiate voiced and unvoiced plosives.^ One is about the archaic phonology of the Tamil or Dravidian languages in general particularly about the lack of the distinction between voiced and nonvoiced plosives such [g] anf [k] and so forth.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

.Instead, plosives are articulated with voice depending on their position in a word, in accordance with the rules of Tamil phonology.^ However, the evidence-in matters of deep grammar, lexicon, and probably even in phonology-is such that the positing of some kind of non-accidental connexion between Japanese and Tamil (Dravidian) is not intrinsically ruled out.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we represent Tamil words in English, the Tamil rules of sound must be respected.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Therefore the one Tamil consonant ka (k) is pronounced like gha depending upon its placement in a word.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition to the standard characters, six characters taken from the Grantha script, which was used in the Tamil region to write Sanskrit, are sometimes used to represent sounds not native to Tamil, that is, words adopted from Sanskrit, Prakrit and other languages.^ His earlier writings abound in Sanskrit words.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we represent Tamil words in English, the Tamil rules of sound must be respected.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The traditional system prescribed by classical grammars for writing loan-words, which involves respelling them in accordance with Tamil phonology, remains, but is not always consistently applied.^ But Classical Tamil tradition seems to differ from this.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional Tamil newspapers printed pronouncements regarding the replacement of loan words in the language.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ But the commentators of grammatical and literary works wrote in chaste Tamil with the least number of Sanskrit loan words.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78]

Sounds

Tamil phonology is characterised by the presence of retroflex consonants and multiple rhotics. .Tamil does not distinguish phonologically between voiced and unvoiced consonants; phonetically, voice is assigned depending on a consonant's position in a word.^ In fact, Tamil does not distinguish phonetically between voiced and mute consonants ( g and k here), and is hence obliged to render both from Sanskrit by the same letter, which is why I spell my name (‘Sunthar’) with a th (pronounced as in ‘ the ’ English definite article) instead of a (ought to be reserved for cerebral?
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are no distinct letters for surds and sonants in Tamil, the vowel consonants themselves are pronounced like surds and sonants depending on the place in which they appear.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79] .Tamil phonology permits few consonant clusters, which can never be word initial.^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Do we still speak Tamil …even a few words?
  • TMK - Thamizh Munnetra Kazhagam of South Africa 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamil.blat.co.za [Source type: General]

^ Telugu is not derived from Tamil, 99.9 % of telugu words are exactly same as Sanskrit, but later few words are taken from Tamil, Tamil also adopted few words from telugu.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Native grammarians classify Tamil phonemes into vowels, consonants, and a "secondary character", the āytam.^ These vowels and consonants can form up to 216 compound characters by combining with each other which results in a total of 247 characters.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vowels

.Tamil vowels are called uyireḻuttu (uyir – life, eḻuttu – letter).^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are no distinct letters for surds and sonants in Tamil, the vowel consonants themselves are pronounced like surds and sonants depending on the place in which they appear.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vowels are classified into short (kuṟil) and long (five of each type) and two diphthongs, /ai/ and /au/, and three "shortened" (kuṟṟiyl) vowels.^ It is therefore, needless to emphasise the importance of short and long vowels like e and ee/E (, 2); as well as o and O (, ) in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The two vowels ru ( ) and lu ( ), which are there in Devanagari, are not there in Tarr.ih The short-nature u () and i ( ) sounds are in Tamil, but there are no letters to indicate them.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are twelve vowels in Tamil consisting of five short vowels Unnecessary Polemics Tamil language and literature.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The long (neṭil) vowels are about twice as long as the short vowels.^ Primary stress is assigned to the first syllable of the word, unless the vowel in the first syllable is short and is followed by a long vowel in the second.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ It is therefore, needless to emphasise the importance of short and long vowels like e and ee/E (, 2); as well as o and O (, ) in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is therefore, needless to emphasise the importance of short and long vowels like e and ee/E (±, ²); as well as o and O (´, µ ) in Tamil.
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The diphthongs are usually pronounced about 1.5 times as long as the short vowels, though most grammatical texts place them with the long vowels.^ Primary stress is assigned to the first syllable of the word, unless the vowel in the first syllable is short and is followed by a long vowel in the second.
  • UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.lmp.ucla.edu [Source type: Reference]

^ Your name is written ‘Loga’ for short because that is how k is pronounced in Tamil between the two vowels.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Though my knowledge of Sanskrit is just the tip of the iceberg, typing in Sanskrit, printing out verses of wisdom, etc have been my wishes for quite a long time.

Short Long
Front Central Back Front Central Back
Close e u
Mid a o
Open a (ai) (aw)
ஒள

Consonants

.Tamil consonants are known as meyyeḻuttu (mey—body, eḻuttu—letters).^ The Tamil script is known as vaṭṭeḻuttu, it contains 18 consonants, 12 vowels and a special character called aytam.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Interestingly, the Tamil word for vowels, Uyir means life, and the word for consonants, Mey means both body and reality.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although there are no distinct letters for surds and sonants in Tamil, the vowel consonants themselves are pronounced like surds and sonants depending on the place in which they appear.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The consonants are classified into three categories with six in each category: valliṉam—hard, melliṉam—soft or Nasal, and iṭayiṉam—medium.^ It classifies Tamil words into four categories, iyarcol , tiricol , ticaiccol , and vatacol .
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike most Indian languages, Tamil does not distinguish aspirated and unaspirated consonants.^ Tamil belongs to southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around twenty-six languages native to the Indian subcontinent.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are no aspirated consonants like gha or cha in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nevertheless, Madras is the capital city of Tamilnadu, and Tamil does dominate all the other Indian languages spoken in the city.
  • World Tamil Conference/Coimbatore | C.R. Jayaprakash blogs on Media & Environment 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC blog.crjayaprakash.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In addition, the voicing of plosives is governed by strict rules in centamiḻ. Plosives are unvoiced if they occur word-initially or doubled. Elsewhere they are voiced, with a few becoming fricatives intervocalically. Nasals and approximants are always voiced.[80]
.As commonplace in languages of India, Tamil is characterised by its use of more than one type of coronal consonants.^ Use the control (Ctrl) key to select more than one language pair.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tamil is a more logical language than most other languages.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So far no one in India has ever called Tamil a Prakirit language.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

.Retroflex consonants include the retroflex approximant /ɻ/ (ழ) (example Tamil), which among the Dravidian languages is also found in Malayalam (example Kozhikode), disappeared from Kannada in pronunciation at around 1000 AD (the dedicated letter is still found in Unicode), and was never present in Telugu.^ The consonant z (ú) is found only in Tamil and Malayalam.
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Look at Malayalam, which is is also a language deriving from Dravidians.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Languages such as Kolami, Parji, Naiki, Gondi, Ku, Kuvi, Konda, Malta, Oroan, Gadba, Khurukh, and Brahui are examples of Dravidian languages prevalent in the North.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[81] .Dental and alveolar consonants also contrast with each other, a typically Dravidian trait not found in the neighboring Indo-Aryan languages.^ Tamil was praised to be the mother of Dravidian languages as Sanskrit was of Indo-Aryan languages.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A comparative dictionary of Indo-Aryan languages .
  • Digital Dictionaries of South Asia 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC dsal.uchicago.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Even though Tamil is characterised by its use of retroflex consonants similar to the other Dravidian languages, it also uses a unique liquid l (ழ்).
  • Tamil Language - India Discussion Forum 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.vinfoindia.com [Source type: General]

.In spoken Tamil, however, this contrast has been largely lost, and even in literary Tamil, and may be seen as allophonic.^ As mentioned before, a large number of manuscripts of Tamil literary works of the past were discovered and printed in the last and the present centuries.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How much more beneficial it would be if sketches were allowed that used colloquial Tamil or even Tamil as it is spoken in films (or in India)!
  • TMK - Thamizh Munnetra Kazhagam of South Africa » PROUDLY SOUTH AFRICAN, PUTTING TAMIL FIRST. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamil.blat.co.za [Source type: General]

^ They are of the opinion that the Tamil literary field needs new experiments and new developments and they believe that their attempt may contribute something to the Tamil literature.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
A chart of the Tamil consonant phonemes in the International Phonetic Alphabet follows:[83]
Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar
Plosives p (b) t̪ (d̪) ʈ (ɖ) tʃ (dʒ) k (ɡ)
Nasals m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
Tap ɾ̪
Trill r
Central approximants ʋ ɻ j
Lateral approximants ɭ
Phonemes in brackets are voiced equivalents. .Both voiceless and voiced forms are represented by the same character in Tamil, and voicing is determined by context.^ Tamilic form can be coined, that would be more acceptable even if it is not a literal translation of the word but represents the object better.
  •  Learning & Teaching Tamil - தமிழ் கல்வி - Tamil Teaching Resources 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Writing speech in Tamil fiction abounds in instances like the same word being written differently (either different spellings of a spoken word or spelling it either as spoken or as written conventionally) in the same sentence or in different sentences in the speech of the same character.

.The sounds /f/ and /ʂ/ are peripheral to the phonology of Tamil, being found only in loanwords and frequently replaced by native sounds.^ Tamil and Bengali natives only.

^ Tamil natives only.

^ The consonant z (ú) is found only in Tamil and Malayalam.
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There are well-defined rules for elision in Tamil categorised into different classes based on the phoneme which undergoes elision.^ Different types of Tamil sentences and their word order have been studied with the aim to transfer the English sentences into Tamil.

^ These views based mainly on Tolkaappiyam and Classical Tamil, I belief may NOT be applicable to the Archaic situation such as Sumerian where such phonemes seem to exist.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Dialectical differences arose partly due to the political division of the Tamil country into three distinct Tamil kingdoms and partly due to the natural barriers created by rivers and mountains.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Āytam

.Classical Tamil also had a phoneme called the Āytam, written as ‘ஃ'. Tamil grammarians of the time classified it as a dependent phoneme (or restricted phoneme[84] ) (cārpeḻuttu), but it is very rare in modern Tamil.^ Both classical and folk performing arts survive in modern Tamil society.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Present Period - 20th Century CE onwards For our purposes, the Tamil literature may broadly be classified into: (i) Sangam Classics (ii) Bhakthi or Devotional Literature (iii) Ethics, and (iv) Modern Literature .
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil shares a classical musical tradition, called carnatic music , with the rest of South India .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rules of pronunciation given in the Tolkāppiyam, a text on the grammar of Classical Tamil, suggest that the āytam could have glottalised the sounds it was combined with.^ Classical literature and inscriptions also describe a number of Velirs , or minor chieftains, who collectively ruled over large parts of central Tamil Nadu .
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The classical works, Tolkappiyam and Nannul do not, for instance, lay down a schema similar to Grauls sevenfold classification which Arden has popularised in his modern grammar of spoken Tamil.

It has also been suggested that the āytam was used to represent the voiced implosive (or closing part or the first half) of geminated voiced plosives inside a word.[85] .The Āytam, in modern Tamil, is also used to convert pa to fa (not the retroflex zha [ɻ]) when writing English words using the Tamil script.^ The language's vocabulary is primarily composed of Dravidian words, this is because Modern Tamil is characterized by a strong sense of linguistic purism.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This diglossia was perpetuated by schooling through the control of schools by those public intellectuals, who were a privy to the formal variety of Tamil used to write poetry and to the political and cultural reward this language through education offered in the pre-modern Tamil nation.

^ They argued that the pure Tamil words would be limited and all thoughts could not be expressed with them along and the example of English was cited to borrow freely for development.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Numerals & Symbols

.Apart from the usual numerals, Tamil also has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, and numeral are present as well.^ On New Years Day the following year, I showed Prof. Jaroslav Vacek of Charles University in Prague a list of the word correspondences I had collected for Tamil and Japanese.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The option -m 50 specifies the magnification for the fonts; I have seen some Tamil fonts working well only with -m 100 .
  • http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Tamil-Linux-HOWTO.html 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second day, Surya Pongal , is the main day which falls on the first day of the Tamil month Thai (January 14 or January 15 in western calendar).
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1000
day month year debit credit as above rupee numeral

Grammar

.Tamil employs agglutinative grammar, where suffixes are used to mark noun class, number, and case, verb tense and other grammatical categories.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tenses of each Tamil Verb are conjugated, and the .

^ The various forms of these participials in both their positive and negative forms (and also, for example, by their use of pronominal suffixes in relative participial nouns) serve a number of purposes normally taken up by the finite verb in their various conjugated forms and the relative pronoun or clause in other grammars.

.Tamil's standard metalinguistic terminology and scholarly vocabularly is itself Tamil, as opposed to the Sanskrit that is standard for most other Dravidian languages.^ Introduction Tamil is a member of the Dravidian languages.
  • http://www.faqs.org/docs/Linux-HOWTO/Tamil-Linux-HOWTO.html 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telugu is the most nearest language of Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[86][87]
.Much of Tamil grammar is extensively described in the oldest known grammar book for Tamil, the Tolkāppiyam.^ Tholkappiyam: Tholkappiyam, the earliest grammar available in Tamil, deals with phonology and morphophonemics in the firs part known as Ezuttatikaaram.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manimegalai Publishers, Known for the Tamil Vaanan Books and Self Help Books, Have already Launched Many Comics Books Including the Memorable “Thirumbi Varavillai - திரும்பி வரவில்லை”.
  • Tamil Comics Ulagam - தமிழ் காமிக்ஸ் உலகம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC tamilcomicsulagam.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Modern Tamil writing is largely based on the 13th century grammar Naṉṉūl which restated and clarified the rules of the Tolkāppiyam, with some modifications.^ A grammar of modern Tamil.

^ They ruled a large portion of Tamil Nadu with Kanchipuram as their base.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As mentioned before, a large number of manuscripts of Tamil literary works of the past were discovered and printed in the last and the present centuries.
  • Untitled Document 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.ciil-ebooks.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditional Tamil grammar consists of five parts, namely eḻuttu, col, poruḷ, yāppu, aṇi.^ There are twelve vowels in Tamil consisting of five short vowels Unnecessary Polemics Tamil language and literature.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TAMIL GRAMMATICAL TRADITION In general, grammar includes phonology, morphology and syntax.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name of god or archetype was different in each landscape among the five different landscapes of the Tamil land.
  • Information about Tamilars, Tamil Language, Tamil Nadu, Tamil History - Online Entertainment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Of these, the last two are mostly applied in poetry.[88]
.Tamil words consist of a lexical root to which one or more affixes are attached.^ In practice, these cases are more often dealt with in the parsing stage, as the algorithm for lexical choice during generation are high-overhead, especially for content words.

^ Knowing her application may be denied because she has not presented herself using Tamil only, the women quickly replaces the word with a Tamil one.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore the one Tamil consonant ka (k) is pronounced like gha depending upon its placement in a word.
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Most Tamil affixes are suffixes. .Tamil suffixes can be derivational suffixes, which either change the part of speech of the word or its meaning, or inflectional suffixes, which mark categories such as person, number, mood, tense, etc.^ Originally it was derived from the word tamil /tamiz> .
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My derivation is just one of several possibilities even considering the many meanings in Tamil alone.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

.There is no absolute limit on the length and extent of agglutination, which can lead to long words with a large number of suffixes.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Unlike Sanskrit there is no dual number in Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He used foreign words only when there were no suitable Tamil words to express a particular idea.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Morphology

.Tamil nouns (and pronouns) are classified into two super-classes (tiṇai)—the "rational" (uyartiṇai), and the "irrational" (akṟiṇai)—which include a total of five classes (pāl, which literally means ‘gender').^ Percentage of marks in French-96% DISSERTATION IN M.A., Translation of two stories written by Azha.Valliyappa from Tamil into ...

^ This has led to a situation in Tamil that using the spoken language in fiction means using the dialects (which includes the variety the urban educated class, which mixes Tamil speech with English words and phrases).

^ It classifies Tamil words into four categories, iyarcol, tiricol, ticaiccol, and vatacol.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Humans and deities are classified as "rational", and all other nouns (animals, objects, abstract nouns) are classified as irrational.^ Money has become the most preferred medium to express one's friendship, love, respect and all kinds of emotions to other human beings.

.The "rational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of three classes (pāl)—masculine singular, feminine singular, and rational plural.^ AkRiNai is classified into onRan paal (singular of the impersonal class) and palvin pal (plural of the impersonal class).
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are three genders in uyartiNai : masculine, feminine and neuter.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Masculine and feminine genders in Tamil indicate only singular number.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The "irrational" nouns and pronouns belong to one of two classes – irrational singular and irrational plural.^ AkRiNai is classified into onRan paal (singular of the impersonal class) and palvin pal (plural of the impersonal class).
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pāl is often indicated through suffixes. .The plural form for rational nouns may be used as an honorific, gender-neutral, singular form.^ Agglutination does NOT refer to the use of compound words, but rather to certain types of affixation, forming verb and/or noun paradigms.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[89]
.Suffixes are used to perform the functions of cases or postpositions.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.Traditional grammarians tried to group the various suffixes into eight cases corresponding to the cases used in Sanskrit.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Part of this rich and varied literary output includes a Tamil indigenous grammatical tradition independent of that of the ancient Sanskrit grammarians.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To all intents and purposes, I should normally be able to rest my case here, but any study of influences over a period of centuries would have to take into account the variations in the language used.

These were the nominative, accusative, dative, sociative, genitive, instrumental, locative, and ablative. .Modern grammarians argue that this classification is artificial, and that Tamil usage is best understood if each suffix or combination of suffixes is seen as marking a separate case.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Template:Cite web The Hill Country Tamils and Ceylon Tamils historically have seen themselves as separate communities.
  • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you require Tamil translation service, Tomedes guarantees the best deal combining high quality translation, low translation cost and fast delivery.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] .Tamil nouns can take one of four prefixes, i, a, u, and e which are functionally equivalent to the demonstratives in English.^ What is the equivalent expression in Tamil for ‘Good morning’ in English?
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A writer closely identified with Dravidian politics and especially the DMK, he for one argued that the Tamil term for culture was in no sense derivative of its English analogue.

^ While there is a decreasing usage of the Tamil language, it is nonetheless a functional language as it is recognized as one of the four official languages in Singapore and is used in government campaigns, public education programs, and public functions.
  • Library Provision to the Tamil community in Singapore 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC libres.curtin.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tamil verbs are also inflected through the use of suffixes.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A little more syntactic work is required to produce an actual Tamil sentence, including inflecting the verb.

^ Many indicate that the library could, through facilitating the reading and use of the Tamil language, help in promoting the usage of the Tamil language in Singapore .
  • Library Provision to the Tamil community in Singapore 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC libres.curtin.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A typical Tamil verb form will have a number of suffixes, which show person, number, mood, tense, and voice.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Case inflexions are many in Tamil and their indicators form as suffixes in words.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 1990 population census showed that there was an 8 per cent drop in the number of Tamil speaking households compared to 1980.
  • Library Provision to the Tamil community in Singapore 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC libres.curtin.edu.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.
  • Person and number are indicated by suffixing the oblique case of the relevant pronoun.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
    • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The nouns indicate animate and inanimate categories of things, gender, number and person.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Case inflexions are many in Tamil and their indicators form as suffixes in words.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The suffixes to indicate tenses and voice are formed from grammatical particles, which are added to the stem.
  • Tamil has two voices.^ Case inflexions are many in Tamil and their indicators form as suffixes in words.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
    • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The two vowels ru ( ) and lu ( ), which are there in Devanagari, are not there in Tarr.ih The short-nature u () and i ( ) sounds are in Tamil, but there are no letters to indicate them.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The first indicates that the subject of the sentence undergoes or is the object of the action named by the verb stem, and the second indicates that the subject of the sentence directs the action referred to by the verb stem.
  • Tamil has three simple tenses—past, present, and future—indicated by the suffixes, as well as a series of perfects indicated by compound suffixes.^ Tenses of each Tamil Verb are conjugated, and the .

    ^ There are three 'persons' in Tamil, namely, first person, second person and third person.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
    • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Mood is implicit in Tamil, and is normally reflected by the same morphemes which mark tense categories.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
    • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

    Tamil verbs also mark evidentiality, through the addition of the hearsay clitic ām.[91]
.Traditional grammars of Tamil do not distinguish between adjectives and adverbs, including both of them under the category uriccol, although modern grammarians tend to distinguish between them on morphological and syntactical grounds.^ A grammar of modern Tamil.

^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ TAMIL GRAMMATICAL TRADITION In general, grammar includes phonology, morphology and syntax.
  • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] Tamil has a large number of ideophones that act as adverbs indicating the way the object in a given state "says" or "sounds".[93]
Tamil does not have articles. .Definiteness and indefiniteness are either indicated by special grammatical devices, such as using the number "one" as an indefinite article, or by the context.^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A word can have several meanings even within one language and for an ancient language such as Tamil the numbers can often run into more than a hundred.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The one used in medieval period was either uN or uNTi .
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] .In the first person plural, Tamil makes a distinction between inclusive pronouns நாம் nām (we), நமது namatu (our) that include the addressee and exclusive pronouns நாங்கள் nāṅkaḷ (we), எமது ematu (our) that do not.^ PRONOUNS both in Tamil and Malay have much in common, the intimate second persons and polite forms and the inclusive and exclusive first person plurals, with one difference however: pronouns in Tamil are declined like nouns into seven cases.

^ If the latter is the case, the demonstrative pronoun indicating objects far was the same between old Tamil and Japanese.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scholars are surprised today to note many linguistic similarities between Tamil and Brahui, especially in numerals, personal pronouns, syntax and in other linguistic features.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]

Syntax

.Tamil is a consistently head-final language.^ The first six lines of the inscription are written in Tamil language, in Tamil script, A final half line is written in Chinese.
  • The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ismaili.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are twelve vowels in Tamil consisting of five short vowels Unnecessary Polemics Tamil language and literature.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The verb comes at the end of the clause, with typical word order Subject Object Verb (SOV).^ Object comes before verb.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Auxiliary verb comes after the verb and at the end of sentence.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike in Japanese, the personal suffix comes at the end of a Tamil verb, but this was not always the rule at a time when CaGkam poems were written, and never the case in the Malayalam language.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .However, word order in Tamil is also flexible, so that surface permutations of the SOV order are possible with different pragmatic effects.^ Heres a selection of Malay words of Sanskrit, Hindustani, English, Portuguese, Chinese and Javanese origin from the above-mentioned dictionary with their possible counterparts in Tamil.

^ They refused to consider the possibility that Sanskrit would have borrowed these common words from Tamil, the most ancient language of the region, and even propagated that most of the words in Tamil had been borrowed from Sanskrit.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though foreign loan words were used in Tamil in lesser or greater degree for various reasons and at different periods of time, the Tamil language itself retained its individuality.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tamil has postpositions rather than prepositions.^ Portions of ezhutthadhikaram / soladhikaram (the oldest works actually use the Tamil "-pal" rather than the Sanskritised "-adhikaram") are considered the oldest, while portions of poruladhikaram are considered the latest.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Demonstratives and modifiers precede the noun within the noun phrase. .Subordinate clauses precede the verb of the matrix clause.^ The same applies to complex sentences with the difference that all subordinate clauses must of necessity precede the main clause and be terminated by participials.

Tamil is a null subject language. .Not all Tamil sentences have subjects, verbs, and objects.^ A little more syntactic work is required to produce an actual Tamil sentence, including inflecting the verb.

^ The consonant/vowel correspondences between Japanese and Tamil in the particles and auxiliary verbs listed above are all supported by the consonant-vowel correspondences in the word roots of noun, adjective, and verb.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil also requires that in all sentences the cause precede the effect.

.It is possible to construct grammatically valid and meaningful sentences which lack one or more of the three.^ Programming a computer to understand that sentence is more difficult, largely because the computer lacks the kind of prior experience that would enable to know what is supposed to understand.

.For example, a sentence may only have a verb—such as muṭintuviṭṭatu ("completed")—or only a subject and object, without a verb such as atu eṉ vīṭu ("That [is] my house").^ I can understand, however, that as he is probably only familiar with modern Japanese, this example, known by any graduate in Japanese literature, appears to Miller to be one of my ghosts.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tamil does not have a copula (a linking verb equivalent to the word is).^ How many Tamil letters and words does Telugu have?
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The scope of the present research work is a wider spectrum of identifying translation equivalents ranging from words to sentences and transferring the linguistic discourse in English into Tamil.

^ [I’ve provided the Sanskrit equivalents of Tamil words below in square brackets].
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

.The word is included in the translations only to convey the meaning more easily.^ Instances are not wanting that while translating names of places from Tamil into Sanskrit, the Sanskrit scholars failed to comprehend the real meaning of the criginal Tamil words and translated them erroneously.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vocabulary

.The vocabulary of Tamil is mainly Dravidian.^ The language's vocabulary is primarily composed of Dravidian words, this is because Modern Tamil is characterized by a strong sense of linguistic purism.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

.A strong sense of linguistic purism is found in Modern Tamil,[96] which opposes the use of foreign loan-words.^ The language's vocabulary is primarily composed of Dravidian words, this is because Modern Tamil is characterized by a strong sense of linguistic purism.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Further, five of the Sanskrit words commencing with the proclitic adi have practically the same meaning in the Tamil use of ati .

^ When the Tamil language entered the public sphere of the modern period (in the sense of Habermas as defined by other scholars (Crosslay, Nick and Roberts, John M (eds.

[97] .Nonetheless, a number of words used in classical and modern Tamil indicate copying from languages of neighbouring groups, or with whom the Tamils had trading links, including Munda (e.g.^ The language's vocabulary is primarily composed of Dravidian words, this is because Modern Tamil is characterized by a strong sense of linguistic purism.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Tamil grammar is agglutinative and uses suffixes to mark out noun class, case, verb tense, number among other grammatical categories.
  • Professional Tamil translation services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tomedes.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The former refers to the classical Tamil used exclusively by literati in their works and the latter refers to the colloquial Tamil, spoken by the people.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

tavaḷai "frog" from Munda tabeg), Malay (e.g. cavvarici "sago" from Malay sāgu), Chinese (e.g. campān "skiff" from Chinese san-pan) and Greek (e.g. ora from Greek ὥρα). .In more modern times, Tamil has imported words from Arabic, Persian, Urdu and Marathi, reflecting groups that have influenced the Tamil area at various points of time, and from neighbouring languages such as Telugu, Kannada, and Sinhala.^ I do translate from and into English /­Arabic/­ Tamil and Sinhala languages.

^ Sanskrit, Persian, Arabic and English have influenced it.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other languages that are popular in the state are Kannada, Urdu and Malayalam (though they are spoken by much smaller percentage).
  • Languages Spoken in Tamil Nadu - Tamil Language in Tamilnadu - Major Languages of Tamil Nadu 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.bharatonline.com [Source type: General]

.During the modern period, words have also been adapted from European languages, such as Portuguese, French, and English.^ I borrow the language of norm and form from Paul Rabinow, French Modern .

^ When the Tamil language entered the public sphere of the modern period (in the sense of Habermas as defined by other scholars (Crosslay, Nick and Roberts, John M (eds.

^ But we must have a standard in which people can write borrowed words from English, Sanskrit, Telugu, Arabic, Russian (try ‘Stalin’), and other languages if they wish.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[98]
.The strongest impact of purism in Tamil has been on words taken from Sanskrit.^ You can trace 95% of the words in malayalam to either English, Sanskrit or to Tamil.
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  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such unreasonable attitude became obvious in analysing the origin of words that were common to Sanskrit and Tamil.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further, five of the Sanskrit words commencing with the proclitic adi have practically the same meaning in the Tamil use of ati .

.During its history, Tamil, along with other Dravidian languages like Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam etc., was influenced by Sanskrit in terms of vocabulary, grammar and literary styles,[99][100][101][102] reflecting the increased trend of Sanskritisation in the Tamil country.^ Telugu is the most nearest language of Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the end all major Indian languages are Dravidian just as Tamil Malayalam, Kannada Telugu and so forth are .
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[103] .Tamil vocabulary never became quite as heavily Sanskritised as that of the other Dravidian languages, and unlike in those languages, it was and remains possible to express complex ideas – including in science, art, religion and law – without the use of Sanskrit loan words.^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
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^ One group preferred to use as far as possible a pure Tamil without the admixture of Sanskrit words; others preferred to write in a hybrid language.
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  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or is it possible to get a Ph.D. in Tamil linguistics without ever studying the history, scope and nature of Sanskritic loans in Dravidian languages?
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[104] .In addition, Sanskritisation was actively resisted by a number of authors of the late medieval period,[105] culminating in the 20th century in a movement called taṉit tamiḻ iyakkam (meaning pure Tamil movement), led by Parithimaar Kalaignar and Maraimalai Adigal, which sought to remove the accumulated influence of Sanskrit on Tamil.^ Herman Tieken, a Dutch author, who endeavours to trace the influence of the Sanskrit Kavya tradition on the entire Sangam corpus, argues that the Tolkappiyam dates from the 9th century CE in his book, "Kāvya in South India : old Tamil Caṅkam poetry".
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Maraimalai Adigal and other elite Vellala scholars of the early 20th century have been rightly criticized for identifying Tamil cultural heritage with the imagined nature of a single dominant community (Pandian, Chalapathy, others).1 But these writers have nonetheless exercised a powerful influence on Tamil cultural nationalism in the twentieth century.

^ Tanit-Tamil Iyakkam (Pure Tamil Movement) Sanskrit scholars attempted to Sanskritise Tamil several centuries ago by the liberal use of Sanskrit words.
  • all Truth summarised abt Tamil n sanskrit 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC forumhub.mayyam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .As a result of this, Tamil in formal documents, literature and public speeches has seen a marked decline in the use Sanskrit loan words in the past few decades,[107] under some estimates having fallen from 40–50% to about 20%[58].^ From time immemorial a few Sanskrit words had been intermixed with Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This diglossia was perpetuated by schooling through the control of schools by those public intellectuals, who were a privy to the formal variety of Tamil used to write poetry and to the political and cultural reward this language through education offered in the pre-modern Tamil nation.

^ It only contains about 42,000 words in total, unlike the Nihon kokugo daijiten which contains about 4,50,000 words.
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.As a result, the Prakrit and Sanskrit loan words used in modern Tamil are, unlike in some other Dravidian languages, restricted mainly to some spiritual terminology and abstract nouns.^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result the Dravidian language spoken by the people.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following some of the discussion over the inclusion of Sanskrit words in the English language.
  • Hindu Civilization dialogues - Etymologizing in Sumero-Tamil, Sanskrit & Indo-European: is ‘comparative linguistics’ just a genocidal ‘scientific’ joke? 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.svabhinava.org [Source type: Original source]

[108]
.In the twentieth century, institutions and learned bodies have, with government support, generated technical dictionaries for Tamil containing neologisms and words derived from Tamil roots to replace loan words from English and other languages.^ Telugu and other Indian languages were derived from Tamil and Sanskrit.
  • The oldest language | Science Blog 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC scienceblog.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Support for other Indic languages was added .
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux | Linux Journal 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC m.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Regional Tamil newspapers printed pronouncements regarding the replacement of loan words in the language.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

[56]
.Words of Tamil origin occur in other languages.^ Originally it was derived from the word tamil /tamiz> .
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Such unreasonable attitude became obvious in analysing the origin of words that were common to Sanskrit and Tamil.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Tamil word ciini for sugar indicates its origin.
  • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A brief History and Features of the Tamil Language (Prof. M. Varadarajan) 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC tamilelibrary.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Popular examples in English are cheroot (curuṭṭu meaning "rolled up"),[109] mango (from mangai),[109] mulligatawny (from miḷaku taṉṉir meaning pepper water), pariah (from paraiyar), curry (from kari),[110] and catamaran (from kaṭṭu maram, கட்டு மரம், meaning "bundled logs"),[109] pandal (shed, shelter, booth),[109] tyer (curd),[109] coir (rope).^ For example, for the noun subject in English has the meanings "kuTimakan", "peecappaTum viSayam", "ezuvaay" and "ndipandtanaikku uTpaTu" in Tamil.

[111] .Tamil words are also found in Sinhala and Malay.^ Most of the Japanese samples are words in the ancient language, and the Tamil samples are those found in Cangkam verses.
  • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Speakers of either Sinhala or Tamil exclusively found themselves excluded from social mobility.
  • (Post)Colonial language: English, Sinhala, and Tamil in Sri Lanka 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.chass.utoronto.ca [Source type: Original source]

See also

References

  • Andronov, M.S. (1970). Dravidian Languages. .Nauka Publishing House. 
  • Abraham, Shinu (2003), "Chera, Chola, Pandya: Using Archaeological Evidence to Identify the Tamil Kingdoms of Early Historic South India", Asian Perspectives 42 (2): 207–223 
  • Annamalai, E.; Steever, S.B. (1998), "Modern Tamil", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 100–128, ISBN 0415100232 
  • Caldwell, Robert.^ Inscriptions in south India indicate that during the first two decades of the eleventh century, relations between the Chola state and Srivijaya had intensified, as the Southeast Asian state made overtures to the Cholas in an effort to consolidate trade relations.
    • The medieval Tamil-language inscriptions in Southeast Asia and China. 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.ismaili.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This diglossia was perpetuated by schooling through the control of schools by those public intellectuals, who were a privy to the formal variety of Tamil used to write poetry and to the political and cultural reward this language through education offered in the pre-modern Tamil nation.

    ^ The edicts of the famous Indian Emperor Asoka also mention that during his rule the Tamil kings in the far south of India enjoyed political independence.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages.^ In his major work, A Co~nparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Language, the English missionary R. Caidwell, cites resemblances and discusses the connection between the two languages.
    • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Comparative linguist Akira Fujiwara, began publishing the results of his research on Dravidian in 1974.
    • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The term Dravidian, which refers to the language of South India, is of a later origin.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp.
  • Fabricius, Johann Philip (1933 and 1972), Tamil and English Dictionary.^ English Translation of the original work in Tamil has been published by Sahitya Academy, New Delhi.
    • Tamil Language - A brief review of its history and features 17 September 2009 21:39 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    based on .J.P. Fabricius Malabar-English Dictionary, 3rd and 4th Edition Revised and Enlarged by David Bexell.^ The dictionary I have chosen is R.J.Wilkinsons 1908 An Abridged Malay-English Dictionary which has most fortunately been revised and enlarged by about 800 words, half of which are modern, by A.E.Coope in 1948.

    ^ A revised and enlarged edition appeared in 1984 (hereafter abbreviated DEDR).
    • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Evangelical Lutheran Mission Publishing House, Tranquebar; called Tranquebar Dictionary.
  • Ferro-Luzzi, G.E. (2001), "Tieken, Herman, Kavya in South India (Book review)", Asian Folklore Studies (June 2001): 373–374 
  • Freeman, Rich (February 1998), "Rubies and Coral: The Lapidary Crafting of Language in Kerala", The Journal of Asian Studies 57 (1): 38–65, doi:10.2307/2659023 
  • Hart, George L. (1975), The poems of ancient Tamil : their milieu and their Sanskrit counterparts, Berkeley: University of California Press, ISBN 0520026721 
  • Hart, George (2004), "Review of Tieken's Kavya in South India.", Journal of the American Oriental Institute 124 (1): 180–184 
  • Kandiah, T. (1978), "Standard Language and Socio-Historical Parameters: Standard Lankan Tamil", International Journal of the Sociology of Language 16: 59–75 
  • Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003), The Dravidian Languages, Cambridge Language Surveys, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521771110 
  • Kuiper, F. B. J. (1958), "Two problems of old Tamil phonology", Indo-Iranian Journal 2 (3): 191–224 
  • Kesavapany, K.; Mani, A; Ramasamy, Palanisamy (2008), Rising India and Indian Communities in East Asia, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, ISBN 9812307990 
  • Lehmann, Thomas (1989), A Grammar of Modern Tamil, Pondicherry: Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture 
  • Lehmann, Thomas (1998), "Old Tamil", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 75–99, ISBN 0415100232 
  • Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003), Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., Harvard Oriental Series vol.^ Which is the earliest grammar in Tamil?
    • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ TAMIL LANGUAGE FACTS Tamil is considered as the language of the south India .
    • Tamil Translation Services India Tamil Translation Services Company India Tamil Translators Tamil Language Translation Indian Translation Services English to Tamil Translation Services, Language Translation Services Translation Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ This book has been translated into many Indian and foreign languages.
    • South Asia Language Resource Center - Tamilweb 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.thetamillanguage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .62, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674012275 
  • Maloney, Clarence (1970), "The Beginnings of Civilization in South India", The Journal of Asian Studies 23 (3): 603–616, doi:10.2307/2943246, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2943246 
  • Meenakshisundaram, T.P. (1965), A History of Tamil Language, Poona: Deccan College 
  • Monius, Anne E. (2002), "Book review", The Journal of Asian Studies 61 (4): 1404–1406 
  • Menon, A. Govindankutty (1990), "Some Observations on the Sub-Group Tamil-Malayalam: Differential Realizations of the Cluster *nt", Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London 53 (1): 87–99 
  • Ramstedt, Martin (2004), Hinduism in modern Indonesia, London: Routledge, ISBN 0700715339 
  • Pope, GU (1868).^ This diglossia was perpetuated by schooling through the control of schools by those public intellectuals, who were a privy to the formal variety of Tamil used to write poetry and to the political and cultural reward this language through education offered in the pre-modern Tamil nation.

    ^ St John's House, 54 St John's Square, London, EC1V 4JL www.listenandlearn.org .
    • Listen & Learn // Tamil Courses and Tamil Language Services UK & Ireland 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.listenandlearn.org [Source type: General]

    ^ Template:Cite web Tamil literature is of considerable antiquity, and was recognised as a classical language by the government of India .
    • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .A Tamil hand-book, or, Full introduction to the common dialect of that language.^ Template:Cite book The dynasty does not appear to have been Tamil in origin, although they rapidly adopted the local culture and the Tamil language .
    • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Brief Introduction to Tamil Language - கல்தோ ன்றி மண் தோன்றாக் காலத்தே வாளோடு முன்தோன்றிய மூத்தகுடி.
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although not a dialect, the Tamil spoken in Chennai infuses English words, and is called Madras Bashai (Madras language).
    • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    (3rd ed.). Madras, Higginbotham & Co.
  • Rajam, VS (1985), "The duration of an action – real or aspectual? .The evolution of the present tense in Tamil", Journal of the American Oriental Society 105 (2): 277–291 
  • Rajam, VS (1992), A Reference Grammar of Classical Tamil Poetry, Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, ISBN 087169199X 
  • Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997), "Laboring for language", Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970, Berkeley: University of California Press, http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4 
  • Schiffman, Harold F. (1998), "Standardization or restandardization: The case for ‘Standard' Spoken Tamil", Language in Society 27: 359–385 
  • Shapiro, Michael C.; Schiffman, Harold F. (1983), Language and society in South Asia, Dordrecht: Foris 
  • Southworth, Franklin C. (1998), "On the Origin of the word tamiz", International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 27 (1): 129–132 
  • Southworth, Franklin C. (2005), Linguistic archaeology of South Asia, Routledge, ISBN 0415333237 
  • Steever, Sanford (1998), "Introduction", in Steever, Sanford, The Dravidian Languages, London: Routledge, pp. 1–39, ISBN 0415100232 
  • Steever, Sanford (2005), The Tamil auxiliary verb system, London: Routledge, ISBN 041534672X 
  • Tharu, Susie; Lalita, K., eds.^ TAMIL LANGUAGE FACTS Tamil is considered as the language of the south India .
    • Tamil Translation Services India Tamil Translation Services Company India Tamil Translators Tamil Language Translation Indian Translation Services English to Tamil Translation Services, Language Translation Services Translation Services 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.crystalhues.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ Other languages spoken in India are also spoken elsewhere.
    • Indian Language Solutions for GNU/Linux 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.linuxjournal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Trivandrum: 27 th All India Conference of Dravidian Linguistics.

    (1991), Women Writing in India: 600 B.C. to the present – Vol. .1: 600 B.C. to the early twentieth century, Feminist Press, ISBN 1558610278 
  • Tieken, Herman (2001), Kavya in South India: Old Tamil Cankam Poetry, Gonda Indological Studies, Volume X, Groningen: Egbert Forsten Publishing, ISBN 9069801345 
  • Varadarajan, Mu.^ Tamil Heroic Poetry: A Comparative Study - K.Kailasapathy .
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Cheran has published seven anthologies of poetry in Tamil.

    ^ A History of Tamil Literature - Mu Varadarajan, Translated from the Tamil by E.Sa.Visswanathan, .
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(1988), A History of Tamil Literature, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi  (Translated from Tamil by E.Sa.^ Related Qualification: Ph.D. - Translation < Tamil - English > MA - English Language and Literature Diploma in Natural ...

    ^ A History of Tamil Literature - Mu Varadarajan, Translated from the Tamil by E.Sa.Visswanathan, .
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Professor S.Vaiyapuri Pillai declares in his well regarded 'History of Tamil Language and Literature': .
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Viswanathan)
  • Wilden, Eva, "Towards an Internal Chronology of Cankam Literature or, How to Trace the Laws of a Poetic Universe: A Revision of Herman Tieken's 'Kavya in South India'", Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südostasiens 46: 105–133 
  • Zvelebil, Kamil (1992), Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature, Leiden: Brill, ISBN 9004093656 

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b c Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International.
  2. ^ "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People". MSN Encarta. http://encarta.msn.com/media_701500404/Languages_Spoken_by_More_Than_10_Million_People.html. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  3. ^ "Official languages". UNESCO. http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=22495&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Retrieved 2007-05-10. 
  4. ^ "Official languages of Tamilnadu". Tamilnadu Government. http://www.tn.gov.in/welcometn.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  5. ^ "Official languages of Srilanka". State department, US. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5249.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-01. 
  6. ^ "Official languages and national language". Constitution of the Republic of Singapore. Government of Singapore. http://statutes.agc.gov.sg/non_version/cgi-bin/DisplayContent.pl?DOCID=1999-REVED-CONST&VID=931158661-003601&WEF=latest&TYPE=simple&mode=and&version=currentVersion&query1=official%20language. Retrieved 2008-04-22. 
  7. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. 12: "...the most acceptable periodisation which has so far been suggested for the development of Tamil writing seems to me to be that of A Chidambaranatha Chettiar (1907–1967): 1. Sangam Literature – 200BC to AD 200; 2. Post Sangam literature – AD 200 – AD 600; 3. Early Medieval literature – AD 600 to AD 1200; 4. Later Medieval literature – AD 1200 to AD 1800; 5. Pre-Modern literature – AD 1800 to 1900"
  8. ^ Maloney 1970, p. 610
  9. ^ Classical Tamil, Government of India
  10. ^ Abraham 2003
  11. ^ "Tamil Brahmi script in Egypt". The Hindu. 2007-11-21. http://www.hinduonnet.com/2007/11/21/stories/2007112158412400.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  12. ^ "Tamil-Brahmi inscription on pottery found in Thailand". The Hindu. 2006-07-16. http://www.hindu.com/2006/07/16/stories/2006071603952000.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-11. 
  13. ^ http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=23087&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  14. ^ http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=23084&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  15. ^ http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=26531&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html
  16. ^ Staff Reporter (November 22, 2005). "Students get glimpse of heritage". The Hindu. http://www.thehindu.com/2005/11/22/stories/2005112215970400.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-26. 
  17. ^ India 2001: A Reference Annual 2001. Compiled and edited by Research, Reference and Training Division, Publications Division, New Delhi: Government of India, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting.
  18. ^ Krishnamurti 2003, p. 19
  19. ^ Prof. A.K. Perumal, Manorama Yearbook (Tamil) 2005 pp.302–318
  20. ^ Freeman 1998, p. 39
  21. ^ Menon 1990
  22. ^ Andronov 1970, p. 21
  23. ^ Southworth 2005, pp. 249–250
  24. ^ Southworth 2005, pp. 250–251
  25. ^ a b c d Lehmann 1998, p. 75
  26. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. x
  27. ^ Southworth 1998, pp. 129–132
  28. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. ix–xvi
  29. ^ Mahadevan 2003, pp. 90–95
  30. ^ Lehmann 1998, p. 75. The dating of Sangam literature and the identification of its language with Old Tamil have recently been questioned by Herman Tieken who argues that the works are better understood as 9th century Pāṇṭiyan dynasty compositions, deliberately written in an archaising style to make them seem older than they were (Tieken 2001). Tieken's dating has, however, been criticised by reviewers of his work. See e.g. Hart 2004, Ferro-Luzzi 2001, Monius 2002 and Wilden 2003
  31. ^ Tharu & Lalitha 1991, p. 70
  32. ^ Lehmann 1998, pp. 75–6
  33. ^ Krishnamurthi 2003, p. 53
  34. ^ Krishnamurthi 2003, p. 92
  35. ^ Krishnamurthi 2003, pp. 182-193
  36. ^ Steever 1998, p. 24
  37. ^ Lehmann 1998, p. 80
  38. ^ Kuiper 1958, p. 194
  39. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, pp. 132–133
  40. ^ Kuiper 1958, pp. 213–215
  41. ^ Rajam 1985, pp. 284–285
  42. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, pp. 173–174
  43. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, pp. 153–154
  44. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, pp. 145–146
  45. ^ Mahadevan 2003, pp. 208–213
  46. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, p. 119
  47. ^ Varadarajan 1988
  48. ^ Varadarajan 1988, pp. 155–157
  49. ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. 227
  50. ^ Shapiro & Schiffman 1983, p. 2
  51. ^ Annamalai & Steever 1998, p. 100
  52. ^ Steever 2005, pp. 107–8
  53. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, p. 125
  54. ^ Meenakshisundaran 1965, pp. 122–123
  55. ^ Kandiah 1978, pp. 65–69
  56. ^ a b Ramaswamy 1997
  57. ^ Ramaswamy 1997: "Dravidianism, too, lent its support to the contestatory classicist project, motivated principally by the political imperative of countering (Sanskritic) Indian nationalism... It was not until the DMK came to power in 1967 that such demands were fulfilled, and the pure Tamil cause received a boost, although purification efforts are not particularly high on the agenda of either the Dravidian movement or the Dravidianist idiom of tamiḻppaṟṟu."
  58. ^ a b Krishnamurti 2003, p. 480
  59. ^ Ramstedt 243
  60. ^ Kesavapany 60
  61. ^ McMahon, Suzanne. "Overview of the South Asian Diaspora". University of California, Berkeley. http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SouthAsia/overview.html. Retrieved 2008-04-23. 
  62. ^ Ramamoorthy, L. Multilingualism and Second Language Acquisition and Learning in Pondicherry. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
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  64. ^ http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/sparadox/sparadox.html
  65. ^ "Classic case of politics of language". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraphindia.com/1040928/asp/frontpage/story_3813391.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-20. "Members of the committee felt that the pressure was being brought on it because of the compulsions of the Congress and the UPA government to appease its ally, M. Karunanidhi's DMK." 
  66. ^ S.S. Vasan. "Recognising a classic". The Hindu. http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl2122/stories/20041105004310600.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  67. ^ Thirumalai, Ph.D., M. S. (November 2004). "Tradition, Modernity and Impact of Globalization – Whither Will Tamil Go?". Language in India 4. http://www.languageinindia.com/nov2004/tamilglobalization1.html. Retrieved 2007-11-17. 
  68. ^ BBC. India sets up classical languages. August 17, 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  69. ^ The Hindu. Sanskrit to be declared classical language. October 28, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
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  71. ^ Francis Britto. "Diglossia: A Study of the Theory, with Application to Tamil", Language, Vol. 64, No. 1 (Mar., 1988), pp. 152–155. doi:10.2307/414796
  72. ^ Thomas Lehmann, "Old Tamil" in Sanford Steever (ed.), The Dravidian Languages Routledge, 1998 at p. 75; E. Annamalai and S. Steever, "Modern Tamil" in ibid. at pp. 100–128.
  73. ^ Kamil Zvelebil, "Some features of Ceylon Tamil" Indo-Iranian Journal 9:2 (June 1996) pp. 113–138.
  74. ^ Thiru. Mu. Kovintācāriyar, Vāḻaiyaṭi vāḻai Lifco, Madras, 1978 at pp. 26–39.
  75. ^ "Tamil dialects". Encyclopædia Britannica Online See Tamil language.. http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9071110. Retrieved 2007-03-28.  [subscription required]
  76. ^ Harold Schiffman, "Diglossia as a Sociolinguistic Situation", in Florian Coulmas (ed.), The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. London: Basil Blackwell, Ltd., 1997 at pp. 205 et seq.
  77. ^ Harold Schiffman, "Standardization or restandardization: The case for ‘Standard' Spoken Tamil". Language in Society 27 (1998), pp. 359–385.
  78. ^ Fowler, Murray (1954). "The Segmental Phonemes of Sanskritized Tamil". Language 30 (3): 360–367. doi:10.2307/410134.  at p. 360.
  79. ^ Schiffman, Harold F.; Arokianathan, S. (1986). "Diglossic variation in Tamil film and fiction". in Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju; Masica, Colin P.. South Asian languages: structure, convergence, and diglossia. New Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 8120800338.  at p. 371
  80. ^ See e.g. the pronunciation guidelines in G.U. Pope (1868). .A Tamil hand-book, or, Full introduction to the common dialect of that language.^ Template:Cite book The dynasty does not appear to have been Tamil in origin, although they rapidly adopted the local culture and the Tamil language .
    • Tamil - NativeWiki 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.nativewiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A Brief Introduction to Tamil Language - கல்தோ ன்றி மண் தோன்றாக் காலத்தே வாளோடு முன்தோன்றிய மூத்தகுடி.
    • Tamil  Language &  Tamil Literature - தமிழ் மொழி, தமிழ் இலக்கியம், தமிழ் இலக்கனம் 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC www.tamilnation.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Although not a dialect, the Tamil spoken in Chennai infuses English words, and is called Madras Bashai (Madras language).
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    (3rd ed.). Madras, Higginbotham & Co.
  81. ^ V. S. Rajam. "A Reference Grammar of Classical Tamil Poetry: 150 B.C.-Pre-Fifth/Sixth Century A.D.". http://books.google.com/books?id=2Qwf3pAxJpUC&pg=PA40&ots=kqeR3TbYVk&dq=Tamil+retroflex+consonants&sig=xUZeNAJUhQOR6UMroReeMr0Kwtg#PPA40,M1. Retrieved 2007-06-01. 
  82. ^ Schiffman, Harold F. (1995). "Phonetics of Spoken Tamil". A Grammar of Spoken Tamil. pp. 12–13. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/tamilweb/book/chapter1/node5.html. Retrieved 2009-08-28. 
  83. ^ E. Annamalai and S.B. Steever, "Modern Tamil" in S.B. Steevar (Ed.), The Dravidian Languages, London and New York, Routledge 1998, p100-128
  84. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge University Press. pp. 154. ISBN 0521771110. 
  85. ^ See generally F. B. J. Kuiper, "Two problems of old Tamil phonology", Indo-Iranian Journal 2:3 (September 1958) pp. 191–224, esp. pp. 191–207.
  86. ^ Kamil Zvelebil. "Google Books version of the book The Smile of Murugan by Kamil Zvelebil". http://books.google.com/books?id=VF2VMUoY_okC&pg=PA4&lpg=PA4&dq=metalanguage+of+tamil&source=web&ots=Jx1AizWlxq&sig=YyyqYLWsiqrRv27txT-dYD8Nla0#PPA4,M1. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  87. ^ A.K. Ramanujam and V. Dharwadker (Ed.), The collected essays of A.K. Ramanujam, Oxford University Press 2000, p.111
  88. ^ ""Five fold grammar of Tamil"". http://www.southasia.upenn.edu/tamil/lit.html. Retrieved 2007-06-01. 
  89. ^ ""Classes of nouns in Tamil"". http://books.google.com/books?id=AfwCAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA156&dq=%22Classes+of+nouns+in+Tamil%22. Retrieved 2007-06-01. 
  90. ^ Harold Schiffman, "Standardization and Restandardization: the case of Spoken Tamil", Language in Society 27:3 (1998) pp. 359–385 and esp. pp.374–375.
  91. ^ Steever, Sanford B. (2002). "Direct and indirect discourse in Tamil". in Güldemann, Tom; von Roncador, Manfred. Reported Discourse: A Meeting Ground for Different Linguistic Domains. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 91–108. ISBN 9027229589.  at p. 105.
  92. ^ Lehmann, Thomas (1989). A Grammar of Modern Tamil. Pondicherry: Pondicherry Institute of Linguistics and Culture.  at pp. 9–11
  93. ^ Swiderski, Richard M. (1996). The metamorphosis of English: versions of other languages. New York: Bergin & Garvey. pp. 61. ISBN 0-89789-468-5. 
  94. ^ a b Annamalai, E.; Steever, S.B. (1998). "Modern Tamil". in Steever, Sanford B.. The Dravidian Languages. London: Routledge. pp. 100–128. ISBN 0415100232.  at p. 109.
  95. ^ ""Tamil is a head-final language"". http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/schuh/lx001/Discussion/d02.html. Retrieved 2007-06-01. 
  96. ^ Sumathi Ramaswamy, En/Gendering Language: The Poetics of Tamil Identity" Comparative Studies in Society and History 35:4. (Oct. 1993), pp. 683–725.
  97. ^ Krishnamurti 2003, p. 480.
  98. ^ Meenakshisundaram 1965, pp. 169–193
  99. ^ "Literature in all Dravidian languages owes a great deal to Sanskrit, the magic wand whose touch raised each of the languages from a level of patois to that of a literary idiom" (Sastri 1955, p309); Trautmann, Thomas R. 2006. Languages and nations: the Dravidian proof in colonial Madras. Berkeley: University of California Press; "The author endeavours to demonstrate that the entire Sangam poetic corpus follows the "Kavya" form of Sanskrit poetry"-Tieken, Herman Joseph Hugo. 2001. Kāvya in South India: old Tamil Caṅkam poetry. Groningen: Egbert Forsten; Vaiyapuri Pillai in Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995, p18.
  100. ^ See Vaidyanathan's analysis of an early medieval text in S. Vaidyanathan, "Indo-Aryan loan words in the Civakacintamani" Journal of the American Oriental Society 87:4. (Oct – Dec 1967), pp. 430–434.
  101. ^ Caldwell, Robert. .1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages.^ In his major work, A Co~nparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Language, the English missionary R. Caidwell, cites resemblances and discusses the connection between the two languages.
    • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Comparative linguist Akira Fujiwara, began publishing the results of his research on Dravidian in 1974.
    • THE GENEALOGY OF THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE 14 January 2010 20:020 UTC arutkural.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The term Dravidian, which refers to the language of South India, is of a later origin.
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    New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp, p87, 88
  102. ^ Takahashi, Takanobu. 1995. Tamil love poetry and poetics. Brill's Indological library, v. 9. Leiden: E.J. Brill, p16,18
  103. ^ Sheldon Pollock, "The Sanskrit Cosmopolis 300–1300: Transculturation, vernacularisation and the question of ideology" in Jan E.M. Houben (ed.), The ideology and status of Sanskrit: Contributions to the history of the Sanskrit language (E.J. Brill, Leiden: 1996) at pp. 209–217.
  104. ^ Trautmann, Thomas R. (1999). "Hullabaloo About Telugu". South Asian Research 19 (1): 53–70. doi:10.1177/026272809901900104.  at p. 64; Caldwell, Robert. 1974. A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages. New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp, p 50; Ellis, F.W. (1820), "Note to the introduction" in Campbell, A.D., A grammar of the Teloogoo language. Madras: College Press, pp. 29–30.
  105. ^ See Ramaswamy's analysis of one such text, the Tamiḻ viṭututu, in Sumathi Ramaswamy, "Language of the People in the World of Gods: Ideologies of Tamil before the Nation" The Journal of Asian Studies, 57:1. (Feb. 1998), pp. 66–92.
  106. ^ Dr. M. Varadarajan, A History of Tamil Literature, (Translated from Tamil by E.Sa. Viswanathan), Sahitya Akademi, New Delhi, 1988– p.12 "Since then the movement has been popularly known as the tanittamil iyakkam or the Pure Tamil movement among the Tamil scholars."
  107. ^ Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). "Laboring for language". Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891–1970. Berkeley: University of California Press. http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=ch4. "Nevertheless, even impressionistically-speaking, the marked decline in the use of foreign words, especially of Sanskritic origin, in Tamil literary, scholarly, and even bureaucratic circles over the past half century is quite striking." 
  108. ^ Dr.T.P. Meenakshisundaram, A History of Tamil Language, Sarvodaya Ilakkiya Pannai, 1982 (translated) p. 241-2
  109. ^ a b c d e "Oxford English Dictionary Online". Oxford English Dictionary. http://dictionary.oed.com. Retrieved 2007-04-14. 
  110. ^ "curry, n.2", The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd ed. 1989. OED Online. Oxford University Press. 14 Aug. 2009<http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50056122>.
  111. ^ "Entry in the Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/coir. Retrieved 2007-04-14. 

External links

Tamil language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Simple English

Tamil is a language. It is spoken in the Tamil Nadu state of India, and in Sri Lanka, Singapore and Malaysia. It belongs to the Dravidian language family. It is a classical language, and one of world's oldest literary languages. The oldest text found in Tamil is Tolkāppiyam. Tamil is the one of the oldest living language in the world.

bjn:Bahasa Tamilkrc:Тамил тилrue:Тамільскый язык



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