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Tamil Nadu
தமிழ்நாடு

Seal
Location of Tamil Nadu in India
Coordinates 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.09°N 80.27°E / 13.09; 80.27
Country  India
District(s) 32
Established 1956-11-01
Capital Chennai
Largest city Chennai
Governor Surjit Singh Barnala
Chief Minister M Karunanidhi
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (235)
Population
Density
66396000 (7th)
511 /km2 (1,323 /sq mi)
Official languages Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area 130058 km2 (50216 sq mi)
ISO 3166-2 IN-TN
Website tn.gov.in
.Tamil Nadu (Tamil: தமிழ்நாடு "Country of the Tamils", pronounced [t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ]( listen)) is one of the 28 states of India.^ Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state in E-Governance initiatives in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I had been to India four times, but never to the south, so I had little idea of what to expect in December, when I flew with my friend Tini into Chennai , the capital of Tamil Nadu.
  • Journeys - Tamil Nadu, India - Tamil Nadu�s Stone Temples - NYTimes.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanization (43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of India’s total population and 9.6% of the urban population.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its capital and largest city is Chennai (formerly known as Madras).^ Chennai , which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India Chennai, which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu Chennai The capital of Tamil Nadu, is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and main centre of this region.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

.Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian Peninsula and is bordered by Puducherry (Pondicherry), Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.^ The bordering states/territories are Pondicherry , Kerala , Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBM Colleges in Chennai MBBS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BDS Colleges in Chennai BDS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BHMS Colleges in Andhra Pradesh We will send you some more information related to MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu.
  • MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu | MCA Colleges 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.amitbhawani.com [Source type: News]

^ In fact, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa are the only three States in this group to have shown a decline in decadal percentage change in population in every decade since 1971.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Mannar, the Palk Strait in the south east, and by the Indian Ocean in the south.^ It is the sixth most populous State of the Indian Union behind Uttar Pradesh , Maharashtra , Bihar , West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tamil Nadu is the eleventh largest state in India by area (about the size of Greece) and the seventh most populous state.^ State Bank of India holiday homes in tamil nadu in chennai .
  • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide - Tamil Nadu Holidays 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu has the Largest urban agglomeration nationwide [ 1 ] and is the second most industrialized state in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil Nadu has the Largest urban agglomeration nationwide [ link ] and is the second most industrialized state in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2] .It is the fifth largest contributor to India's GDP[3] and the most urbanised state in India.^ India Chennai, which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Traditionally a manufacturing Indian state, Tamil Nadu is also a leading producer of agricultural products.The sixth most populous state in the Indian Union, Tamil Nadu has the largest Indian urban agglomeration nationwide.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Chennai , which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The state has the highest number (10.56%) of business enterprises in India,[5] compared to the population share of about 6%.^ According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanization (43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of India’s total population and 9.6% of the urban population.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanization (43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of India's total population and 9.6% of the urban population.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Approximately 47% of Tamil Nadu's population live in urban areas, one of the highest percentages in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the foremost states in the country in terms of overall development.^ One of India’s most developed states, it also has beaches and lush farmland, and its cuisine is among the most flavorful — and hottest — in India.
  • Journeys - Tamil Nadu, India - Tamil Nadu�s Stone Temples - NYTimes.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

[6][7]
.The region has been the home of the Tamil civilization since at least 1500 BC, as attested by numerous archeological sites in and around Adichanallur.^ The ancient Tamil literature points to an ancient civilisation lasting since the dawn of time.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hayagriva Technologies (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Since 2006, Hayagriva Technologies has been providing IT services and IT Training to Software companies around the world.

^ Navigation Training Classes Home New Training Seminars New Training Providers Site Map Submit a Site Training Keywords Training Seminars Training Providers Regions Publications Training Search Advertise Training Seminars Provider Login Custom Search Resources For Tamil Nadu .

.Its classical language Tamil has been in use in inscriptions and literature for 2500 years.^ In many ways, it is a country within a country, proudly preserving its ancient Dravidian culture, most noticeably in the widespread use of the Tamil language.
  • Journeys - Tamil Nadu, India - Tamil Nadu�s Stone Temples - NYTimes.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu and it achieved the classical language status in India(as well as one of the official languages of India).
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu and it achieved the classical language status in India (as well as one of the official languages of India).
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tamil Nadu is home to many natural resources, grand Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture, hill stations, beach resorts, multi-religious pilgrimage sites and eight UNESCO World Heritage Sites.^ Tamil Nadu home .
  • Group A: Hyderabad (India) v Tamil Nadu at Hyderabad (Decc), Dec 15-18, 2009 | Cricket Scorecard | Cricinfo.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.cricinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ponnur Hills, Vadavasi, Tiruvannamalai, Tamil Nadu – 604505 Phone: 04183-225986 Fax: 04183-225986 Email: thiruvalluvar12@yahoo.co.in Website:www.thiruvalluvat.e .
  • MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu | MCA Colleges 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.amitbhawani.com [Source type: News]

^ DMK romps home in Tamil Nadu by-polls DMK romps home in Tamil Nadu by-polls DMK romps home in Tamil Nadu by-polls Jaya slams DMK; decribes win in Tamil Nadu bypolls...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

[8][9]

Contents

History

Prehistory

.
A sculpture at Airavatesvara Temple, Darasuram, built by Tamil Chola Kings.
^ It was built by King Rajendra Chozhan, son of Raja Raja Chozhan, who built the Brihadeeswara Temple at Tanjavur.

^ The world's oldest dam was built across the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu by King Karikala Chola.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The group of monuments are UNESCO World Heritage sites
.Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times.^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ India Tamil Nadu, the land of the Tamils is the southern-most India state of Tamil Nadu is bordered by Puducherry, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.India Tamil Nadu has had continuous human habitation since pre-historic times.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ From early pre-history Tamil Nadu was the home of the three famous kingdoms of the Chera , the Chola and the Pandya .
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archealogical evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also known as the auto capital of India, Chennai is the home of Marina Beach , one of longest beaches in the world.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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In Adichanallur, 24 km (15 mi) from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic celts, giving evidence confirming them to be of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.[10] The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi.[11] Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies.[12] About 60% of the epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India have been from Tamil Nadu and most of which are in Tamil language[13]
.Recently there have been more discoveries of the evidence of prehistoric creatures inhabiting the landscape of what is now modern Tamil Nadu in the shape of eggs of dinosaurs and other animals of their kind.^ BBM Colleges in Chennai MBBS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BDS Colleges in Chennai BDS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BHMS Colleges in Andhra Pradesh We will send you some more information related to MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu.
  • MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu | MCA Colleges 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.amitbhawani.com [Source type: News]

^ Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem and Tirunelveli are other large cities (Corporations) of India Tamil Nadu.The art and culture of Tamils are among the oldest in India and the world.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Click below for more information on Tamil Nadu cities...
  • travel guides of tamil nadu, tour tamilnadu, hotels and accommodation in tamil nadu, travel packages tamilnadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-travelinfo.com [Source type: General]

.Geologists in Tamil Nadu have stumbled upon a Jurassic treasure trove buried in the sands of a river bed.^ Tamil Nadu agriculture is heavily dependent on the river water and Monsoon rains.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The world's oldest dam was built across the Kaveri river in Tamil Nadu by King Karikala Chola.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sheer luck led them to hundreds of fossilized dinosaur eggs, perhaps 65 million years old, underneath a stream in a tiny village in Ariyalur district.^ Forty thousand and and one hundred only) to Saghaduna Begum and her three year old son Imran Hussain.

[14] Researchers from the Salem-based Periyar University found clusters of eggs of what they believe to be the most aggressive Carnosaur and the docile, leaf-eating Sauropod at Sendurai village. While Carnosaurs were large predatory dinasaurs, Sauropods were long-necked, herbivores which grew to enormous heights and sizes.[15]

Age of Empires (600–1300)

.The medieval period of the history of the Tamil country saw the rise and fall of many kingdoms, some of whom went on to the extent of empires, exerting influences both in India and overseas.^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From early pre-history Tamil Nadu was the home of the three famous kingdoms of the Chera , the Chola and the Pandya .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early Cholas went into decline around the third century CE, when the Tamil country was invaded by Kalabhras who defeated the Tamil kingdoms and ruled for almost three centuries.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries.^ The early Cholas reigned between 1st and 4th centuries CE. The first and the most famous king of this period was Karikala Chola , who expanded the Chola territories up to Kanchipuram .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Scholars now generally agree that this literature belongs to the first few centuries CE. The Sangam literature is full of names of the kings and the princes, and of the poets who extolled them.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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[16] The period started with the rivalry between the Pandyas and the Pallavas, which in turn caused the revival of the Cholas. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power. Their decline saw the brief resurgence of the Pandyas. This period was also that of the re-invigorated Hinduism during which temple building and religious literature were at their best.[17] .The Cheras ruled in southern India from before the Sangam era (300 BC - AD 250) over the Coimbatore, Karur, Salem Districts in present day Tamil Nadu and present day Kerala from the capital of Vanchi Muthur in the west, (thought to be modern Karur).^ INDIA your Tamil Nadu .
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Great literature, music, dance and architecture have evolved from India Tamil Nadu over the past two millennia.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Many of the great composers such as Tyagaraja lived and flourished in India Tamil Nadu.India India Tamil Nadu travel photos along your favourite choice, enjoy !
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

They traded extensively from nearby Muziris, in spices, ivory, timber, pearls and gems, with the ancient kingdoms of Egypt, Rome, Greece, Phoenicia, Arabia, Mesopotamia and Persia.[18] .The Kalabhras invaded and displaced the three Tamil kingdoms and ruled between the third and the seventh centuries CE of the Sangam period.^ The early Cholas went into decline around the third century CE, when the Tamil country was invaded by Kalabhras who defeated the Tamil kingdoms and ruled for almost three centuries.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From early pre-history Tamil Nadu was the home of the three famous kingdoms of the Chera , the Chola and the Pandya .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The early Cholas reigned between 1st and 4th centuries CE. The first and the most famous king of this period was Karikala Chola , who expanded the Chola territories up to Kanchipuram .
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is referred to as the Dark Age in Tamil history. .They were expelled by the Pallavas and the Pandyas in sixth century.^ They were defeated and the expelled in the sixth century CE by the Pallava s in the north and the Pandyas in the south.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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Shore Temple built by the Pallavas at Mamallapuram (c. eighth century C.E.) - UNESCO World Heritage Site.
.During the seventh century CE, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallavas under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I.^ In 20th century during the freedom struggle, many tamil poets and writers provoked national spirit, socila equity, secularistic thoughts among the common man.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They were defeated and the expelled in the sixth century CE by the Pallava s in the north and the Pandyas in the south.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Mid-day meals program in Tamil Nadu program, initiated by Kamarajar Kamaraj , was expanded considerably during the rule of the AIADMK in 1983.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] The Pallavas were originally executive officers under the Satavahana Empire [20] After the fall of the Satavahanas, around 550 AD under King Simhavishnu they emerged into prominence. They subjugated the Cholas and reigned as far south as the Kaveri River. Pallavas ruled a large portion of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Dravidian architecture reached its peak during the Pallava rule.[21] .Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.^ March 2009 Darasuram Airavateeswarar temple heritage site The ancient Darasuram Airavateeswarar complex is somewhat like Hampi but smaller, albeit on a much .
  • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide, Tour Reviews - Tamil Nadu, India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

The Pallavas were replaced by the Pandyas in the 8th century C.E.. Their capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. During the 13th century C.E. Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence.[22] .Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple architecture.^ Madurai This major temple, the love-nest of Shiva and his consort Meenakshi, hosts a constant round of festivals.

[23][24] The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. .They controlled the pearl fisheries along the South Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced some of the finest pearls in the known ancient world.^ The island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a significant Tamil minority, lies off the southeast coast.

^ Tamil Nadu is located along the southeastern coast of India , all the way down to the Indian peninsula's southernmost point where the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean meet (in Kanyakumari town).
  • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide, Tour Reviews - Tamil Nadu, India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

^ Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Arjun to star in Vallakottai Arjun to star in Vallakottai Arjun to star in Vallakottai Asin ready for Tamil again Asin ready for Tamil again Asin ready for Tamil again Sri Lanka's Indian Tamil party to support Rajapaks...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

Chola Empire

Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030 C.E.
By the 9th century, during the times of the second Chola monarch Aditya I, his son Parantaka I, Parantaka Chola II itself the Chola empire had expanded into what is now interior Andhra Pradesh and coastal Karnataka, while under the great Rajaraja Chola and his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a notable power in south Asia. The Chola Empire stretched as far as Bengal. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km² (1,389,968 sq mi). .Rajaraja Chola conquered all of peninsular South India and parts of the Sri Lanka.^ Indonesia hopes Tamils resettled soon Indonesia hopes Tamils resettled soon Indonesia hopes Tamils resettled soon India to work with Sri Lanka on resettlement of Ta...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ India to work with Sri Lanka on resettlement of Ta...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ Tamil Nadu sitting pretty in Cooch Behar Trophy Tamil Nadu sitting pretty in Cooch Behar Trophy Tamil Nadu sitting pretty in Cooch Behar Trophy Sri Lanka President orders to remove all his poste...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

Rajendra Chola's navies went even further, occupying coasts from Burma (now Myanmar) to Vietnam,[25] the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated Mahipala, the king of the Bengal, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram.
The Cholas excelled in building magnificent temples. Brihadeshwara Temple in Thanjavur is a classical example of the magnificent architecture of the Chola kingdom. Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Heritage Site under "Great Living Chola Temples."[26] Another example is Annamalaiyar Temple located at the city of Tiruvannamalai and the Chidambaram Temple in the heart of the temple town of Chidambaram.
.Raja raja chola and rajendra chola period is said to be the golden period of Tamil Nadu, and under-them the Chola empire rose to be the toughest and most powerful empire in all of South-India.^ Tamil Nadu to be first to give power to all BPL fa...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ View all Tamil Nadu photos » .
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^ Read all Tamil Nadu Reviews..» .
  • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide, Tour Reviews - Tamil Nadu, India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

With the decline of the Cholas towards the end of the 11th century, the Pandyas rose to prominence once again, under Maravarman Sundara Pandya.
Thirumalai Nayak Mahal at Madurai.
This revival was short-lived as the Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked by Alauddin Khilji troops under General Malik Kafur in 1316. The Muslim invasion led to the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate.[27]

Vijayanagar and Nayak period (1300–1650)

These Muslim invasions triggered the establishment of the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire in the Deccan. It eventually conquered the entire Tamil country (c. 1370 CE). This empire lasted for almost two centuries till the defeat of Vijayanagara in the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Subsequent to this defeat, many incompetent kings succeeded to the throne of Vijayanagara with the result that its grip loosened over its feudatories among whom the Nayakas of Madurai and Tanjore were among the first to declare their independence, despite initially maintaining loose links with the Vijayanagara kingdom.".[28][29] As the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline after mid-16th century, the Nayak  governors, who were appointed by the Vijayanagar kingdom to administer various territories of the empire, declared their independence. .The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were most prominent of them all in the 17th century.^ The Nayaks ruled Madurai from the 16th to the 18th century and left a majestic imprint of their rule in the Meenakshi - Sundareswarar Temple.

.They reconstructed some of the oldest temples in the country such as the Meenakshi Temple.^ Some women performing a Puja inside the Meenakshi temple in Madurai.

Tamil Nadu under European rule (1750 - 1947)

Fort Dansborg, built by the Danish, in Tharangambadi (was called by Danish as Tranquebar)
Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat. .In 1639, the British, under the British East India Company, established a settlement further south, in present day Chennai.^ Beaconsoft is situated at Chennai , South India .

^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ Netmasters India (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Netmasters was founded with a vision to grow as a visible Technology Training Company .

The British exploited rivalries between the provincial rulers to expand their sphere of influence throughout the Nizam's dominions. The British fought and reduced the French dominions in India to Pondicherry. Nizams bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the East India Company by the end of 18th century. Some notable chieftains or Poligars who fought the British East India Company as it was expanding were Maveeran Sundaralinga Kudumbanar, Veerapandya Kattabomman, Pulithevan and Dheeran Chinnamalai. In early 19th century, East India Company consolidated most of southern India into the Madras Presidency coterminous with the dominions of Nizam of Hyderabad. Pudukkottai remained as a princely state under British souverainty.

Tamil Nadu in Independent India

.When India became independent in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in Orissa, northern Karnataka, and parts of Kerala.^ The State is bordered by other states of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
  • Tamil Nadu Tour,Tamil Nadu Tourism,Tamilnadu Temple Tour,Tamil Nadu Tour Travel Packages 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.tourtravelworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Southern part of India termed as the province of Madras was earlier divided into Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Tamil Nadu Tour,Tamil Nadu Tourism,Tamilnadu Temple Tour,Tamil Nadu Tour Travel Packages 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.tourtravelworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBM Colleges in Chennai MBBS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BDS Colleges in Chennai BDS Colleges in Tamil Nadu BHMS Colleges in Andhra Pradesh We will send you some more information related to MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu.
  • MCA Colleges in Tamil Nadu | MCA Colleges 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.amitbhawani.com [Source type: News]

The state was subsequently split up along linguistic lines. .In 1968, Madras State was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning Country of Tamil.^ ADFguru (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We offer corporate E2E training for ADF / J2EE Framework .

^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

Geography

Topographic map of Tamil Nadu
.Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 square kilometres (50,216 sq mi), and is the eleventh largest state in India.^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

^ Technocrat Automation (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Technocrat Automation - 100 Practical Training with State of Art Lab Facilities We Technocrat Automation is the only company in india to provide Hands on Industrial Job Oriented Practical ...

.The bordering states are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the northwest and Andhra Pradesh to the north.^ While Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are essentially cultural transition zones buffering the Hindi-speaking north, and Kerala and Goa maintain their own distinctively idiosyncratic identities, the peninsula's massive Tamil-speaking state is India's Dravidian Hindu heartland.

^ ANDHRA PRADESH STATE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION .
  • http://nhrc.nic.in/shrc.htm 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC nhrc.nic.in [Source type: Original source]

To the east is the Bay of Bengal and the union territory of Puducherry. .The southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is located in Tamil Nadu.^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

^ Tamil Nadu When Indians refer to "the South", it's usually TAMIL NADU they're talking about.

.At this point is the town of Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the Indian Ocean.^ Kanniyakumari The sacred meeting point of the Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, at the southern tip of the subcontinent.

^ Rameshwaram , on the long spit of land reaching towards Sri Lanka, and Kanniyakumari , at India's southern tip (the auspicious meeting point of the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea) are both important pilgrimage centres, and have the added attraction of welcome cool breezes and vistas over the sea.

The western, southern and the north-western parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. .Tamil Nadu is the only state in India which has both the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats and they both meet at the Nilgiri hills.^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

^ Technocrat Automation (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Technocrat Automation - 100 Practical Training with State of Art Lab Facilities We Technocrat Automation is the only company in india to provide Hands on Industrial Job Oriented Practical ...

[30] .The Western Ghats dominate the entire western border with Kerala, effectively blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of the South West Monsoon from entering the state.^ The bordering states/territories are Pondicherry, Kerala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

The Eastern parts are fertile coastal plains and the northern parts are a mix of hills and plains. The central and the south central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions.
.Tamil Nadu has a coastline of about 910 kilometres (600 mi) which is the country’s third longest coastline.^ Work Senses (Chennai Tamil Nadu) About work Senses : Work Senses is involved in conducting Professional Effectiveness Workshops for corporate and educational institutions.

^ GurukulOnline (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Corporates are excited about e-learning.

^ Indian Institute of Software Testing - Chennai (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) IIST aimed at imparting quality education in software testing and progressing third party testing also.

.Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state.^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

^ Technocrat Automation (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Technocrat Automation - 100 Practical Training with State of Art Lab Facilities We Technocrat Automation is the only company in india to provide Hands on Industrial Job Oriented Practical ...

[31] .Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region of low seismic hazard with the exception of the western border areas that lie in a low to moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, parts of this region have experienced seismic activity in the M5.0 range.^ Sophus Technologies (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Sophus Technologies is a Software Consulting , Software Training and Professional Services company in the US with regional presence in Singapore an India .

^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

^ Layam Inc (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Layam Inc is a Learning solution provider for organizations, offering training and consulting solutions in several areas, which impact organizational objectives and the bottom-line of an...

[32]

Climate

A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli. Monsoon clouds pour torrents of rain on windward-facing Kerala, but are prevented from reaching Tirunelveli by the Agasthyamalai Range of the Western Ghats (background).
Tamil Nadu is heavily dependent on monsoon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts when the monsoons fail. The climate of the state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-arid. The state has three distinct periods of rainfall: (1) Advancing monsoon period, South West monsoon (from June to September), with strong southwest winds; (2) North East monsoon (from October to December), with dominant northeast winds; and (3) Dry season (from January to May). The normal annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm (37.2 in)[33] of which 48% is through the North East monsoon, and 32% through the South West monsoon. Since the state is entirely dependent on rains for recharging its water resources, monsoon failures lead to acute water scarcity and severe drought.[34]
.Tamil Nadu is classified into seven agro-climatic zones: north-east, north-west, west, southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, and Cauvery Delta (the most fertile agricultural zone).^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

^ One-2-One Solution (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu) One-2-One Solution is basically into soft skills training.

^ VisionInfo Technologies (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We are one of the leading high end IT Education & Training Center and in to developing emerging Technologies and Management Consulting .

The table below shows the maximum and minimum temperatures that the state experiences in the plains and hills.[35]
Plains Hills
Max. 43 °C (109 °F) 32.3 °C (90.1 °F)
Min. 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) 3.0 °C (37.4 °F)

Governance and administration

State Symbols of Tamil Nadu[36]
Animal Nilgiri Tahr Niltahr.jpg
Bird Emerald Dove Emerald dove444.jpg
Dance Bharathanattiyam Bharatanatyam male.jpg
Flower Gloriosa Lily Gloriosa Superba.jpg
Song Neerarum Neerarum Kadaludutha.jpg
Sport Kabaddi Kabaddi.jpg
Tree Palm Tree Palm Tamil Nadu.jpg
The Governor is the Constitutional head of the state while the Chief Minister is the head of the government and the head of the council of ministers. The Chief Justice of the Madras High Court is the head of the judiciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister and the Chief Justice are Surjit Singh Barnala, M. Karunanidhi and Hemant Laxman Gokhale respectively.[37][38][39] The major administrative units of the state constitutes 39 Lok Sabha constituencies, 234 Assembly constituencies, 32 districts, 10 city corporations, 152[40] municipalities, 611 town panchayats and 12,618 village panchayats. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is the state capital. It is the fourth largest city in India and is also one of the five A1 Metropolitan cities of India.
.Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature until 1986, when it was replaced with a unicameral legislature, like most other states in India.^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

^ DuraSoft (Chennai Tamil Nadu) DuraSoft is a premier corporate training and consulting company based in Chennai , India .

The term length of the government is 5 years, as is elsewhere in India. The present government run by the DMK led alliance came to power in 2006 and comprises a council of 29 ministers, chaired by the Chief Minister.Dr.M.Karunanidhi. Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is chaired by the speaker Mr. R Avudaiappan and is housed at the historical Fort St. George in Chennai. The state had come under the President's rule on four occasions - first from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in 1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest in 1991.
.Tamil Nadu has 10 City Corporations: Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Tirunelveli, Erode, Tirupur, Vellore and Thoothukudi.^ Junisys Techno Services (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Junisys Techno Services is a Professional Services and Training org that delivers a cut above class infrastructure solutions and classic training.

^ Polestar (chennai Tamil Nadu) we provide software training for the following courses: 1.

^ ADFguru (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We offer corporate E2E training for ADF / J2EE Framework .

There is a plan to upgrade Tambaram and Ambattur as City Corporations. .The Corporation of Chennai, established in 1688, is the oldest Municipal Corporation not only in India but also in any commonwealth nations outside United Kingdom.^ Coalesce Technologies Pvt Ltd (Chennai Tamilnadu) Coalesce Technologies is an established Corporate Training Company with offices in Chennai and Bangalore .We provide higer end training to Major Corporations like...

^ DuraSoft (Chennai Tamil Nadu) DuraSoft is a premier corporate training and consulting company based in Chennai , India .

^ STG, Chennai, India (Chennai, Tamil Nadu) STG-Chennai, provides High End IT Training Services and IT Consulting Services to Individuals and Corporate Customers .

[41]
.Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India.^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ Netlink Technologies (chennai Tamil Nadu) Papyrus Clubs is a novel initiative from NetLink Technologies Ltd ., in association with Deccan Chronicle with a goal to bring Value Education to Colleges .

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

.A large part of the government records like land ownership records are digitised and all major offices of the state government like Urban Local Bodies — all the Corporations and Municipal Office activities — revenue collection, land registration offices, and transport offices have been computerised.^ Coalesce Technologies Pvt Ltd (Chennai Tamilnadu) Coalesce Technologies is an established Corporate Training Company with offices in Chennai and Bangalore .We provide higer end training to Major Corporations like...

.Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully.^ Southern Inspection Services (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Southern Inspection Services - one the leading and pioneers in the field of NDT services was incorporated with all the state-of-the-art facilities, infrastucture and wide experience by one of the...

^ Chip Systems India (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Chip Systems is the successfully growing company ahead in the Technical Training field with 8 years of experience.

^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

[42] .The Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years old.^ Ergoanalyst (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Ergoanalyst was formed by Ergonomists , Registered professional doctors, physiotherapists ,and psychologists with over 15 years combined experience in the field.

^ Digiterati (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Digiterati is a 17 yr old India 's First IT Finishing School .

^ Chip Systems India (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Chip Systems is the successfully growing company ahead in the Technical Training field with 8 years of experience.

It is the fifth largest state police force in India and has the largest strength of women police personnelin the country.[43] .As of 2003, the state had a total police population ratio of 1:668, higher than the national average of 1:717.[44] The current Director General of Police of Tamil Nadu is Latika Charan.^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

Districts

Districts of Tamil Nadu
.The 32 districts of Tamil Nadu are as listed below with the numbers corresponding to those in the image at right.^ Image Infotainment Limited (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Program Philosophy : ICAT is a multifaceted learning environment that aims to provide a holistic education.

^ Bridgepoint Solutions Pvt Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We provide training in all aspects of Banking and financial services, right from beginners to seasoned bankers.

^ Mohamed Ali from Nagore, Nagapattinam district of Tamil Nadu who was working as house boy with a Kuwaiti household died in the month of September 2007.

  1. Ariyalur District
  2. Chennai District
  3. Coimbatore District
  4. Cuddalore District
  5. Dharmapuri District
  6. Dindigul District
  7. Erode District
  8. Kanchipuram District
  9. Kanyakumari District
  10. Karur District
  11. Krishnagiri District
  12. Madurai District
  13. Nagapattinam District
  14. Namakkal District
  15. Nilgiris District
  16. Perambalur District
  1. Pudukkottai District
  2. Ramanathapuram District
  3. Salem District
  4. Sivagangai District
  5. Thanjavur District
  6. Theni District
  7. Thoothukudi District
  8. Tiruchirapalli District
  9. Tirunelveli District
  10. Tirupur district
  11. Tiruvallur District
  12. Tiruvannamalai District
  13. Tiruvarur District
  14. Vellore District
  15. Viluppuram District
  16. Virudhunagar District

Politics

Political
Alliance
Assembly
Elections
Lok Sabha
Elections
DMK+ 163 27
AIADMK+ 69 12
Independent/Other 2 0
Source: Indian Elections / Election Commission of India.[45][46]
.Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency.^ ADFguru (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We offer corporate E2E training for ADF / J2EE Framework .

^ Indian Institute Of Bartending (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We, Indian Institute of Bartending are glad to introduce ourselves as the first and finest Bartending School in South India , which is affiliated with World Bartenders Training Organization ( WBTO ),...

^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

.The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the Congress Party.^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

^ Indian Institute of Software Testing - Chennai (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) IIST aimed at imparting quality education in software testing and progressing third party testing also.

^ NUTEC Technologies (Nagercoil Tamil Nadu) NUTEC TECHNOLOGIES, provides a wide range of service which includes Third party inspection, Training and Certification programs in NDT & Welding Inspection .

.Regional parties have dominated state politics since 1916. One of the earliest regional parties, the South Indian Welfare Association, a forerunner to Dravidian parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916. The party was called after its English organ, Justice Party, by it opponents.^ Indian Institute Of Bartending (Chennai (MADRAS) Tamil Nadu) We, Indian Institute of Bartending are glad to introduce ourselves as the first and finest Bartending School in South India , which is affiliated with World Bartenders Training Organization ( WBTO ),...

^ IBMMAINFRAMES.com R&D Division (Chennai Tamil Nadu) IBMMAINFRAMES.com is a non-profit Indian Mainframe organization maintained by more than 2500 mainframe professionals.

^ One-2-One Solution (Coimbatore Tamil Nadu) One-2-One Solution is basically into soft skills training.

Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. The reason for victory of the Justice Party in elections was the non-participation of the Congress Party, demanding complete independence of India. Freedom movement saw great leaders like Subramanya Bharathi (a poet who inspired the freedom movement by his poetic skills), Subramania Siva, V O Chidhamdaranar (Industrialist, who managed ships under the free India banner), Thirupur Kumaran, Rajagopalachariar (Rajaji), L. Sriramulu Naidu (first Mayor of Madras), and Sathyamurthi.
Periyar E. V. Ramasamy popularly known as EVR, believed in agitational politics and took the Justice Party away from its original path. The Justice Party which had a moribund existence under E.V.Ramaswami. .He renamed the party Dravidar Kazhagam (DK for short) in 1944. DK was a non-political party which demanded the establishment of an independent state called Dravida Nadu.^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

However, due to the differences between its two leaders EVR and C.N. Annadurai, the party was split. Annadurai left the party to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK decided to enter politics in 1956.
Present chief minister M.Karunanidhi (centre) with ex-chief ministers C. N. Annadurai (left) and M. G. Ramachandran (right)
In the 19th century, western scholars discovered that the Dravidian languages dominating South India formed a different linguistic group than the Indo-Aryan languages predominant in North India. They also classified Indians into distinct Aryan and Dravidian races. It was proposed that the generally darker-skinned Dravidians constituted a distinct race. .This concept has affected thinking in India about racial and regional differences and had an impact on aspects of Tamil nationalism, which has appropriated the claim that Dravidians are the earliest inhabitants of India, and the Aryan population were oppressive interlopers from whom Dravidians should liberate themselves.^ Vishal as an anti hero in Khiladi Vishal as an anti hero in Khiladi Vishal as an anti hero in Khiladi Convicted Tamil says LTTE murderedfather Convicted Tamil says LTTE murderedfather Convicted Tamil says LTTE murderedfather Opposition differences on devolution will affect F...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ Sophus Technologies (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Sophus Technologies is a Software Consulting , Software Training and Professional Services company in the US with regional presence in Singapore an India .

[47]
Re-organisation of Indian states according to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK more popular and a more powerful political force in the state. .The DMK routed the Congress Party in the 1967 elections and took control of the state government, ending Congress' stronghold in Tamil Nadu.^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

^ Response to "Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll" .
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll .
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

C.N. Annadurai became the DMK's first Chief Minister.
.Muthuvel Karunanidhi took over as Chief Minister and party leader after Annadurai's death in 1969. Karunanidhi's leadership was soon challenged by M.G. Ramachandran, popularly known as MGR. In 1972, he split from DMK and formed the Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) and later renamed the party as All India Anna Dravid Munnetra Kazhagam.^ The ruling DMK had announced that Periannan’s son, P.N.P. Inbasekaran was its candidate and assigned poll duties to its ministers, legislators and other party cadres.
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

.He was the Chief Minister of the state from 1977 until his death in 1987. After the death of MGR and the defeat of AIADMK in the 1989 assembly polls, J. Jayalalithaa took control of the party.^ But in an all-party meeting Sunday, various parties like the AIADMK, MDMK, Communist Party of India (CPI), Communist Party of India-Marxist (CPI-M) and PMK, demanded that the poll be postponed as it would clash with the Pongal festival and the assembly session that would start Jan 6.
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ The state’s chief electoral officer (CEO) Naresh Gupta had earlier announced the by-poll would be held Jan 20.
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

.She was elected as the General Secretary of the unified AIADMK. There have been several splits in both the DMK and the AIADMK, but since 1967 one of those two parties has held power in the state.^ With a few fleeting lapses, one or other of the pro-Dravidian parties have been in power here since the 1950s, spreading their anti-brahmin, anti-Hindi proletarian message to the masses principally through the medium of movies.

The rise of Congress Party, Vijayakanth's DMDK, Vaiko's Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam and Dr. Ramdoss's PMK in the recent years has ensured that no single party is in majority to run a government and thereby giving rise to coalition politics.

Demographics and Religion

Religions in Tamil Nadu[49]
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
88.34%
Christianity
  
6.08%
Islam
  
5.57%
Others
  
0.26%
.Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous state in India with a population of 62,405,679 (>62 million) as of the census of 2001,[50] with estimates for year 2008 put at 66,396,000 (>66 million),[51] (approximately 5.79% of India's population).^ Prask Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Prask solutions is an integrated training and staffing services company based at chennai , India servicing more than 30 clients in India.

^ Ergoanalyst (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Ergoanalyst was formed by Ergonomists , Registered professional doctors, physiotherapists ,and psychologists with over 15 years combined experience in the field.

^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

It is the eleventh most densely populated state in India with a population density of 511 persons per square kilometre as of 2008,[51] having increased from 429 in 1991, significantly higher than the Indian average of 324 persons per square kilometre.[52] 44% of the state's population live in urban areas, the highest among large states in India.[53]
.Tamil Nadu's population grew by 11.19% between 1991 and 2001, the second lowest rate for that period (after Kerala) amongst populous states (states whose population exceeded 20 million in 2001).^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

^ Tamil Nadu was called Madras Presidency in British India, which also included parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.

Its decadal rate of population growth has declined since 1971, one of only three populous states (along with Kerala and Orissa) to show this trend. .The state has registered the lowest fertiliy rate along with Andhra Pradesh and Goa in India in year 2005-06 with 1.8 children born for each woman, lower than required for population sustainability.^ While Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are essentially cultural transition zones buffering the Hindi-speaking north, and Kerala and Goa maintain their own distinctively idiosyncratic identities, the peninsula's massive Tamil-speaking state is India's Dravidian Hindu heartland.

^ On my last week in India, some pilgrims I met 70km outside Tiruvanamalai on their way to the huge temple of Tirupati in the neighbouring state of Andhra Pradesh.

^ Tamil Nadu was called Madras Presidency in British India, which also included parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.

[54][55][56]
Hinduism is followed by the majority of the people. The distribution of population based on their faith, as of the 2001 census, is shown in the bar graph above. .Hindus are the dominant community and has a significantly higher percentage in Tamil Nadu.^ Pate Pantech Academy Of Technical Excellence (Chennai Tamil Nadu) PATE Pantech academy of technical excellence is an institution of higher learning with a mission that incorporates teaching, research, creative activity and service.

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.Christianity, though a minority, has the highest population in absolute numbers when compared to other states.Tamil Nadu has seen a lot of conversions into Christianity, which at times have caused unrests.Tamil is the official and the principal spoken language of the state.^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Initiated to the ISO Standards Training through ISMS (Information Security Management System) represented by ISO 27001 , we made extensive research into a host of ISO and other Standards , Models and...

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As of the 2001 Census, Tamil is spoken by 89.43% of the population followed by Telugu at 5.65%, Kannada at 1.68%, Urdu at 1.51% and other languages at 1.67%.[57]
The list of largest urban agglomerations of Tamil Nadu is displayed below:

Largest agglomerations of Tamil Nadu
Rank Metropolitan areas District Pop. Rank Metropolitan areas District Pop.
1 Chennai Chennai 6,560,242 11 Thanjavur Thanjavur 215,314
2 Coimbatore Coimbatore 1,461,139 12 Nagercoil Kanyakumari 208,179
3 Madurai Madurai 1,203,095 13 Dindigul Dindigul 196,617
4 Tiruchirapalli Tiruchirapalli 866,354 14 Kanchipuram Kanchipuram 188,733
5 Salem Salem 751,438 15 Kumbakonam Thanjavur 160,767
6 Erode Erode 639,906
align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 16 ||align=left | Karur || Karur || 153,365
7 Tirupur Tirupur 550,826
align=left | align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 17 ||align=left | Neyveli || Cuddalore || 138,035
8 Tirunelveli Tirunelveli 433,352 18 Tiruvannamalai Tiruvannamalai 130,303
9 Tuticorin Tuticorin 436,094
align=left | align=center style="background:#f0f0f0;" | 19 ||align=left | Pollachi || Coimbatore || 128,458
10 Vellore Vellore 386,746 20 Karaikudi Sivaganga 125,717 2001 Census

Education and social development

The main entrance of IIT Madras, showing its logo and its motto.
Tamil Nadu is the most literate state of India according to the HRD ministry of India's 2003 statistics.[60] .Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in terms of literacy growth during the decade 1991-2001. The state's literacy rate increased from 62.66% in 1991 to 73.47% in 2001.[52] which is above the national average.^ Ltd (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer state-of-the-art video conferencing facilities for upto 9 parties.

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[61] One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4% is significant.[62]
Tamil Nadu has 19 universities,[63] 349 engineering colleges[64] and 1150 arts college, 2550 schools and 5000 hospitals..June 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Some of the most reputed educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are University of Madras, IIT Madras, TANUVAS(Tamilnadu veterinary and Animal sciences university), Anna University (includes MIT Chennai - Madras Institute of Technology), Madras Christian College, NIT Tiruchi, VIT University Vellore, Institute of Road & Transport Technology (IRTT) at Erode, Christian Medical College & Hospital Vellore,Bharathidasan Institute of Management Trichy, Madras Medical College, Loyola College, Chennai and Annamalai University.^ Asktenali.com (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Asktenali.

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.The Indian Institute of Management is scheduled to open in Trichy by 2009-2010.[65] Tamil Nadu produces the highest number of engineering graduates in India (around 1,30,000) every year which attracts many software companies to set up their shop in south India.^ Polestar (chennai Tamil Nadu) we provide software training for the following courses: 1.

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[66][67] The life expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years and for females it is 67.6 years.[68] However, it has a number of challenges, significantly, the poverty is high, especially in the rural areas. As of 2004-2005, the poverty line was set at Rs. 351.86/month for rural areas and Rs. 547.42/month for urban areas.[69] Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7% in 1983 to 21.1% in 2001[70] For the period 2004-2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty in the state was 22.5% compared with the national figure of 27.5%.[71] .The World Bank is currently assisting the state in reducing poverty[72] High drop-out and low completion of secondary schools continue to hinder the quality of training in the population.^ Binary Logics (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We Provide High Quality Professional Training program on AS/ 400 RPG-ILE and AS/ 400 System Administration .

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Other problems include class, gender, inter-district and urban-rural disparities. Based on URP - Consumption for the period 2004 - 2005, percentage of the state's population Below Poverty Line was 27.5%.[69]
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In addition, it aims to uplift the socially repressed Dravidian people and drew considerable support from the middle classes for their efforts in this matter. The movement was committed to social justice which led to the expansion of reservations for the deprived communities. .Tamil Nadu now has a 69% reservation in educational institutions, the highest among all Indian states.^ Netlink Technologies (chennai Tamil Nadu) Papyrus Clubs is a novel initiative from NetLink Technologies Ltd ., in association with Deccan Chronicle with a goal to bring Value Education to Colleges .

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[73]
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[citation needed] Despite this, the state is among the 12 states in India that have alarming level of hunger according to the 2008 Global Hunger Index.[74][75]

Culture

Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, music and dance which continue to flourish today. .Unique cultural features like Bharatanatyam (dance), Tanjore painting, and Tamil architecture were developed and continue to be practised in Tamil Nadu.^ Metamorf Transformational Training Modules (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer unique value based Training & Development solutions.

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Language and Literature

எப்பொருள் யார்யார்வாய்க் கேட்பினும் அப்பொருள்
மெய்ப்பொருள் காண்ப தறிவு
'The mark of wisdom is to discern the truth
From whatever source it is heard.'
- (Tirukkural - 423)
.While Tamil is the only official language of Tamil Nadu, English is also in common usage as an official language of India.^ A little beggar is washing her only clothes in the sacred tank of the Vaitheeswarankoil temple in Tamil Nadu.

^ Tamil Nadu was called Madras Presidency in British India, which also included parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.

^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

When India adopted national standards Tamil was the very first language to be recognized as a classical language of India.
Most early Tamil literary works are in verse form, with prose not becoming more common until later periods. Throughout its history, Tamil literature has sought to inform and inspire, educate and entertain. Tamil poetry has universal appeal as evidenced by many examples. Tirukkural, which was written nearly two millennia ago portrays a universal outlook. This is evident as the author, Tiruvalluvar, does not mention his religion, land, or the audience for his work. .He is often portrayed as a holy saint of Tamil Nadu today.^ Learning Lounge Solutions (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Introduction Learning Lounge Solutions is a knowledge consulting company catering to the learning and development needs of today s global corporate and institutional environment.

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The first Tamil printing press was established at Tarangambadi by the Danish missionaries. During the Indian freedom struggle, many Tamil poets and writers sought to provoke national spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts among the common man, notably Subramanya Bharathy and Bharathidasan. Even today, Tamil Nadu is home to creative writers like Jayakanthan,and Indira Parthasarathy.

Religions

With Hindus forming over 88% of the population, Hindu temples are ubiquitous in Tamil Nadu earning it the sobriquet 'The Land of Temples'. Shown here is the Meenakshi Amman Temple complex in Madurai, which is one of the grandest temples in the country.
About 88% of the population identifies as Hindu and Tamil Nadu is the home of the core schools of medieval and modern Hinduism as well as several non-mainstream Hindu movements. These include Advaita Vedanta, Ramanuja's Vishishtadvaita, Alvars' Sri Vaishnavism, and Nayanmars Shaivism. Several important Hindu Tamil figures became important figures for Hinduism as a whole (e.g.Ramanuja.) In modern times, worldwide important figures for Hinduism were Ramana Maharishi ,Sri Chandrashekharendra Saraswathi Swamigal of Kanchi,Swami Dayananda Saraswathi(Arsha Vidya) and Sri Sri Ravi Shankar. Murugan, Vishnu and Shiva, are perhaps the most "popular" gods, although many other deities are also worshiped. These other forms of God include Rama, Krishna, Ganesh, Paravati, Surya, and others. There is even a temple dedicated to the form of Hanuman and Ganesh in one form - Adianta Prabhu.[76] .The government emblem of Tamil Nadu contained the popular Hindu temple of Srivilliputhur.^ A little beggar is washing her only clothes in the sacred tank of the Vaitheeswarankoil temple in Tamil Nadu.

^ In Tiruchendur, on the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, I met a few women who came to the temple to pray to Murugan.

^ A couple walking in front of the temple in Gangaikondacholapuram, one of the most beautiful one in Tamil Nadu.

Christians and Muslims together form over 11% of the population. .Christians are mainly concentrated in the southern districts of Kanyakumari (44% of the population, 2001), Thoothukudi (17%, 2001) and Tirunelveli (11%,2001).^ It is one of the most visited shrines in Tamilnadu, and is located on the seashore in the southern part of the state near Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari.

St. Thomas Mount in Chennai, the place where St. Thomas, one of the disciples of Jesus Christ, was believed to have been martyred,[77] is an important pilgrimage site for Indian Christians. The Santhome Basilica, supposedly built atop the tomb of St. Thomas, and the Vailankanni Basilica of Our Lady of Good Health — revered churches by India's Roman Catholics — are good examples of majestic church architectures in Tamil Nadu. The Church of South India and the Pentecostal Mission Church are headquartered in Chennai
Muslims are mainly concentrated in areas such as Adirampattinam, Kayalpatnam, Kilakarai, Ambur, Vaniyambadi, Madurai, Nagore, and Melapalayam, with the state capital Chennai also home to a number of Muslims. Among Muslims, 97.5% are Tamil speaking Sunni and the rest are Urdu speakers. All Tamil Muslims are Sunnis, who adhere to either Hanafi or Shafi schools of thought. Erwadi in Ramanathapuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam district are important pilgrimage site for Muslims, while the Thousand Lights Mosque in Chennai is one of the largest mosques in the country. Karpudaiyar masjid in Kayalpatnam is the oldest mosque in Tamil Nadu.

Festivals

Jallikattu, a raw bull taming contest, is held on the occasion of Maattu Pongal
Pongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu. .The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum — literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities — is often quoted with reference to this festival.^ The Vaitheeswarankoil temple (koil, or kovil means temple in the Tamil language) is dedicated to Lord Shiva and his wife Parvati.

The first day, Bhogi Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of the old and emergence of the new. The second day, Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai (14 January or 15 January in western calendar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands. Jallikattu, a bull taming contest, marks the main event of this day. During this final day, Kaanum Pongal — the word "kaanum", means 'to view' in Tamil.
The first month in the Tamil calendar is Chitterai and the first day of this month in mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. Thiruvalluvar Calendar is 31 years ahead of Gregorian Calendar, that is 2000A.D. in Gregorian calendar is represented as 2031 in Thiruvalluvar Calendar. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Cauvery. .Apart from these major festivals, in every village and town of Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate festivals for the local gods once a year and the time varies from place to place.^ Tamil men dyeing cotton in a worksop of Ayampattai, a village of Tamil Nadu.

^ A spinner in the village of Kailasa, near Kanchipuram in Tamil Nadu.

^ A woman winnowing under the eyes of her husban in a village of Tamil Nadu.

Most of these festivals are related to the goddess Maariyamman, the mother goddess of rain.
Additional major Hindu festivals including Deepavali ( Death of Narakasura), Ayudha Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Krishna Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are celebrated widely. Ayya Vaikunda Avataram, is celebrated predominantly in the southern districts.[78] In addition, Christmas, Eid ul-Fitr, Easter and Bakrid are celebrated by Christians and Muslims in the state.

Music

Nadhaswaram and Thavil players
The Kings of ancient Thamizhagam created sangams for Iyal Isai Nadagam (Literature, Music and Drama). Music played a major role in sangams. Music in Tamil Nadu had different forms. In villages where farming was the primary occupation, ladies who work in the fields used to sing kulavai songs. Odhuvars, Sthanikars or Kattalaiyars offer short musical programmes in the temples by singing the devotional Thevaram songs. In sharp contrast with the restrained and intellectual nature of Carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be much more exuberant. Popular forms of Tamil folk music include the Villuppāṭṭu, a form of music performed with a bow, and the Nāṭṭuppur̲appāṭṭu, ballads that convey folklore and folk history. Some of the leading Tamil folk artists in the early 21st century are Pushpuvanam Kuppuswamy, Dr. Vijayalakshmi Navaneethakrishnan, Chinnaponnu, Paravai muniammal etc.
Carnatic music is the classical music form of Southern India. This is one of the world's oldest & richest musical traditions.[79]The Trinity of Carnatic music Tyagaraja, Muthuswami Dikshitar and Syama Sastri were from Tamilnadu. Thyagarajar Aaradhanai (worship) takes place every year in the month of Marghazhi in Thiruvaiyaru all carnatic musicians render their obesiance to Saint Thyagarajar by singing his compositions.[80] The composers belonging to the Tamil Trinity, namely Muthu Thandavar (?1560 - ?1640 CE), Arunachala Kavi (1712-1779) and Marimutthu Pillai (1717-1787) composed hundreds of devotional songs in Tamil and helped in the evolution of Carnatic music. .Today, Tamil Nadu has hundreds of notable carnatic singers and instrumentalists who spread this music all over the world.^ In Tiruchendur, on the southern coast of Tamil Nadu, I met a few women who came to the temple to pray to Murugan.

Chennai hosts a large cultural event, the annual Madras Music Season during December-January, which includes performances by hundreds of artists all over the city.
In terms of modern cine-music, Ilaiyaraaja was the most prominent composer of film music in Tamil cinema during the late 1970s and 1980s. His work highlighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced broader Western musical sensibilities to the South Indian musical mainstream. Tamil Nadu is also the home of the double Oscar Winner A.R. Rahman[81][82][83] who has composed film music in Tamil, Telugu,Hindi films, English and Chinese films, was once referred to by Time magazine as "The Mozart of Madras".

Arts and dance

A Bharatanatyam danseuse
Tamils have a large number of folk dances. These are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, weddings and festivals. Tamil dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil theatrical tradition. The most celebrated of these is karakattam. In its religious form, the dance is performed in front of an image of the goddess Mariamman. The dancer bears on his or her head a brass pot filled with uncooked rice, decorated with flowers and surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles and leaps to the rhythm of a song without spilling a grain. Karakattam is usually performed to a special type of song known as temmanguppāṭṭu or thevar pāṭṭu, a folk song in the mode of a lover speaking to his beloved, to the accompaniment of a nadaswaram and melam. Other Tamil folk dances include mayilāṭṭam, where the dancers tie a string of peacock feathers around their waist; ōyilāttam, danced in a circle while waving small pieces of cloth of various colours; poykkāl kuthiraiyaaṭṭam, where the dancers use dummy horses; mān̲āṭṭam, where the dancers imitate the graceful leaping of deer; par̲aiyāṭṭam, a dance to the sound of rhythmical drumbeats, and thīppandāṭṭam, a dance involving playing with burning wooden torches.
Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form originating from Tamil Nadu. Bharatanatyam is thought to have been created by Bharata Muni, a Hindu sage, who wrote the Natya Shastra, the most important ancient treatise on classical Indian dance. In ancient times it was performed in Hindu temples by Devadasis. In this form, it as also been called sadir or chinna melam. Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharata Natyam dance postures. Bharatanatyam is a traditional dance-form known for its grace, purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses. It continues to be a popular and widely performed dance style at present times and is practised by male and female dancers all over India. Terukkuttu or Kattaikkuttu is a traditional form of Tamil street theatre folk dance/drama.

Film industry

.Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry called Kollywood, the second largest film industry in India after Hindi .^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

^ Tamil Nadu was called Madras Presidency in British India, which also included parts of present-day Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.

[citation needed] It is based in Chennai in Kodambakkam, the section of Chennai that houses cinema-related facilities.

Cuisine

Chettinad cuisine, typically served on a banana leaf
Tamil cuisine is basically South Indian cuisine, where Rice and rice-derived dishes form the major portion of a diet. There are regional sub-varieties namely Chettinadu, Kongunadu, Madurai, Tirunelveli varieties etc. Traditionally, food is served on a banana leaf instead of a plate and eaten with the right hand. Rice is the staple food of Tamils and is typically eaten mixed with Sambhar (with or without Ghee), vegetarian or non - vegetarian Kulambu, Rasam, Curd and Buttermilk. This is accompanied with various vegetarian and / or non - vegetarian dishes like Kootu, Aviyal, Poriyal, Appalam, Varuval, Peratal, Kothsu, varieties of Pickles and Chicken / Mutton / Fish fry. Breakfast and snack items include Dosai, Adai, Idly, Vadai, Pongal, Appam(Aappam), Paniyaram, Puttu(Pittu), Uppumavu(Uppuma), Santhakai(Noodles), Idiyappam and Uthappam. These items are eaten along with Sambar, varieties of Chatni and Podi . Traditionally prepared Filter Coffee is unique in taste and popular all over the state. The Chettinad region is famous for its spicy non-vegetarian cuisine, while Ambur, Dindigal and Sankarankoil are known for their Biriyani. Sweet items that are native to Tamil Nadu and prepared at homes are Athirasam, Chakkari Pongal (prepared during Pongal) and Kuli Paniyaram. Tirunelveli is known for its unique wheat Halwa and Palani is renowned for its Panchamirtham. In the recent past, North Indian, Western, Chinese and fast food culture are also witnessing a steady growth in Tamil Nadu.

Economy

.
Gross State Domestic Product in Rs.^ Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, "Land of the Tamils") is a state at the southern tip of India.

Crores and Current Prices
[84]
Year GSDP Change Share of India
1994 - 95
68,666
Green Arrow Up.svg 19.32%
Green Arrow Up.svg 7.49%
1996 - 97
89,237
Green Arrow Up.svg 29.96%
Red Arrow Down.svg 7.18%
1998 - 99
118,209
Green Arrow Up.svg 32.47%
Green Arrow Up.svg 7.40%
2000 - 01
141,100
Green Arrow Up.svg 19.36%
Red Arrow Down.svg 7.33%
2002 - 03
155,099
Green Arrow Up.svg 09.92%
Red Arrow Down.svg 6.85%
2004 - 05
188,921
Green Arrow Up.svg 21.81%
Red Arrow Down.svg 6.61%
Tamil Nadu's gross state domestic product for 2007 is estimated at 275,000 crores (70 billion USD) in current prices.[85][86] The state experienced a GDP growth rate of 12.1% for this period.[61] It was the third largest economy (2007-2008) among all states in India,[87] and also the most industrialised state in India.[88] It ranks third in foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991-2002) of Rs.225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and Delhi constituting 9.12% of the total FDI in the country.[89] The per capita income in 2007 - 2008 for the state was Rs.43,000 ranking second among the South Indian states [90] and steadily been above the national average.[91]
According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu has the highest level of urbanisation (43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of India’s total population and 9.6% of the urban population.[92] and is the most urbanized state in India.[4] Services contributes to 45% of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at 21%. Government is the major investor in the state with 51% of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9% and foreign private investors at 14.9%. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 110 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure.[93]

Agriculture

Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. In 2008, Tamil Nadu was India's fifth biggest producer of Rice.[94] The Cauvery delta region of the composite Thanjavur district is known as the Rice Bowl of South India. In terms of production, Tamil Nadu accounts for 10% in fruits and 6% in vegetables, in India.[95] Mango and Banana are the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu accounting for over 87% of the total fruit production. The main vegetables grown are tapioca, tomato, onion, brinjal and drumstick. Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the production of flowers with the total production of horticultural crops standing at Rs. 99.47 Lakhs during 2003-04. The main flowers grown in Tamil Nadu are Jasmine, Mullai, Chrysanthemum, Marigold and Rose.
Paddy fields at Kanyakumari district
The state is the largest producer of bananas,[96] flowers,[97] tapioca,[97] the second largest producer of mango,[97] natural rubber,[98] coconut,[99] groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee,[100] sapota,[97] Tea[101] and Sugarcane.[102] Tamil Nadu's sugarcane yield per hectare is the highest in India.[102] The state has 17,000 hectares of land under oil palm cultivation, the second highest in India.[103] Tamil Nadu is the home to Dr M.S. Swaminathan, known as the "father of the Green Revolution" in India.[104] Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries production. Tamil Nadu had the second largest number of poultry amongst all the states and accounted for 17.7% of the total poultry population in India. [105] In 2003 - 2004, Tamil Nadu had produced 37,836 lakhs of eggs, which was the second highest in India representing 9.37% of the total egg production in the country.[106] With the third longest coastline in India, Tamil Nadu represented 27.54% of the total value of fish and fishery products exported by India in 2006.[107]

Textile, Automobile and Heavy Industries

A large number of textile mills and engineering industries are present around the city of Coimbatore. It is home to numerous textile, automotive spare sparts and motor pump manufacturing units. Cities of Tirupur and Erode are the country's largest exporters of knit wears.[108] They are well known for textile manufacturing industries and exports to such extent that the districts of Coimbatore, Tirupur and Erode are referred to as 'Textile Valley of India'.[109]
Hyundai's manufacturing plant at Irungattukottai near Sriperumbudur.
Tamil Nadu is one of the highly industrialised states in India. Over 11.2% of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu [110]. Many heavy engineering and manufacturing companies are located in and around the suburbs of Chennai (nicknamed, 'Detroit of Asia') and Coimbatore (nicknamed 'Manchester of South India'). Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Major global automobile companies including Ford, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, and Hyundai have complete manufacturing operations in Tamil Nadu. The region around Coimbatore, Tirupur and Erode is referred to as the "Textile Valley of India" with the export turnover from the Tirupur in 2004 at Rs. 50,000 million ($1,000 million). 56% of India's total knitwear exports come from Tirupur. Karur generates around (35,500 million) $750 million a year in foreign exchange. Arani and Kanchipuram are famous for their handloom and silk weaving industries.
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, one of India's largest electrical equipment manufacturing company, has manufacturing plants at Tiruchirapalli and Ranipet. India's leading steel producer, SAIL has a steel plant in Salem.[111] Sterlite Industries has their copper smelter plant in Tuticorin and aluminium plant in Mettur. The state government owns the Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers Ltd. (TNPL),[112] the world's biggest bagasse based Paper mills in Karur, as well as the world's sixth largest manufacturer of watches together with TATA at Hosur, under the brand name of "Titan".[113]

Electronics and Software Industry

Infosys' campus at Mahindra World City near Chennai
Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many major global telecommunications giants like Companies like Nokia, Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer and Dell having chosen Chennai as their South Asian manufacturing hub. Products manufactured include circuit boards and cellular phone handsets.[114]
Tamil Nadu is the second largest software exporter by value in India, second only to Karnataka. Software exports from Tamil Nadu grew from Rs. 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in 2003-04 to Rs.207 billion {$5 billion} by 2006-07 according to NASSCOM[115] and to Rs. 366 billion in 2008-09 which shows 29% growth in software exports according to STPI.[116] Major national and global IT Companies such as Hewlett-Packard, IBM, Accenture, Computer Sciences Corporation, Cognizant Technology solutions,Tata Consultancy Services, Infosys, Wipro, Tech Mahindra, Polaris, Aricent, MphasiS and many others have offices in Chennai.

Food and Beverage Industry

Expansion of Foods and Beverage based corporations within Tamil Nadu has been noteworthy. Principal amongst the established entities now in Tamil Nadu are Chez Leeloo, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. New entrants seem to be appearing all around the state creating mass employment opportunities.

Infrastructure

MRTS Train station in Chennai
Tamil Nadu has a well established transportation system that connects all parts of the state. This is partly responsible for the investment growth in the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centers, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 24 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 2,002 km (1,244 mi).[117] The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project. The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (103,769 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network.[118]
Tamil Nadu has a well developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's Southern Peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state.[119] The system connects it with most major cities in India. Main rail junctions in the state include Chennai, Erode, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli Madurai, Tiruchirapalli (Trichy) and Salem. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is in the process of developing a metro.
Chennai Airport Terminal
Tamil Nadu has a major international airport, Chennai International Airport, that is connected with 19 countries with more than 169 direct flights every week. This is currently the third largest airport in India after Mumbai and Delhi and has a passenger growth of 18%. Other international airports present in the state are Coimbatore International Airport and Tiruchirapalli International Airport. Madurai Airport, Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports which connect their respective cities to other parts of the country. Increased industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year.[120]
Tamil Nadu has three major seaports at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as one intermediate port, at Nagapattinam. Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast in South-East India and it is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005.[121][122]
As of 2005, Tamil Nadu is one of the few Indian states with surplus Electricity generation capacity, enabling the electrical authority to sell it to neighbouring states of Andra Pradesh & Karnataka. The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant, many hydroelectric plants including Mettur and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are major sources of Tamil Nadu's electricity. It is presently adding the Koodankulam Nuclear Power Plant to its energy grid, which on completion would be the largest atomic power plant in the country, in terms of capacity.[123]
Tamil Nadu sources[124] a significant proportion of its power needs from renewable sources with wind power installed capacity at over 3600 MW[125] or over 40% of the maximum peak demand. Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide in diesel-based thermal electricity generation with a national market share of over 34%.[citation needed] 55% of all wind-generated electricity in India is created by windmills in Tamil Nadu. Renowned Danish wind power company NEG Micon has established its manufacturing unit in Chennai.[126]

Environment

A Bengal tiger in the Kanyakumari Wildlife Sanctuary
The state has a wide range of flora and fauna with many unique species and habitats. To protect this wide diversity of wildlife there are many Protected areas of Tamil Nadu, including 2 Biosphere Reserves, 5 National Parks and several Wildlife Sanctuaries.[127]
There are about 2000 species of wildlife that are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas provide safe habitat for large mammals including Elephants, Tigers, Leopard, Wild dog, Sloth bears, Gaurs, Lion-tailed macaques, Nilgiri Langurs, Nilgiri Tahrs, Grizzled Giant Squirrels and Sambar deer, resident and migratory birds such as Cormorants, Darters, Herons, Egrets, Open-billed Storks, Spoonbills and White Ibis es, Little Grebes, Indian Moorhen, Black-winged Stilts, a few migratory Ducks and occasionally Grey Pelicans, marine species such as the Dugongs, Turtles, Dolphins and Balanoglossus and a wide variety of fish and insects.
The Angiosperm diversity of India includes 17,672 species. Tamil Nadu ranks 1st among all States in the Country, with 5640 species, 1/3rd of the total flora of India. This includes 1559 species of medicinal plants, 533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species. The Gymnosperm diversity of the country is 64 species of which Tamil Nadu has 4 indigenous species and about 60 introduced species. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes 1022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Vast numbers of bryophytes, Likens, Fungi, Algae and Bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu.[128]
Common plant species include the state tree: Palmyra Palm, Eucalyptus, Rubber, Cinchona, Clumping Bamboos (Bambusa Arundinacea), Common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian Laurel , Grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, Ardisia, and Solanaceae. Rare and unique plant life includes Combretum ovalifolium, Ebony (Dispyros nilagrica), Habenaria rariflora (Orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ranunculus reniformis, and Royal fern.[129]
There are at least 85 widely diversified environmental organizations involved with environmental conservation and environmental education in Tamil Nadu. These organizations are notable for the diversity of their members and their intended impact groups, ranging from urban to rural, local to national, elementary students to government policy makers and rich to poor. The combined intent of these organizations' efforts is increased awareness of and participation in environmentalism by a broad spectrum of the state's population.[130]
The Ministry of Environment and Forests through its Department of Environment and the Tamil Nadu Forest Department is the primary Government organization planning and implementing environmental policy in the state.[131][132] The Tamil Nadu State Council for Science and Technology coordinates government scientific agencies and creates environmental awareness programs in the state,[133] There are several prominent leaders with highly visible public roles in these efforts. There is a large number and high diversity of environmental NGOs working in the state. These NGOs vary in size, location and target groups but are commonly characterized by funding from private sources, programs of environmental activism and a high degree of autonomy and volunteerism.
Many schools, colleges and universities in the state have academic courses in environmental education and Environmental studies and non-academic clubs and student activities involved with environmentalism. These school based courses and activities have a wide range of technical subjects. Public and private mass media sources in the state play a prominent role in increasing public awareness of environmental issues. The Hindu Newspaper and several wildlife photographers and conservation writers are especially influential. There are several independent environmental consultants in the state, experienced in a wide range of environmental technical specialization.

Sports

Kari Motor Speedway near Coimbatore
Tamil Nadu has made fair strides in the field of sports. The Sports Development Authority of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) is the government body that is vested with the responsibility of developing sports and related infrastructure in the state.[134][135] The SDAT owns and operates a number of world class stadiums and organizes various sporting events.[136] It also accommodates various sporting events, both at domestic and international level, organized by other sports associations at its venues.[137] The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia.[138]
Cricket is the most popular sport and Kabaddi is the state game of Tamil Nadu. Subbiah Rajarathinam of Tamil Nadu was the captain of the Indian team that won the Gold medal at the 1994 Asian Games. M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricketing arena with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. Popular cricketers from Tamil Nadu who have represented the national team include S. Venkataraghavan, Kris Srikkanth, Robin Singh, Lakshmipathy Balaji, Murali Kartik, Murali Vijay, Subramaniam Badrinath and Dinesh Karthik. Cricket contests between local clubs and teams is also popular across the state. The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a much sought after fast bowling academy by pace bowlers all over the world. The traditional sport of Kabaddi, called Sadu Gudu in Tamil, is another popular sport played extensively in the rural areas. Silambam is another popular traditional sport played in the rural areas.
The ATP Chennai Open tournament held in Chennai every January is the biggest Tennis event in South Asia.[139] Tennis players from Tamil Nadu who had made it to the big stage include Ramanathan Krishnan, Ramesh Krishnan, Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi and Prakash Amritraj. Tamil Nadu has a long standing motorsports culture. The sport was pioneered by Sundaram Karivardhan in its early days. Notable sportspersons from Tamil Nadu in the field are Narain Karthikeyan, the first Indian to participate in F1 racing, and Karun Chandhok. Motor racing events are held at the Irungattukottai track (near Sriperumbudur), Sholavaram track and Kari Motorspeedway near Coimbatore.
Viswanathan Anand, the World Chess Champoin
The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the governing body of Hockey in the state. Vasudevan Baskaran was the captain of the Indian team that won gold medal in 1980 Olympics at Moscow. The Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai hosts international hockey events and is regarded by the International Hockey Federation as one of the best in the world for its state-of-the-art infrastructure.[140] Chennai hosted the SAF Games in 1995. Anju Bobby George, a world renowned athlete, represents Tamil Nadu in the national arena.[141] Santhi Soundararajan, silver medalist (later stripped) from Doha Asian Games, also hails from the state.[142] The Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a multipurpose stadium hosting Football and Track & Field events. The Indian Triathlon Federation and the Volleyball Federation of India are headquartered in Chennai.[143] Chennai hosted India’s first ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008.[144]
Chess and Carrom are popular indoor sports. World Chess champion and Indian Grand Master Viswanathan Anand and Arjuna Awardee and two-time world carrom champion Maria Irudayam hail from Tamil Nadu. Snooker was invented by General Sir Frederick Roberts at the Ooty Club in Udhagamandalam.[145][146] The Velachery Aquatics Sports Complex in Chennai hosts different kinds of water sports. The SDAT - TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai, one of the very few modern squash facilities in South Asia,[147] hosts international squash events. N Ramachandran is the current president of World Squash Federation [148]. Tamil Nadu has six 18-hole Golf courses,[149] the most popular of which are the Kodaikanal Golf Club, established in 1895, and Gymkhana Club, Chennai. The Madras Boat Club, set up in 1867, hosts regular rowing races on the Adyar River.[150] The 232 year old Guindy race course in Chennai is popular horse racing venue. Apart from these, the Multi-Purpose Indoor Games Complex in Chennai hosts international events for Volleyball, Basketball, Badminton and Table Tennis. In the recent years, adventure sports have also gained popularity, especially amongst the tourists visiting the state.[151]

Tourism

Vanatheertham waterfall, Papanasam, Tirunelveli district
Tamil Nadu's tourism industry is the second largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16%.[152] Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. The tagline adopted for promoting tourism in Tamil Nadu is Enchanting Tamil Nadu. Approximately 1,753,000 foreign and 50,647,000 domestic tourists visited the state in 2007.[153]
Tamil Nadu is a land of varied beauty. It boasts some of the grandest Hindu temples of Dravidian architecture. These temples are of a distinct style renowned for their towering Gopurams. The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by the Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram and the Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram also called as Mamallaburam have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[154][155] The Rajagopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Srirangam — the largest functioning Hindu temple in the world — is the tallest temple gopuram in the world[156] The largest Shiva Temple in Tamil Nadu is Nellaiappar Temple situated in the heart of Tirunelveli city. Madurai is home to one of the grandest Hindu temples in the World — Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple. Rameshwaram, Kanchipuram and Palani are important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Other popular temples in Tamil Nadu include those in Gangaikonda Cholapuram, Chidambaram, Thiruvannaamalai, Tiruttani, Swamithoppe, Tiruchendur and Tiruvallur.
Tamil Nadu is also home to many beautiful hill stations. Popular among them are Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Coonoor, Topslip, Valparai, Yelagiri and Manjolai. The Nilgiri hills, Palani hills, Shevaroy hills, Kolli Hills and Cardamom hills are all abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Mukurthi National Park & Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve are the two tiger reserves in the state. Tamil Nadu has many National Parks, Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Elephant and Bird Sanctuaries, Reserved Forests, Zoos and Crocodile farms. Prominent among them are Mudumalai National Park, The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and Arignar Anna Zoological Park. The mangrove forests at Pichavaram are also eco-tourism spots of importance.
Kanyakumari, the southern most tip of peninsular India, is famous for its distinct and beautiful sunrise, Vivekananda Rock Memorial and Thiruvalluvar's statue built off the coastline. Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world.[157] The stretch of beaches from Chennai to Mahabalipuram are home to many resorts, theme parks and eateries. The prominent waterfalls in the state are Courtallam, Hogenakal, Papanasam, Manimuthar, Thirparappu, Pykara and Silver Cascade. The Chettinad region of the state is renowned for its Palatial houses and cuisine. In recent years, Tamil Nadu is also witnessing a growth in Medical tourism, as are many other states in India.

See also

References

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  127. ^ Tamil Nadu Forest Department, retrieved 29 July 2007Tamil Nadu Wildlife Tourism.
  128. ^ "Biodiversity of Tamil Nadu". Environmental Information System (ENVIS). Chennai: Department of Environment, Govt. of Tamil Nadu &Ministry of Environment & Forests. 2006. http://tnenvis.nic.in/biodiversity.htm. Retrieved 08 December 2009. 
  129. ^ Tamil Nadu Dept. of Forests, Retrieved 9 September 2007 Biodiversity.
  130. ^ Directory of Environmental Resource Persons in Tamil Nadu. Chennai: ENVIS & World Wide Fund for Nature - India/Tamil Nadu State Office. 2008, 2nd source. http://assets.wwfindia.org/downloads/directory_of_environmental_resource_persons_in_tamil_nadu.pdf. 
  131. ^ "About the Ministry". Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), Govt. of India. http://moef.nic.in/modules/about-the-ministry/introduction/. Retrieved 07 December 2009. 
  132. ^ "Welcome To Department of Environment". Chennai: Government of Tamil Nadu, Department of Environment. 2007. http://www.environment.tn.nic.in/projects.htm. Retrieved 07 December 2009. 
  133. ^ Ganesan, I.A.S, Secy., Thiru.K. (2007). "Activities of TNSCST". Chennai: Tamil Nadu State Council for Science and Technology. http://www.tanscst.org/activity.asp. Retrieved 19 November 2009. 
  134. ^ [3].
  135. ^ [4].
  136. ^ [5].
  137. ^ [6].
  138. ^ Y.M.C.A. College of Physical Education NANDANAM.
  139. ^ Nadal, other tennis greats arrive for Chennai Open 2008.
  140. ^ Radhakrishnan Stadium to have new turf.
  141. ^ Anju B George to be felicitated.
  142. ^ The Sad Case of a South Indian Girl Athlete.
  143. ^ All Presidents, National Sports Federation.
  144. ^ India seeks to popularise beach volleyball.
  145. ^ The History Of Snooker.
  146. ^ THE ORIGIN OF SNOOKER : THE NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN STORY.
  147. ^ Opening up new vistas for squash talent.
  148. ^ World Squash Federation - Officers
  149. ^ Golf Courses in Southern India.
  150. ^ Sports in Chennai.
  151. ^ Adventure Tourism.
  152. ^ 8 Steps to India
  153. ^ [7]
  154. ^ Great Living Chola Temples - UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  155. ^ Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram.
  156. ^ Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple website.
  157. ^ Marina Beach, Chennai - One of the Longest Beaches in the World.

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Asia : South Asia : India : Southern India : Tamil Nadu
This article or section does not match our manual of style or needs other editing. Please plunge forward, give it your attention and help it improve!
Countryside in Tamil Nadu
Countryside in Tamil Nadu
.Tamil Nadu[1] - the land of Tamils is a state in Southern India known for its temples and architecture, food, movies and classical Indian dance and Carnatic music.^ Tamil Nadu , Indian State A land of traditions and culture, Tamil Nadu abounds in many ancient monuments & temples.
  • Tamil Nadu , Indian State 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indianetzone.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The state of Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956.
  • Tamil Nadu (state, India) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The dam is situated near Tiruvannamalai, in Tamil Nadu state of India.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

.The languages spoken here are predominantly Tamil (also written as Thamizh) and English in the larger cities and metro capital Chennai.^ It is the second-largest city in Tamil Nadu — not the largest, which is the capital, Chennai .
  • Journeys - Tamil Nadu, India - Tamil Nadu�s Stone Temples - NYTimes.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ The main language spoken here is Tamil, followed by English.
  • Tamil Nadu: Info on geography, history, government, districts, business, economy, travel, rivers, education, food, arts, culture, music, dance, festivals 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its capital and largest city is Chennai .

.It is the historical home of the famous Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallava kingdoms which thrived in ancient and medieval India.^ The ancient Indian Tamil kingdoms of Chera, Chola, Pallava and Pandya are of very ancient origins.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ From early pre-history Tamil Nadu was the home of the three famous kingdoms of the Chera , the Chola and the Pandya .
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The three emblems are bow, tiger and fish, representing the Chera, Chola and Pandya dynasties, respectively.
  • Tamil Nadu (India) 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC flagspot.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Northern Tamil Nadu (Dharmapuri, Thiruvannam, Vellore and Krishnagiri Districts)
Northern Coast (Ariyalur, Chennai, Cuddalore, Kanchipuram, Nagapattinam, Tiruvallur and Tiruvarur Districts)
Western Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore, Erode, Nilgiris and Tirupur Districts)
Central Tamil Nadu (Karur, Namakkal, Perambalur, Salem and Tiruchirappalli Disticts)
Southwestern Tamil Nadu (Dindigul, Madurai, Theni and Virudhunagar District)
Southern Coast (Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Sivaganga and Thanjavur Districts)
.
Far South (Kanniyakumari, Tuticorin and Tirunelveli Districts)
  • Chennai (Madras) — the capital of Tamil Nadu.^ Chennai , the capital of Tamil Nadu is known for its beautiful beach resorts.
    • Tamilnadu,Tamil Nadu,Tamil Nadu India,Tamilnadu Travel,Tamil Nadu Travel,Tamilnadu Tourism,Tamilnadu India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiantravelportal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamilnadu,Tamil Nadu,Tamil Nadu India,Tamilnadu Travel,Tamil Nadu Travel,Tamilnadu Tourism,Tamilnadu India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indiantravelportal.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Asktenali.com (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Asktenali.

    ^ Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu is known for its beautiful beach resorts.
    • Tamilnadu Travel,Tamilnadu India Travel,Tamilnadu Travel Tourism in India,Tamil Nadu Travel Information 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.health-tourism-india.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamilnadu,Tourism in Tamilnadu,India Tamilnadu Tourism,Tamilnadu Travel Tourism 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.kerala-tourism.net [Source type: General]

    One of India's four greatest cities.
  • Coimbatore — the textile capital of South India or the Manchester of the South
  • Erode — center of an agricultural area, with the largest market in India, and important as a university town.
  • Kanniyakumari — the southern most tip of the Indian mainland,
  • MaduraiAthens of the East, a place of great historical and cultural importance, and the oldest city in Tamil Nadu
  • Mamallapuram — ancient temples and modern stone carvers, outstanding examples of Dravidian art and architecture
  • Thanjavur — fine old architecture and exquisite handicrafts
  • Tiruchirappalli — famous for temples like Malaikottai, Srirangam, Thiruvanai Kovil, Samaya puram, Vekkali amman, Vayalore, gopaldas diamond merchants

Talk

.Tamils are fiercely proud of the Tamil language, one of the few still living classical languages, with two millennia of written tradition.^ Scholars recognize Tamil to be one of India's two languages of antiquity.

^ Although Tamil Nadu is one of the most urbanized states of India, it is still a rural land; agriculture is the mainstay of life for about three-quarters of the rural population.

^ Today Madurai is one of the most bustling cities in Southern India, with two million people; but Meenakshi is still regarded as the city's patroness, rather as Athena was in classical Athens.
  • Tamil Nadu | The Story of India - Photo Gallery | PBS 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Unlike many other Indian languages, it belongs to the Dravidian language family that includes the other major South Indian languages - Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada.^ So, the Dravidian family of languages is a South Asian family of languages in one sense.
  • Tamilar - Online Entertaniment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: General]

^ Tamil language is a member of the Dravidian/ South Indian family of languages.
  • Tamilar - Online Entertaniment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: General]

^ It is a member of the Dravidian family of languages.
  • Tamilar - Online Entertaniment portal for TamilNadu, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore, Food, Cusine, Holidays, Matrimonial, Dating, Online Movies 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tamilar.org [Source type: General]

.As Malayalam and Tamil are closely related, locals may be able to puzzle out spoken Malayalam with some difficulty.^ But this time Congress has lost allies in the state - two local parties and its former communist partners walked out - and faces the resurgence of a party that once ruled Tamil Nadu and could become a powerbroker after the April-May polls.
  • Congress may lose key seats in Tamil Nadu- Politics/Nation-News-The Economic Times 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC economictimes.indiatimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Although Tamil is the official language, Telegu, Malayalam, Hindi and other Indian languages are also spoken throughout Tamil Nadu.

^ Tamil Nadu has a very ancient history that dates back to some 6000 years and the origin of its people is closely tied to the debates of the Aryan invasion theory.

.Tamil Nadu was the site of violent anti-Hindi riots in 1965 when the union government tried to impose Hindi as the sole official language of India, and there is still some residual hostility towards Hindi, so try to pick up some instant Tamil here.^ Government polytechnic -Nagercoil 629 002 Tamil Nadu ( India) .
  • Polytechnics colleges in Tamil Nadu college list 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indianchild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Government polytechnic -Udhagamandalam 643 006 Tamil Nadu ( India) .
  • Polytechnics colleges in Tamil Nadu college list 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indianchild.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Tamil Nadu, India 15 photos .
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

.However, if you don't speak Tamil, most educated Tamils speak English fluently, while many others know some basic English, so you shouldn't have a problem getting by with English in the major cities.^ And for the purpose of tourism, Tamil Nadu has a rich history of culture and religious traditions; providing some of the oldest and most important literature in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - Boutique India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.boutiqueindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unlike most other parts of the country, Tamil Nadu gets its rainfall largely from the "North-East monsoon" in the months of October-December.

^ If you feel we need to add some additional information please let us know.
  • SIPCOT 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.sipcot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get in

By plane

.Anna International Airport in Chennai has connections with many South-East Asian cities, Sri Lanka, and some European cities (Paris, Frankfurt, Brussels and London).^ Col R Hariharan, a retired Military Intelligence specialist on South Asia, served with the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka 1987-90 as Head of Intelligence.
  • LTTE Ripples in Tamil Nadu | Asian Tribune 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.asiantribune.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the peak of their glory, the Chola kings expanded their influence as far as Ceylon (Sri Lanka) in the south and hundreds of kilometers across the northern region.
  • History of Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu History, Tamil Nadu in History, Tamil Nadu History Info, Information on Tamil Nadu History, Tamil Nadu History Guide, Tamil Nadu Tour 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiaatitsbest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Calimere:     It is also known as Kodikkarai, this coastal sanctuary is 90 km south-east of Thanjavur in a wetland which juts out into the Palk Strait separating India and Sri Lanka.
  • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

.There are also flights from Tiruchirapalli to Colombo in Sri Lanka and Singapore.^ The two have been demanding that an all-party parliamentary delegation be sent to Sri Lanka to assess the situation there.
  • Tehelka - The People's Paper 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tehelka.com [Source type: Original source]

^ UAE to increase flights to Sri Lanka UAE to increase flights to Sri Lanka UAE to increase flights to Sri Lanka Don't betray the country for narrow political gain...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ Sri Lanka should reduce the vulnerability to tsunamis on its Westerncoast, even if it did not experience it last December or, experiencedit only moderately as in Colombo.
  • Sethusamudram canal: Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu at risk - TamilCanadian 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.tamilcanadian.com [Source type: Original source]

There are flights from Coimbatore to Sharjah, Colombo and Singapore.
.Other domestic airports in Tamil Nadu include Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore, Salem and Tuticorin.^ Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli and Coimbatore have airports.
  • Tamilnadu Travel, Tamilnadu Tourist Map, Tamilnadu Travel Guide, Tamilnadu Tourist Attraction India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.mapsofindia.org [Source type: News]

^ Coimbatore Coimbatore is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu after Chennai and Madurai.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Madurai , Coimbatore , Tiruchirapalli , Salem , and Thirunelveli are other large cities (Corporations) of Tamil Nadu.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By rail

.Tamil Nadu is served by Southern Railway and there are many trains from Chennai to almost every major city in India.^ SAPFirst Consulting (chennai Tamil Nadu) SAP Consulting in India sapfirst.

^ Tamil Nadu cities .
  • Tamil Nadu Cities: History, Vacations and Cities in Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.placesonline.com [Source type: News]

^ The railway station at Chennai has connecting trains to/from all major cities in India.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide :: India Destination Guide 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC india.traveltoworld.com [Source type: News]

.Chennai serves as a gateway city for connections from other parts of Tamil Nadu.^ It is the second-largest city in Tamil Nadu — not the largest, which is the capital, Chennai .
  • Journeys - Tamil Nadu, India - Tamil Nadu�s Stone Temples - NYTimes.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Asktenali.com (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Asktenali.

^ Coimbatore Coimbatore is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu after Chennai and Madurai.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

By road

.Chennai is one point on the Golden Quadrilateral project, the construction of limited access divided highways that link circumnavigate the heart of India.^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu Chennai The capital of Tamil Nadu, is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and main centre of this region.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Chennai thus continues to be one of the main centres for live unrelated renal transplantation in India, attracting patients from all over the country and abroad.
  • Kidney commerce in Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.flonnet.com [Source type: Original source]

.Chennai has one of Asia's largest bus stations, CMBT. Seven different state owned corporations fly buses to and from various destinations within South India.^ India's largest IT park is housed at Chennai.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beaconsoft is situated at Chennai , South India .

^ The sacred island town of Rameswaram at the extreme south-eastern limit of the Indian Peninsula, has one of India's most venerated temples.
  • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

.There are hourly buses for places like Tirupati, Pondicherry, Coimbatore.^ There is nothing technically interesting about this shot, taken at a Ganeesh temple in Pondicherry one night when a festival of some sort was taking place.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Information and Travel Guide - India - Lonely Planet 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.You will get the option of A/C or Non-A/C coaches for cities like Bangalore, Trivandrum, Hyderabad.^ The idea was to tap corporations that need people to travel frequently between southern cities like Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trivandrum and so on.
  • Tamil Nadu, India News - Topix 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ The airline will introduce flights between Kochi, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Kuala Lumpur this year and will add Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Delhi next year.
  • Tamil Nadu - India - Asia - World - news 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: News]

^ (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Live IBM MAINFRAME TRAINING in india, Chennai , hyderabad, Delhi , Bangalore , Pune , Noida , Trivandrum , New Delhi .

.Several private players also operate buses between most southern destinations.^ Chennai most attractive city for offshoring services Knowledge Process Outsourcing : Chennai is also the preferred destination for companies outsourcing their high-end knowledge intensive operations.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamilnadu Tourist Attraction Tamil Nadu, the southern most state of India, is one of the major tourist destinations of India.....
  • Tamilnadu Tourism, Tamilnadu Tourism India, Online Tamilnadu Tourism, Best Tamilnadu tourism, Tamilnadu South India Tourism, Tourism in Tamilnadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.southindiatourism.net [Source type: General]

During the weekends most buses are fully occupied and it's better to reserve a ticket in advance. All buses terminate near Koyambedu but there are different stands for state owned(CMBT), and private buses (Omni bus terminus). .Both these terminuses are near each other, and it is better to tell your exact destination to the taxi/autorickshaw driver.^ Pick up a few of these magnificent paintings for your near and dear ones, or to give a new look to your house.
  • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]
  • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]

Buses usually drop passengers at various points in the city before reaching the terminus. So feel free to ask the driver or fellow passengers the closest drop-off point to your destination.
Metropolitan Transport Corporation buses ply throughout the city. These are government-run and extremely cheap. You can buy bus tickets online at redbus [2] or Ticketgoose [3] or RathiMeena. .Extreme caution is advised in using these buses as they are often out of shape, will begin moving before passengers are fully boarded, and are, like second class suburban trains, notorious for passengers having to hang off the edge or outside of the bus while in motion.^ Training-Classes.com by skillbox® 2010 - Terms of Use Copyright 1998-2010 skillbox, inc.

^ Karur is known for its bus body building industries where most of the buses used in south India are manufactured.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But now state corporation introduces New Type Deluxe, A/C Buses for Chennai Passengers.^ Tamil Nadu plans financial city, country specific parks Chennai: After attracting global automobile manufacturers to the state, Tamil Nadu is now planning a financial city, an aviation park and country-specific complexes to attract investment.

^ Etiquette Works (CHENNAI Tamil Nadu) EtiquetteWorks which specializes in Etiquette Training on Business & Social Etiquette Skills , has launched a new program on: Etiquette & Personal Grooming exclusively for Corporates ....

Also introduced new 2500 buses for Chennai.
.
  • Hill stations - Ooty, Kodaikanal and Yercaud
  • Mamallapuram- Pallava dynasty rock cut temples
  • Kanchipuram-temples and sarees
  • Thanjavur-temples
  • Thiruchy - temples, fort
  • Kumbakonam-famous upilliyapan temple
  • Chidambaram- the seat of the cosmic dancer Nataraja
  • Sirkazhi
  • Palani - A Murugan Hill Temple
  • Madurai - one of the oldest cities of Tamilnadu, documented since 4th century BC, seat of Kadai Sangam (a sort of ancient conference on the Tamil language).^ This Madurai temple was built in the 16th-century.

    ^ Kanchipuram, the capital of the Pallava and dynasty is one of the serene sacred cities of India.
    • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Tamilnadu also has picturesque hill stations like Ooty, Kodaikanal and Yercaud in the Nilgiris (Blue Mountains).
    • Tamilnadu Travel, Tamilnadu Tourist Map, Tamilnadu Travel Guide, Tamilnadu Tourist Attraction India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.mapsofindia.org [Source type: News]

    .Once the capital of the ancient Pandiyans, the city is famous for the Meenakshi-Sundareswarar Shrine.
  • Poompuhar, for its heritage of sculpture
  • Swamithoppe for the Ayya Vaikunda Avataram festival.
  • Kanniyakumari (Cape Comorin), the southern-most tip of peninsular India, where you can find the Kanniyakumariamman temple on the sea shore where the mookuthy (nose stud) which is in the face of goddess shines so much that it guided ships passing by.^ Madurai, the most famous of the temple towns of the south is known for the Meenakshi Temple.
    • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Kanyakumari is the southern most tip of peninsular India.

    ^ Madurai Madurai is also one of the ancient most citis of India.
    • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

    Vivekanandha Rock,Saint Thiruvalluvar Statue
  • Rameswaram Ramanathaswamy Temple
  • GINGEE FORT-This is one of the historical forts in Tamil Nadu, 120 km from Chennai.

Do

Festivals

Religious festivals

.
  • Pongal, a harvest festival celebrated during the Tamil month of Thai (mid-January), is an important festival for Tamilians irrespective of their religion.^ Pongal pot Pongal , a four-day harvest festival, is the most celebrated festival of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pongal , a four-day harvest festival, is the most celebrated festival of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Festivals of Tamilnadu The main festival of Tamilnadu is Pongal, which is a harvest festival celebrated in the month of January.
    • Tamilnadu Travel,Tamilnadu India Travel,Tamilnadu Travel Tourism in India,Tamil Nadu Travel Information 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.health-tourism-india.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamilnadu,Tourism in Tamilnadu,India Tamilnadu Tourism,Tamilnadu Travel Tourism 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.kerala-tourism.net [Source type: General]

    .It is celebrated over three days.^ The Cape festival is celebrated on a large scale for three days at Kanyakumari.
    • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

    .On the first day, Bogi Pongal, discarded household items (brooms, mats, etc.^ The first day, Bhogi Pongal , is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of old and emeregence of new.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The second day, Suyran Pongal , is the main day which falls on the first day of the Tamil month Thai (January 14 or January 15 in western calendar).
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The second day, Surya Pongal , is the main day which falls on the first day of the Tamil month Thai (January 14 or January 15 in western calendar).
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ) are burnt before sunrise and delicacies are offered to the Gods. .On the second day, melagu pongal is cooked in earthen pots and offered to the Gods along with sarkarai pongal.^ The third day, Maattu Pongal , is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is on this day that Chakkara Pongal, a delicacy of harvest rice cooked with jaggery, ghee and cashew nuts is offered to the Sun God.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Pongal pot Pongal , a four-day harvest festival, is the most celebrated festival of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The third day, Maatu Pongal (Maatu - Cow), is for paying respect to cattle.^ The third day, Maattu Pongal , is meant to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide milk and are used to plough the lands.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The third day, Mattu Pongal is dedicated to the Cattle when cows are bathed and adomed with colourful beads and flowers.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    Cows are washed, their horns are painted, and they are taken to a nearby temple. Challikattu competitions are also held. .On the fourth day, kaanum Pongal, family and friends are visited and new clothes are given to maids and servants.
  • Ayya Vaikunda Avatharam The incarnational day of Ayya Vaikundar from the sea at Tiruchendur.^ The day of incarnation of Vaikundar , Ayya Vaikunda Avataram was celebrated in a grand scale in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The first day, Bhogi Pongal , is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of old and emeregence of new.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ See also [ Deepavali website ] The day of incarnation of Vaikundar , Ayya Vaikunda Avataram was celebrated in a grand scale in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is the most important festival of Ayyavazhi and on this day the celebrations in Swamithoppe is considered to be of high religious importance.^ And for the purpose of tourism, Tamil Nadu has a rich history of culture and religious traditions; providing some of the oldest and most important literature in India.
    • Tamil Nadu - Boutique India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.boutiqueindia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Pongal, a four day harvest festival, is the most celebrated festival of Tamilnadu, followed in importance by Diwali.

    ^ Kamaskhi Amman : Temple is dedicated to the goddess Paravati, this important temple is the site of the annual Car Festival, held on the 9th lunar day in February -March.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    .Though it is celebrated with processions all over Tamil Nadu, celebrations are in grander in the south.^ See all deals for Tamil Nadu » .
    • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide - Tamil Nadu Holidays 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The day of incarnation of Vaikundar , Ayya Vaikunda Avataram was celebrated in a grand scale in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Dravidian movement, which began in Tamil Nadu, aimed at providing opportunities to all irrespective his or her caste or religion.

    .Two processions, one from Tiruchendur, connected with the incarnation of Vaikundar, and another from Thiruvananthapuram, noting the relese of Vaikundar join at Nagercoil and then proceed towards Swamithoppe, the geographical focus point of Ayyavazhi.
  • Krishna jayanti or Gokulashtami A celebration of Lord Krishna.^ The day of incarnation of Vaikundar , Ayya Vaikunda Avataram was celebrated in a grand scale in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu.
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are two main shrines, one dedicated to Meenakshi Amman and other to Shiva Sundereswara, her lord.
    • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ During absorption process thousands of Executives exercised this option by refunding arrears to the tune of one to two lakhs.
    • Sanchar Nigam Executives Association (INDIA) 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC bsnleatn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Women pray to Lord Krishna and offer foodstuffs to him.
  • Aadi maadam is celebrated on Tuesdays and Fridays from July 16th to aug 15th in Amman Temples all over Tamil Nadu including the Mundakaniamman temple in Chennai and Karpakamaal.^ Asktenali.com (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Asktenali.

    ^ Evs' Academy (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Evs' Academy is an institution for women development.

    ^ EDUSPHERE (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We offer courses on games Programming .

    Foodstuffs and bangles are served as offerings to the gods. .People prepare good food and sit in the banks of river cauvery and pray for their family welfare.
  • Varalakshmi pooja On this day, married women keep kalasam, they pray, they dress-up and they decorate the temples.
  • Navaratri is a festival in honor of the three goddesses Laxmi (prosperity), Sarasvati (learning), and Durga (strength).^ A family praying together in a temple in Kumbakonam .

    ^ Kamaskhi Amman : Temple is dedicated to the goddess Paravati, this important temple is the site of the annual Car Festival, held on the 9th lunar day in February -March.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nimishambal Temple Views Nimishambal temple is situated on the banks of one of the braches of Cauvery that encircles the SriRangapattana island near Mysore.
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    .In Tamil Nadu, women prepare elaborate arrangements of dolls based on these goddesses and visits are made to see and compare these arrangements.^ See all Tamil Nadu Destinations » .
    • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide, Tour Reviews - Tamil Nadu, India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ See all Tamil Nadu Deals  » .
    • Tamil Nadu Tourism - Tamil Nadu Travel Guide, Tour Reviews - Tamil Nadu, India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Leader of the Opposition in the Tamil Nadu assembly and former chief minister J. Jayalalithaa made a rare but short visit to the house Friday but succeeded in marking her presence during her ten minute stay.
    • Tamil Nadu - India - Asia - World - news 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.wikio.com [Source type: News]

    .As with all festivals, sweets and food feature in a large way.
  • Saraswati pooja, the ninth day of Navaratri, is in honor of the goddess of learning.^ Kamaskhi Amman : Temple is dedicated to the goddess Paravati, this important temple is the site of the annual Car Festival, held on the 9th lunar day in February -March.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    ^ FAIR AND FESTIVALS Pongal: The four-day Harvest festival is celebrated all over the state in January.
    • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

    .Students and elders place their books in front of the goddess and neither study nor play musical instruments in honor of the goddess.
  • Vijayadashmi is the 10th day of Navaratri and is considered to be the day for starting new things like learning to play a new instrument or the start of a new school year.
  • Deepavali (Diwali), the festival of lights, is the time for new clothes, oil baths, bursting crackers, and eating sweets.
  • Karthigai is a festival in honor of Lord Muruga.^ A Student playing Veena in the Thiruvaiyaru school of Music.

    ^ Pongal, a four day harvest festival, is the most celebrated festival of Tamilnadu, followed in importance by Diwali.

    ^ The first day, Bhogi Pongal , is celebrated by throwing away and destroying old clothes and materials by setting them on fire to mark the end of old and emeregence of new.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is celebrated in the month of November to December every year.
  • Karthigai deepam chariot festival this is one of the oldest festivals in south-india, honoring Lord Muruga, also known as kaarthikeya.^ Here, too, is one of the oldest European settlements on the subcontinent, a place where locals, none too keen on his efforts to convert them, martyred Thomas, the saint apostle, in the year of his lord 72.
    • The Temples of Tamil Nadu - Articles - Travel + Leisure 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.travelandleisure.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Unlike other Hindu festivals, dates for this festival are calculated according to the solar calander, and hence it falls on January 13-16 every year.
    • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]
    • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Several temple festivals are held throughout the Tamilnadu, of which The Mahamagam festival celebrated once in 12 years at Kumbakonam, Meenakshi Kalyanam festival at Madurai, Natyanjali Dance Festival at Chidambaram are the famous ones.
    • Tamilnadu Travel,Tamilnadu India Travel,Tamilnadu Travel Tourism in India,Tamil Nadu Travel Information 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.health-tourism-india.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In the month of Karthigai thousands of devotees assemble in Thiruvannamalai, Tamil-Nadu, to take part in the many street and temple ceremonies and to offer prayers to Lord Muruga.
  • Gowri PoojaSimilar to varlakshmi pooja is done on the eve of vinnayakar chaturthi,for all these amman festivals karugumani is mandatory to be offered to goddess,and even in maangalyam ladies can wear in addition to gold and is safe nowadays because gold is capable of getting stolen.
  • 'Vinayaka Chaturthi Known as Ganesh Chaturthi in other parts of India, this festival is in honor of the elephant god Ganesh.^ Re: Golden temple Tamil Nadu .
    • Golden temple Tamil Nadu - IndusLadies 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indusladies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tamil Nadu, India 15 photos .
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Golden temple Tamil Nadu .
    • Golden temple Tamil Nadu - IndusLadies 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.indusladies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    An idol of Vinayaka is immersed in the sea or in a temple tank on the third day of this festival.
  • Purataasi Maadham famous for lord venkatachalapathy,many slokas,dance programmes,music concerts are all done in praise of lord narayana and brahmotsawam is done in thirupathi in grand scale.
  • Id Tamil Nadu has a large muslim population and Id and Ramzan are celebrated here.
  • Christmas, Good Friday and other Christian festivals are also celebrated.
  • Panguni Utaram utsavam in Ranganathar temple

Music and Dance festivals

.
  • Natyanjali is celebrated in many Hindu temples at the end of February and beginning of March, and includes daily classical Indian dance and music performances.
  • December Festival (Kacheri) at various locations in Chennai is dedicated to classical Indian dance and music performances.^ The Natyanjali Dance Festival is held on the temple grounds in February with performances by eminent dancers.
    • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

    ^ The temple is dedicated to the Hindu gods: .
    • Tamil Nadu | The Story of India - Photo Gallery | PBS 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Once a serene cluster of fishing hamlets, today Chennai bears a distinctive new look with a proud culture, and music and dance that forms the pulse of daily life.
    • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]
    • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]

    It attracts large crowds and performances often sell out early.
  • Mamallapuram Festival of dance is held in Mamallapuram in the months of January and February.

Other festivals

  • New Year's Eve Special prayers are offered in churches in the form of midnight services. .Women light villaku to goddesses at home or candles to Christ or Mother Mary, and prayers are offered in Mosques.
  • Tamil Puththandu (Tamil New Year) The 1st day of the Tamil month of Chitirai.^ Tamil New year, which generally falls on April 14 or 15 of the english calendar, is another event of celebration.

    ^ Tamil Nadu is also home to the large Tamil film industry, producing a huge number of Tamil films each year.
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is then followed in importance by Thai Poosam Kavady , Tamil New Year which generally falls on the April 14 or 15 of the Gregorian calendar .
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Usually in mid-April. .Now it is being changed to the 1st day of the Tamil month of 'Thai'.
  • Akshaya Tritiya On the third day after the new moon day that follows the tamil new year.^ New year freebies for Tamil Nadu .
    • Tamil Nadu, India News - Topix 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

    ^ The Tamil language saying Thai Pirandhal Vazhi Pirakkum -- literally meaning, the birth of the month of Thai will pave way for new opportunities -- is often quoted with reference to the Pongal festival.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tamil New year, which generally falls on April 14 or 15 of the english calendar, is another event of celebration.

    .Locals believe that anything done on this day is equivalent doing it a thousand times over and it is believed that buying gold on this day will ensure prosperity throughout life.^ Republic Day, is a time to hope, that the country soars high, in the skies of prosperity and the spirit of harmony and love remains in heart forever.

    Curd rice made with curds from fresh milk is offered as a service prasadham.
  • Karadaiyaa nonbu just when maasi maadham and panguni join they celebrate preparing kaaradai as offering to god,ladies do this pooja to protect their maangalyam.

Eat

.Tamil Nadu provides the visitor with a wide variety of delicious food both for the vegetarians as well as the non-vegetarians, though most food in Tamil Nadu consists of grains, lentils, rice and vegetables.^ Most places in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh can be reached within 24 hours because of the excellent road links on the national highway.
  • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]
  • Tamil Nadu Yatra,Tamilnadu Travel Guide,Tamil Nadu Tourist Attractions in India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.shubhyatra.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu is well-known for Kanyakumari, which is the southern-most tip of India and offers an enchanting view of the sunset and sunrise.
  • Tamil Nadu Tour,Tamil Nadu Tourism,Tamilnadu Temple Tour,Tamil Nadu Tour Travel Packages 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.tourtravelworld.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tamil Nadu is the most urbanized state in India, but agriculture remains a vital part of the economy, especially rice cultivation.
  • Tamil Nadu | The Story of India - Photo Gallery | PBS 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Spices are added to give a distinctive taste.
.Breakfast or tiffin includes idli or steamed rice dumplings, dosai is a crisp pancake made from a batter of rice and lentils, vada is a deep fried doughnut made from a batter of lentils, pongal is a mixture of rice and lentils cooked together and seasoned with ghee, cashew nuts, pepper and cumin seed), uppuma is semolina cooked, seasoned in oil with mustard, pepper, cumin seed and dry lentils.^ Dosai and Gingely oil are made for each other.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

^ One of them is the “Kal-dosai” made by sautéing the unfermented dough on one side only with a hood placed over it for the steaming effect on top.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu is also the leading producer of Kambu, Cholam, Rye, ground nuts, oil, seeds and sugar cane in India.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Lunch usually consists of rice with Sambar, rasam, and yogurt along with a number of spicy side dishes. This is called meals. A decent meals costs less than a dollar. There are 2 types of meals Limited and Unlimited.
.There are several variations of the dishes mentioned above which are eaten with coconut chutney, sambar which is a seasoned lentil dish and mulaga podi which is a powdered mix of several roasted lentils and red chilli blended with oil.^ This cuisine has several variations of fish, mutton, and chicken dishes of which the Chettinad Pepper Chicken is by far the best.
  • Tamil Nadu: Info on geography, history, government, districts, business, economy, travel, rivers, education, food, arts, culture, music, dance, festivals 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vadas, sambar, rasam, coconut chutney, and upma are other common delicacies.
  • Tamil Nadu: Info on geography, history, government, districts, business, economy, travel, rivers, education, food, arts, culture, music, dance, festivals 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though staple ones like chutney and sambar come in handy, with a piece pinched off and given a holy dip in a catorie of sambar before being transported to the palate, it is the connoisseurs’ considered view that dosas always go better with ‘Milagai Podi’ – the treated chilli-powder with a liberal puddle of gingely oil.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

.
  • Meat Madras- This is a spicy but delicious curry is named after Chennai, the metropolis in southern India perhaps because in the humid south, people rather eat hot food.^ Beaconsoft is situated at Chennai , South India .

    ^ India Chennai, which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
    • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I ate delicious Dosa’s!There is an old mess at Chennai (a k a Madras) wherein the waiter quizzes your preference – whether you will have a “Gingely – oil – dosa ” or “Ghee Dosa”.
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    .Strange though it may seem, this is because hot and spicy food makes one perspire thereby cooling the body.
  • Plain idlis- Plain Idlis are similar to rice cakes, but they are eaten with a coconut side dish made out of beaten coconut white mixed with a little spice.^ Breakfast (at least) must be eaten hot-hot, although Mr.V.Gangadhar of “slice of life”, with his native wisdom has canvassed so eloquently for the cold rice with “Veppilai Katti”.
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Food of Tamil Nadu Tamil cuisine, traditionally vegetarian, consists of the famous dosas, which are crisp rice pancakes and idlis, which are steamed rice dumplings.
    • Tamil Nadu: Info on geography, history, government, districts, business, economy, travel, rivers, education, food, arts, culture, music, dance, festivals 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.newkerala.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ One of them is the “Kal-dosai” made by sautéing the unfermented dough on one side only with a hood placed over it for the steaming effect on top.
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    Its called Coconut (Thenga in Tamil) Chutney. Also typically served are Tomato chutney (the difference is here tomato pulp is used) and Dal sambar. The Idlis are served steaming hot. They are meant to be eaten with hand.
  • Kancheepuram idlis - Hot and spicy. These differ from the normal Idlis due to the extra ingredients added usually to make it a little more spicy.
  • Pal payasam (rice pudding) - This is a sweet dish made from rice and thick milk.
  • Dosai or dosa - This is Indias answer to the French Crepes, though the answer could arguably have been given much before the question was asked. It is made from rice flour. Rice flour is mixed with an optimum level of water. Finding the optimum level is an art which most of the Indian women are born with. As too much or too less can make your Dosa non-appetizing. Dosas again come in a variety of forms and sizes. A dosa with potato curry stuffed inside becomes a Masala Dosa. A Dosa made from Rice flour and Fine semolina (Rawa) becomes a Rawa Dosa. .Like idlis, dosas are usually eaten with coconut chutney, tomato chutney and sambar.
  • Poori Masala(Poori Kizlaingu)- It's made in fine wheat flour, quite oily food.^ My wife always suggests to me to have Rava Dosas in hotels since they are not usually made at home.
    • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

    It served as break fast or evening tiff-en with potato curry.
  • Vadai- it's prepared with different lentils and fried in oil, which can be eat with or without chutney & sambar. It can be had with breakfast or evening snacks. Different types of vadai are prepared like, medu vadai(orid Dal), masala vadai(Toor Dal), etc.
  • Aapam
  • Ven Pongal
  • Lemon Rice
  • Tamarind Rice
  • Curd Rice
  • Rasam
  • Murukku
  • Adhirasam
  • Bajji
  • Vetral Kuzhambu

Drink

.The famous filter coffee special to Tamil Nadu is carefully made from chosen coffee beans, and roasted to preserve the original aroma of the beans.^ Temples in Tamil Nadu were the fulcrum of society and even today art forms that have their origin in religious worship continue to colour daily life.
  • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu is principally washed by the Cauvery, originating in Coorg in neighbouring Karnataka.
  • travel guides of tamil nadu, tour tamilnadu, hotels and accommodation in tamil nadu, travel packages tamilnadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-travelinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ Mind Catalysts Consulting Group (Chennai Tamil Nadu) We are a progressive training organization specializing in enhancing and nurturing the marvelous machine called the mind.

.These roasted beans are powdered and the flavour of rich ground coffee powder is used to make filter coffee, enjoyed by every one.^ Alternatively, one can relish the mouth-watering dosas, savor the refreshing filter coffee, or enjoy the Bharatnatyam performances.
  • Hotels in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Hotels, Budget, Deluxe, Luxury, Hotels in Tamil Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.getsetbook.com [Source type: General]

The water that you add has to be at boiling point so for the coffee powder to release its flavor. It is not possible to make coffee with tepid water.
.
  • Tender Coconut Water- It's very widely available in Tamil Nadu.^ Government of Tamil Nadu - Tamil Nadu Government portal covering diverse topics including health, tourism, culture, climate, Tenders and e-Governance.
    • Ooty Tourism - Ooty Travel Guide - Ooty, Tamil-Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Million GSM tender issue: Massive demonstration held throughout Tamil Nadu Circle.
    • Sanchar Nigam Executives Association (INDIA) 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC bsnleatn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tamil Nadu agriculture is heavily dependent on the river water and Monsoon rains.
    • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    You can find plenty of roadside shops everywhere in all season and it cost you from Rs.10.
  • Sugarcane Juice- It's mainly available in summer season(April-June) and cost you very less.

Sleep

.Tamilnadu has a wide range of accommodation to provide to its visitors, be it the class-conscious tourist or the budget-backpacker.^ Both places provide delightful relaxation during an extended tour of the south, having a wide range of hotel accommodation.
  • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

Seeing the success of Homestay type accommodation promoted by the Kerala Ministry of Tourism, the Tamilnadu counterpart introduced the "Bed and Breakfast" scheme. Under this scheme accommodation is provided at nominal rates and at the same time with hygienic conditions. And as a bonus you can experience the local life style. "Bed and Breakfast" scheme was introduced by Tourism Department Tamilnadu in 2001-2002. The scheme derives inspiration from a quote of Late Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, which goes like this "Receive a guest and send back a friend ". Under this scheme, a house owner can let out a few rooms to tourists. .During the stay of the tourists in his house, the tourists will be provided with accommodation and food by the house owner.^ Both places provide delightful relaxation during an extended tour of the south, having a wide range of hotel accommodation.
  • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

A detailed booklet containing the Names, addresses, Telephone Nos. etc. of the Bed and Breakfast scheme providers was published during 2001-2002 and this information was also put on the website of TTDC.
During the period 2001-02 to 2003-04 as many as 3,258 tourists had availed of this scheme. .The Bed and Breakfast service providers are scattered throughout the length and breath of Tamil Nadu as stated below.^ Although Tamil Nadu is one of the most urbanized states of India, it is still a rural land; agriculture is the mainstay of life for about three-quarters of the rural population.

^ In fact, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Orissa are the only three States in this group to have shown a decline in decadal percentage change in population in every decade since 1971.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Junisys Techno Services (Chennai Tamil Nadu) Junisys Techno Services is a Professional Services and Training org that delivers a cut above class infrastructure solutions and classic training.

  • Chennai 117
  • Madurai - 12
  • Tirunelveli - 6
  • Kanniyakumari - 4
  • Thanjavur - 2
  • Kodaikanal - 1
  • Virudhunagar - 1
  • Salem - 1
The house owners require the services of helpers to attend to the needs of the tourists. .Hence, in 2004-2005 a project was established to train such helpers in the field of health and personal hygiene, cleanliness, basic service techniques, basic nutrition values etc.^ Ltd., leading Engineering ISO 9001-2000 Certified Company, offer services Design Projects , High end training...

^ Brand YOU Professionals (CHENNAI Tamil Nadu) Brand YOU Professionals is a pioneer in the field of personal branding training in India .

^ The conSELLtant (Chennai Tamil Nadu) The conSELLtant are Specialists in Sales Training Professional Sales Training ( Selling Skills)-Field/ Telephone ( Basic Skills & Advanced) Selling Skills for specialized sectors...

.Apart from this the Tamilnadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC) has 36 Hotels in Tamilnadu that are hygienic and suits the budget to middle category travellers.^ You can customize this tour according to your requirements, hotel category, duration & budget .
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Our services comprise of air- ticketing, tour planning, travel guide, transportation, hotel bookings, sightseeing tours, multilingual tour guide in Tamilnadu and other tourism places of India.
  • Tamil Nadu Trip, South India Holiday, Tamil Nadu Travel Packages Tour and Itineraries, South India Travel Agents and Tour Operators, 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-tourism.net [Source type: General]

.TTDC Corporation was incorporated during the year 1971. It made a modest beginning with Five Tourist Bungalows and with two coaches.^ During the tenure of 9 years of our existence, we have focused on imparting Training Oracle to around 25 corporate houses in India and aborad.

.It has made rapid strides since then, and today has earned the proud distinction of owning the largest chain of Hotels in South India numbering 36. The bed strength has increased from 253 in 1971 to 2504 in 1998. 24 fleet of coaches are in use at present.^ Ooty Information - Ooty or Udhagamandalam is the largest and most important hill station in South India.
  • Ooty Tourism - Ooty Travel Guide - Ooty, Tamil-Nadu, India 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.holidayiq.com [Source type: General]

^ Karur is known for its bus body building industries where most of the buses used in south India are manufactured.
  • Tamil Nadu - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1639 , the British, under the British East India Company , established a settlement further south, in present day Chennai .
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation has established the following Tourist's amenities in the State:-
  • 1. Hotels : 36
  • 2. Youth Hostels : 8 (intended for Budget Tourists)

Budget

Decent budget categories abound from Rs 300 ($7) to Rs 700 ($20). .The former will get you a Non-Ac room with clean bed, TV and most probably a shared bathroom in most parts of Tamilnadu.^ It is one of the most visited shrines in Tamilnadu, and is located on the seashore in the southern part of the state near Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari.

The latter will fetch you a Ac single room with basic ammenities like TV, Bed, Room service and attached bathroom. If travelling as a couple expect to pay around Rs 500($10) to Rs 1100 ($23). .Though you might be lucky to find a decent English speaking concierge at this range, you will find lots of people well-versed in Tanglish (a concoction of Tamil and English) which can be understood quite clearly if you listen hard and pay attention.^ People just like you make Tamil Nadu, India News on Topix better every day.
  • Tamil Nadu, India News - Topix 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ Mr.Mohamed Iqbal, President of TMCA addressed the gathering both in English as well as in Tamil.

^ You capture the beauty, joy and pain of the Tamil people and region with such artistry and compassion.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

Please take due precautions with your luggage and other essential documents and money. It is advisable to not leave any money in the room and to always carry your passport in person. Bring a good lock both for your luggage and the hotel door. If you are carrying Laptops or Digi-cams, keep them under lock and key when not taking them on person.

Mid-range

Medium category hotels can be had from Rs 1500 ($27) to Rs 4000 ($80). These will be your 2 to 4 Star rated Hotels. .You will most probably be given a well furnished (by Indian standards) Air conditioned room with good lighting, bed, TV, attached bathroom with a bathtub and warm water during most of the day and hot water from 6AM–10AM and 6PM–10PM and a good concierge (who will serve you well provided you tip him the moment you see him rather than the last moment).^ Most Indian mothers want their daughters to marry decent men who make a good living.
  • India: News & Videos about India - CNN.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Indian authorities hope discount train tickets on air-conditioned trains may help the country fight its unemployment problem.
  • India: News & Videos about India - CNN.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC topics.edition.cnn.com [Source type: News]

Follow this advice when it comes to tipping. If you have reserved or kept in mind a certain amount for tipping, tip 20% of the amount at the beginning itself and the rest of the amount should be watered down subsequently on each tip with the final 20% as the last tip. Do not pay a flat rate tip all the time.
.Safety in this category of hotels is more, though it is always advisable to be a little paranoid if you are carrying very expensive items.^ You can customize this tour according to your requirements, hotel category, duration & budget .
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

.The safety issue is not a constant and will vary according to the city you are visiting and the hotel you are staying.^ Click below to visit Hotels and Resorts in Tamil Nadu' s cities with special discounts ...
  • travel guides of tamil nadu, tour tamilnadu, hotels and accommodation in tamil nadu, travel packages tamilnadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.india-travelinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ You can customize this tour according to your requirements, hotel category, duration & budget .
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

Most of the hotels in this category will have an in house restaurant and a bar. .If you are lucky or choose well you might even get one with a Pub and a Discotheque around which the nightlife of the city is centered, though these kind of hotels are limited to the major cities which will serve you as a stop-gap in between visiting places of tourist interest.^ Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu Chennai The capital of Tamil Nadu, is one of the four major metropolitan cities in India and main centre of this region.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

^ By the way, if you're interested in learning more about Topix, visit our blog .
  • Tamil Nadu, India News - Topix 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

^ India's other major cities, Chennai is quiet backwater, conservative in its way, with consierable importance placed on old fashioned values and traditions.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

Expect a buffet breakfast to be thrown in as a compliment.
Individual cottages at beach resorts can be had within this budget.

Splurge

Unlike Rajasthan, you will not be finding any Heritage Hotels (ancient Palaces that have been converted in to hotels) in Tamilnadu. You will have to splurge on 5 star and 5 star deluxe hotels. They will cost you anywhere from Rs 5000 ($110) to Rs 20000 ($450). They are usually run by an international chain and so needs not much description as checking into them here is akin to checking into them in San Francisco or Amsterdam.
.These hotels are mostly limited to in and around the city of Chennai and a few in Madurai & Coimbatore.^ Coimbatore Coimbatore is the third largest city in Tamil Nadu after Chennai and Madurai.
  • Tamil Nadu Travel Guide,Travel Guide Tamilnadu India,Tamilnadu Tourist Places Info,Tamilnadu South India Travel 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC www.indiabudgettravel.com [Source type: News]

^ Coimbatore, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem and Tirunelveli are other large cities (Corporations) of India Tamil Nadu.The art and culture of Tamils are among the oldest in India and the world.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ The idea was to tap corporations that need people to travel frequently between southern cities like Chennai, Cochin, Coimbatore, Madurai, Trivandrum and so on.
  • Tamil Nadu, India News - Topix 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: News]

Generally speaking Tamilnadu is a haven for the back-packers and the medium-budget travellers. As a result in the more tourist oriented cities, good hotels with good food and service come cheap. You will be hard pressed to find a hotel where you can splurge these ammounts. But of course what you save on your stay can be channelled into some good Kancheepuram silk sarrees for the beautiful ladies or into stone carvings of beautiful women for the Gentlemen.

Stay safe

.Generally, Tamil Nadu is one among the safest places in India.^ INDIA your Tamil Nadu .
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu's history dates back pre-historic times and archeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in India.
  • Tamil Nadu at AllExperts 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great literature, music, dance and architecture have evolved from India Tamil Nadu over the past two millennia.
  • INDIA your Tamil Nadu Photo Gallery by oochappan at pbase.com 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC www.pbase.com [Source type: General]

But like any other tourist destination, there are a few problems. Beware of pickpockets and thieves in Buses and Trains. If you travel via Train, think twice before eating anything offered by co-passengers.
Also, when travelling with someone from the opposite gender, it would be advisable to avoid too much of physical intimacy, as it may invite unwanted attention and comments. .It is also best if you do not talk about the sri lankan civil war beetween the mainly sinhalese government and tamil fighters.^ Indian who set himself ablaze over Sri Lankan war dies Chennai: An Indian, who had set himself on fire to protest the plight of the Sri Lankan Tamils, succumbed to his injuries early Saturday after battling for life for over a month, police sai....

^ Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Lankan government acquiring lands in Tamil areas Arjun to star in Vallakottai Arjun to star in Vallakottai Arjun to star in Vallakottai Asin ready for Tamil again Asin ready for Tamil again Asin ready for Tamil again Sri Lanka's Indian Tamil party to support Rajapaks...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

^ Sri Lankan government denies former commander's al...
  • JKRHOTNEWS: Election Commission defers Tamil Nadu by-poll 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC jkrhotnews.blogspot.com [Source type: News]

Get out

Navagraha Temple Tour Route Map

Here is the link to temple route map for the travellers visiting Navagraha temples in Tamilnadu. [4]
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Singular
Tamil Nadu
Plural
-
Tamil Nadu
.
  1. State in southern India which has Chennai (formerly known as Madras) as its capital.^ Chennai is the fourth largest city in India, and is known as the auto capital of India.

    ^ The capital of the state is Chennai , which until 1996 was known as Madras.

    ^ Chennai, which was known until 1996 as Madras, is the fourth largest city of India and the state capital.
    • Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC india.deepthi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The other cities include Madurai, Tiruchirappalli (Tamil: தி௫ச்சிராப்பள்ளி) (Tiruchy), Coimbatore.

Translations


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

.
Wikipedia has a page called:
Tamil Nadu is a state on the east coast of the southern tip of India.^ Kodikkarai Kodikkarai is Point Calimere on the southern tip pointing to Sri Lanka, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

^ The dam is situated near Tiruvannamalai, in Tamil Nadu state of India.
  • Blog of Cyber Brahma — Tamil Nadu 8 January 2010 13:34 UTC cyberbrahma.com [Source type: General]

^ Tamil Nadu is the second most industrialized state in India.
  • Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Map, Tamil Nadu Tourism 19 September 2009 12:53 UTC mapsofindia.com [Source type: News]

See also

  • Districts of Tamil Nadu
  • Category:Maps of districts of Tamil Nadu
  • Category:Geography of Tamil Nadu
  • Category:Resided in Tamil Nadu
  • Category:Settlements in Tamil Nadu

External links


This page is a "stub" and could be improved by additions and other edits.

This article uses material from the "Tamil Nadu" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 16, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tamil Nadu, which are similar to those in the above article.








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