The Full Wiki

Tamil script: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article contains Indic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks or boxes, misplaced vowels or missing conjuncts instead of Indic text.
Tamil
Tamil Sample.svg
Type Abugida
Spoken languages Tamil
Sanskrit
Saurashtra
Time period c. 700–present
Parent systems
Sister systems Malayalam
Sinhala
Tulu script
Grantha
Vatteluttu
Unicode range U+0B80–U+0BFF
ISO 15924 Taml
Note: This page may contain IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode.
Tamil A.svg Tamil is written in a non-Latin script. Tamil text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the ISO 15919 standard.

The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி tamiḻ ariccuvaṭi "Tamil alphabet") is a script that is used to write the Tamil language as well as other minority languages such as Badaga, Irulas, and Paniya.[1] With the use of diacritics to represent aspirated and voiced consonants not represented in the basic script, it is also used to write Saurashtra and, by Tamils, to write Sanskrit[2].

Contents

Overview

A sign in Tamil script.
Advertisements

Characteristics

The Tamil script has twelve vowels (உயிரெழுத்து uyireḻuttu "soul-letters"), eighteen consonants (மெய்யெழுத்து meyyeḻuttu "body-letters") and one character, the āytam (ஆய்தம்), which is classified in Tamil grammar as being neither a consonant nor a vowel (அலியெழுத்து aliyeḻuttu "the hermaphrodite letter"), though often considered as part of the vowel set (உயிரெழுத்துக்கள் uyireḻuttukkaḷ "vowel class"). The script, however, is syllabic and not alphabetic[3]. The complete script, therefore, consists of the thirty-one letters in their independent form, and an additional 216 combinant letters representing a total 247 combinations (உயிர்மெய்யெழுத்து uyirmeyyeḻuttu) of a consonant and a vowel, a mute consonant or a vowel alone. These combinant letters are formed by adding a vowel marker to the consonant. Some vowels require the basic shape of the consonant to be altered in a way that is specific to that vowel. Others are written by adding a vowel-specific suffix to the consonant, yet others a prefix, and finally some vowels require adding both a prefix and a suffix to the consonant. In every case the vowel marker is different from the standalone character for the vowel.

The Tamil script is written from left to right.

History

A page from a Tamil Palm Leaf Manuscript.

The Tamil script, like the other Indic scripts, is thought to have evolved from the Brahmi script.[4] The earliest inscriptions which are accepted examples of Tamil writing date to a time just after the Asokan period. The script used by these inscriptions is commonly known as the Tamil Brahmi or Tamili script, and differs in many ways from standard Asokan Brahmi. For example, early Tamil Brahmi, unlike Asokan Brahmi, had a system to distinguish between pure consonants (m in this example) and consonants with an inherent vowel (ma in this example). In addition, early Tamil Brahmi used slightly different vowel markers, had extra characters to represent letters not found in Sanskrit, and omitted letters for sounds not present in Tamil, such as voiced consonants and aspirates.[4] Inscriptions from the second century AD use a later form of the Tamil Brahmi script, which is substantially similar to the writing system described in the Tolkappiyam, an ancient Tamil grammar. Most notably, they use the puḷḷi to suppress the inherent vowel.[5] The Tamil letters thereafter evolved towards a more rounded form, and by the fifth or sixth century AD had reached a form called the early vaṭṭeḻuttu.[6]

The modern Tamil script does not, however, descend from this script.[7] In 7th century, the Pallava dynasty created a new script for Tamil, which was formed by simplifying the Grantha script (which in turn derived from Southern Brahmi), and adding to it the vatteluttu letters for sounds not found in Sanskrit.[8] By the 8th century, this new script supplanted vatteluttu in the Chola and Pallava kingdoms which lay in the north portion of the Tamil-speaking region. Vatteluttu continued to be used in the southern portion of the Tamil-speaking region, in the Chera and Pandyan kingdoms until the 11th century, when the Pandyan kingdom was conquered by the Cholas.[9]

Over the next few centuries, the Chola-Pallava script evolved into the modern Tamil script. The use of palm leaves as the primary medium for writing led to changes in thescript. The scribe had to be careful not to pierce the leaves with the stylus while writing, because a leaf with a hole was more likely to tear and decay faster. As a result, the use of the puḷḷi to distinguish pure consonants became rare, with pure consonants usually being written as if the inherent vowel were present. Similarly, the vowel marker for the kuṟṟiyal ukaram, a half-rounded u which occurs at the end of some words and in the medial position in certain compound words, also fell out of use and was replaced by the marker for the simple u. The puḷḷi did not fully reappear until the introduction of printing, but the marker kuṟṟiyal ukaram never came back into use, although the sound itself still exists and plays an important role in Tamil prosody.

The forms of some of the letters were simplified in the nineteenth century to make the script easier to typeset. In the twentieth century, the script was simplified even further in a series of reforms, which regularised the vowel markers used with consonants by eliminating special markers and most irregular forms.

Relationship with other Indic scripts

The Tamil script differs from other Brahmi-derived scripts in a number of ways. Unlike every other Indic script, it uses the same character to represent both an unvoiced stop and its voiced equivalent. Thus the character க் k, for example, represents both [k], and [ɡ]. This is because Tamil grammar treats only unvoiced stops as being "true" consonants, treating voiced and aspirated sounds as euphonic variants of unvoiced sounds. Traditional Tamil grammars contain detailed rules, observed in formal speech, for when a stop is to be pronounced with and without voice. These rules are not followed in colloquial or dialectal speech, where voiced and unvoiced versions of a stop are, in effect, allophones, being used in specific phonetic contexts, without serving to distinguish words.

Also unlike other Indic scripts, the Tamil script rarely uses special consonantal ligatures to represent conjunct consonants, which are far less frequent in Tamil than in other Indian languages. Conjunct consonants, where they occur are written by writing the character for the first consonant, adding the puḷḷi to suppress its inherent vowel, and then writing the character for the second consonant. There are a few exceptions, namely க்ஷ kṣa and ஶ்ரீ śrī.

Tamil letters

Basic consonants

Consonants are called the 'body' (mei) letters. The consonants are classified into three categories: vallinam (hard consonants), mellinam (soft consonants, including all nasals), and idayinam (medium consonants).

There are some lexical rules for formation of words. Tolkāppiyam describes such rules. Some examples: a word cannot end in certain consonants, and cannot begin with some consonants including 'r' 'l' and 'll'; there are two consonants for the dental 'n' - which one should be used depends on whether the 'n' occurs at the start of the word and on the letters around it. (Historically, one 'n' was pronounced alveolarly, as is still true in Malayalam.)

The order of the alphabet (strictly abugida) in Tamil closely matches that of the linguistically unrelated Indo-Aryan languages, reflecting the common origin of their scripts from Brahmi.

Consonant ISO 15919 Category IPA
க் k vallinam [k], [ɡ], [x], [ɣ], [h]
ங் mellinam [ŋ]
ச் c vallinam [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ], [ʃ], [s], [ʒ]
ஞ் ñ mellinam [ɲ]
ட் vallinam [ʈ], [ɖ], [ɽ]
ண் mellinam [ɳ]
த் t vallinam [t̪], [d̪], [ð]
ந் n mellinam [n]
ப் p vallinam [p], [b], [β]
Consonant ISO 15919 Category IPA
ம் m mellinam [m]
ய் y idaiyinam [j]
ர் r idaiyinam [ɾ]
ல் l idaiyinam [l]
வ் v idaiyinam [ʋ]
ழ் idaiyinam [ɻ]
ள் idaiyinam [ɭ]
ற் vallinam [r], [t], [d]
ன் mellinam [n]

Usage of other lingual consonants

It is sometimes not easy to identify phonemes found in words of other languages. For this reason, some ad-hoc characters have been added over the years. These additions do not form part of the original organization along places of articulation. Most of these additions are called Grantha letters, which are used for writing words of non-Tamil origin, like Stalin or Shajahan.

Consonant ISO 15919 IPA
ஶ் ś [ɕ], [ʃ]
ஜ் j [d͡ʒ]
ஷ் [ʂ]
ஸ் s [s]
ஹ் h [h]
க்ஷ் (*) kṣ [kʂ]

(*) க்ஷ் is technically a ligature (=க்‌ஷ்).

Vowels

Vowels are also called the 'life' (uyir) or 'soul' letters. Together with the consonants (which are called 'body' letters), they form compound, syllabic (abugida) letters that are called 'living' letters (uyirmei, i.e. letters that have both 'body' and 'soul').

Tamil vowels are divided into short and long (five of each type) and two diphthongs.

Isolated form

Vowel ISO 15919 IPA
a [ʌ]
ā [ɑː]
i [i]
ī [iː]
u [u], [ɯ]
ū [uː]
Vowel ISO 15919 IPA
e [e]
ē [eː]
ai [ʌj]
o [o]
ō [oː]
au [ʌʋ]

Compound form

Using the consonant 'k' as an example:

Formation Compound form ISO 15919 IPA
க் + அ ka [kʌ]
க் + ஆ கா [kɑː]
க் + இ கி ki [ki]
க் + ஈ கீ [kiː]
க் + உ கு ku [ku], [kɯ]
க் + ஊ கூ [kuː]
Formation Compound form ISO 15919 IPA
க் + எ கெ ke [ke]
க் + ஏ கே [keː]
க் + ஐ கை kai [kʌj]
க் + ஒ கொ ko [ko]
க் + ஓ கோ [koː]
க் + ஔ கௌ kau [kʌʋ]

The special letter (pronounced 'akh') is rarely used by itself. It normally serves a purely grammatical function as the independent vowel form of the dot on consonants that suppresses the inherent 'a' sound in plain consonants. However, in modern times it has come to be used to represent foreign sounds - for example ஃ + ப is used to represent the English sound 'F', not found in Tamil.

The long (nedil) vowels are about twice as long as the short (kuRil) vowels. The diphthongs are usually pronounced about one and a half times as long as the short vowels, though some grammatical texts place them with the long (nedil) vowels.

As can be seen in the compound form, the vowel sign can be added to the right, left or both sides of the consonants. It can also form a ligature. These rules are evolving and older use has more ligatures than modern use. What you actually see on this page depends on your font selection; for example, Code2000 will show more ligatures than Latha.

There are proponents of script reform who want to eliminate all ligatures and let all vowel signs appear on the right side.

Unicode encodes the character in logical order (always the consonant first), whereas legacy 8-bit encodings (such as TSCII) prefer the written order. This makes it necessary to reorder when converting from one encoding to another; it is not sufficient simply to map one set of codepoints to the other.

Compound table of Tamil letters

The following table lists vowel (uyir or life) letters across the top and consonant (mei or body) letters along the side, the combination of which gives all Tamil compound (uyirmei) letters.

Tamil compound table
Vowels

Consonants

க் கா கி கீ கு கூ கெ கே கை கொ கோ கௌ
ங் ஙா ஙி ஙீ ஙு ஙூ ஙெ ஙே ஙை ஙொ ஙோ ஙௌ
ச் சா சி சீ சு சூ செ சே சை சொ சோ சௌ
ஞ் ஞா ஞி ஞீ ஞு ஞூ ஞெ ஞே ஞை ஞொ ஞோ ஞௌ
ட் டா டி டீ டு டூ டெ டே டை டொ டோ டௌ
ண் ணா ணி ணீ ணு ணூ ணெ ணே ணை ணொ ணோ ணௌ
த் தா தி தீ து தூ தெ தே தை தொ தோ தௌ
ந் நா நி நீ நு நூ நெ நே நை நொ நோ நௌ
ப் பா பி பீ பு பூ பெ பே பை பொ போ பௌ
ம் மா மி மீ மு மூ மெ மே மை மொ மோ மௌ
ய் யா யி யீ யு யூ யெ யே யை யொ யோ யௌ
ர் ரா ரி ரீ ரு ரூ ரெ ரே ரை ரொ ரோ ரௌ
ல் லா லி லீ லு லூ லெ லே லை லொ லோ லௌ
வ் வா வி வீ வு வூ வெ வே வை வொ வோ வௌ
ழ் ழா ழி ழீ ழு ழூ ழெ ழே ழை ழொ ழோ ழௌ
ள் ளா ளி ளீ ளு ளூ ளெ ளே ளை ளொ ளோ ளௌ
ற் றா றி றீ று றூ றெ றே றை றொ றோ றௌ
ன் னா னி னீ னு னூ னெ னே னை னொ னோ னௌ
Grantha compound table
Vowels

Grantha consonants

ஶ் ஶா ஶி ஶீ ஶு ஶூ ஶெ ஶே ஶை ஶொ ஶோ ஶௌ
ஜ் ஜா ஜி ஜீ ஜு ஜூ ஜெ ஜே ஜை ஜொ ஜோ ஜௌ
ஷ் ஷா ஷி ஷீ ஷு ஷூ ஷெ ஷே ஷை ஷொ ஷோ ஷௌ
ஸ் ஸா ஸி ஸீ ஸு ஸூ ஸெ ஸே ஸை ஸொ ஸோ ஸௌ
ஹ் ஹா ஹி ஹீ ஹு ஹூ ஹெ ஹே ஹை ஹொ ஹோ ஹௌ
க்ஷ் க்ஷ க்ஷா க்ஷி க்ஷீ க்ஷு க்ஷூ க்ஷெ க்ஷே க்ஷை க்ஷொ க்ஷோ க்ஷௌ

Numerals and symbols

Apart from the numerals (0-9), Tamil also has numerals for 10, 100 and 1000. Symbols for day, month, year, debit, credit, as above, rupee, numeral are present as well.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 100 1000
day month year debit credit as above rupee numeral

Tamil in Unicode

The Unicode range for Tamil is U+0B80–U+0BFF. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points. Most of the non-assigned codepoints are designated reserved because they are in the same relative position as characters assigned in other South Asian script blocks that correspond to phonemes that don't exist in the Tamil script.

Like other South Asian scripts in Unicode, the Tamil encoding was originally derived from the ISCII standard. Both ISCII and Unicode encode Tamil as an abugida. Each codepoint representing a similar phoneme is encoded in the same relative position in each South Asian script block in Unicode. Although Unicode represents Tamil as an abugida, all the pure consonants and syllables in Tamil can be represented by combining multiple Unicode codepoints, as can be seen in the Unicode Tamil Syllabary below.

In Unicode 5.1, named sequences were added for all Tamil pure consonants and syllables. Unicode 5.1 also has a named sequence for the Tamil ligature SRI (śrī), ஶ்ரீ . The name of this sequence is TAMIL SYLLABLE SHRII, and is composed of the Unicode sequence U+0BB6 U+0BCD U+0BB0 U+0BC0.

Tamil
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0B8x            
U+0B9x            
U+0BAx                  
U+0BBx         ி
U+0BCx            
U+0BDx                            
U+0BEx            
U+0BFx          
Unicode Tamil Syllabary
Vowels →
Consonants

0B85

0B86

0B87

0B88

0B89

0B8A

0B8E

0B8F

0B90

0B92

0B93

0B94
க்
0B95
0BCD

0B95
 
கா
0B95
0BBE
கி
0B95
0BBF
கீ
0B95
0BC0
கு
0B95
0BC1
கூ
0B95
0BC2
கெ
0B95
0BC6
கே
0B95
0BC7
கை
0B95
0BC8
கொ
0B95
0BCA
கோ
0B95
0BCB
கௌ
0B95
0BCC
ங்
0B99
0BCD

0B99
 
ஙா
0B99
0BBE
ஙி
0B99
0BBF
ஙீ
0B99
0BC0
ஙு
0B99
0BC1
ஙூ
0B99
0BC2
ஙெ
0B99
0BC6
ஙே
0B99
0BC7
ஙை
0B99
0BC8
ஙொ
0B99
0BCA
ஙோ
0B99
0BCB
ஙௌ
0B99
0BCC
ச்
0B9A
0BCD

0B9A
 
சா
0B9A
0BBE
சி
0B9A
0BBF
சீ
0B9A
0BC0
சு
0B9A
0BC1
சூ
0B9A
0BC2
செ
0B9A
0BC6
சே
0B9A
0BC7
சை
0B9A
0BC8
சொ
0B9A
0BCA
சோ
0B9A
0BCB
சௌ
0B9A
0BCC
ஞ்
0B9E
0BCD

0B9E
 
ஞா
0B9E
0BBE
ஞி
0B9E
0BBF
ஞீ
0B9E
0BC0
ஞு
0B9E
0BC1
ஞூ
0B9E
0BC2
ஞெ
0B9E
0BC6
ஞே
0B9E
0BC7
ஞை
0B9E
0BC8
ஞொ
0B9E
0BCA
ஞோ
0B9E
0BCB
ஞௌ
0B9E
0BCC
ட்
0B9F
0BCD

0B9F
 
டா
0B9F
0BBE
டி
0B9F
0BBF
டீ
0B9F
0BC0
டு
0B9F
0BC1
டூ
0B9F
0BC2
டெ
0B9F
0BC6
டே
0B9F
0BC7
டை
0B9F
0BC8
டொ
0B9F
0BCA
டோ
0B9F
0BCB
டௌ
0B9F
0BCC
ண்
0BA3
0BCD

0BA3
 
ணா
0BA3
0BBE
ணி
0BA3
0BBF
ணீ
0BA3
0BC0
ணு
0BA3
0BC1
ணூ
0BA3
0BC2
ணெ
0BA3
0BC6
ணே
0BA3
0BC7
ணை
0BA3
0BC8
ணொ
0BA3
0BCA
ணோ
0BA3
0BCB
ணௌ
0BA3
0BCC
த்
0BA4
0BCD

0BA4
 
தா
0BA4
0BBE
தி
0BA4
0BBF
தீ
0BA4
0BC0
து
0BA4
0BC1
தூ
0BA4
0BC2
தெ
0BA4
0BC6
தே
0BA4
0BC7
தை
0BA4
0BC8
தொ
0BA4
0BCA
தோ
0BA4
0BCB
தௌ
0BA4
0BCC
ந்
0BA8
0BCD

0BA8
 
நா
0BA8
0BBE
நி
0BA8
0BBF
நீ
0BA8
0BC0
நு
0BA8
0BC1
நூ
0BA8
0BC2
நெ
0BA8
0BC6
நே
0BA8
0BC7
நை
0BA8
0BC8
நொ
0BA8
0BCA
நோ
0BA8
0BCB
நௌ
0BA8
0BCC
ப்
0BAA
0BCD

0BAA
 
பா
0BAA
0BBE
பி
0BAA
0BBF
பீ
0BAA
0BC0
பு
0BAA
0BC1
பூ
0BAA
0BC2
பெ
0BAA
0BC6
பே
0BAA
0BC7
பை
0BAA
0BC8
பொ
0BAA
0BCA
போ
0BAA
0BCB
பௌ
0BAA
0BCC
ம்
0BAE
0BCD

0BAE
 
மா
0BAE
0BBE
மி
0BAE
0BBF
மீ
0BAE
0BC0
மு
0BAE
0BC1
மூ
0BAE
0BC2
மெ
0BAE
0BC6
மே
0BAE
0BC7
மை
0BAE
0BC8
மொ
0BAE
0BCA
மோ
0BAE
0BCB
மௌ
0BAE
0BCC
ய்
0BAF
0BCD

0BAF
 
யா
0BAF
0BBE
யி
0BAF
0BBF
யீ
0BAF
0BC0
யு
0BAF
0BC1
யூ
0BAF
0BC2
யெ
0BAF
0BC6
யே
0BAF
0BC7
யை
0BAF
0BC8
யொ
0BAF
0BCA
யோ
0BAF
0BCB
யௌ
0BAF
0BCC
ர்
0BB0
0BCD

0BB0
 
ரா
0BB0
0BBE
ரி
0BB0
0BBF
ரீ
0BB0
0BC0
ரு
0BB0
0BC1
ரூ
0BB0
0BC2
ரெ
0BB0
0BC6
ரே
0BB0
0BC7
ரை
0BB0
0BC8
ரொ
0BB0
0BCA
ரோ
0BB0
0BCB
ரௌ
0BB0
0BCC
ல்
0BB2
0BCD

0BB2
 
லா
0BB2
0BBE
லி
0BB2
0BBF
லீ
0BB2
0BC0
லு
0BB2
0BC1
லூ
0BB2
0BC2
லெ
0BB2
0BC6
லே
0BB2
0BC7
லை
0BB2
0BC8
லொ
0BB2
0BCA
லோ
0BB2
0BCB
லௌ
0BB2
0BCC
வ்
0BB5
0BCD

0BB5
 
வா
0BB5
0BBE
வி
0BB5
0BBF
வீ
0BB5
0BC0
வு
0BB5
0BC1
வூ
0BB5
0BC2
வெ
0BB5
0BC6
வே
0BB5
0BC7
வை
0BB5
0BC8
வொ
0BB5
0BCA
வோ
0BB5
0BCB
வௌ
0BB5
0BCC
ழ்
0BB4
0BCD

0BB4
 
ழா
0BB4
0BBE
ழி
0BB4
0BBF
ழீ
0BB4
0BC0
ழு
0BB4
0BC1
ழூ
0BB4
0BC2
ழெ
0BB4
0BC6
ழே
0BB4
0BC7
ழை
0BB4
0BC8
ழொ
0BB4
0BCA
ழோ
0BB4
0BCB
ழௌ
0BB4
0BCC
ள்
0BB3
0BCD

0BB3
 
ளா
0BB3
0BBE
ளி
0BB3
0BBF
ளீ
0BB3
0BC0
ளு
0BB3
0BC1
ளூ
0BB3
0BC2
ளெ
0BB3
0BC6
ளே
0BB3
0BC7
ளை
0BB3
0BC8
ளொ
0BB3
0BCA
ளோ
0BB3
0BCB
ளௌ
0BB3
0BCC
ற்
0BB1
0BCD

0BB1
 
றா
0BB1
0BBE
றி
0BB1
0BBF
றீ
0BB1
0BC0
று
0BB1
0BC1
றூ
0BB1
0BC2
றெ
0BB1
0BC6
றே
0BB1
0BC7
றை
0BB1
0BC8
றொ
0BB1
0BCA
றோ
0BB1
0BCB
றௌ
0BB1
0BCC
ன்
0BA9
0BCD

0BA9
 
னா
0BA9
0BBE
னி
0BA9
0BBF
னீ
0BA9
0BC0
னு
0BA9
0BC1
னூ
0BA9
0BC2
னெ
0BA9
0BC6
னே
0BA9
0BC7
னை
0BA9
0BC8
னொ
0BA9
0BCA
னோ
0BA9
0BCB
னௌ
0BA9
0BCC
ஶ்
0BB6
0BCD

0BB6
 
ஶா
0BB6
0BBE
ஶி
0BB6
0BBF
ஶீ
0BB6
0BC0
ஶு
0BB6
0BC1
ஶூ
0BB6
0BC2
ஶெ
0BB6
0BC6
ஶே
0BB6
0BC7
ஶை
0BB6
0BC8
ஶொ
0BB6
0BCA
ஶோ
0BB6
0BCB
ஶௌ
0BB6
0BCC
ஜ்
0B9C
0BCD

0B9C
 
ஜா
0B9C
0BBE
ஜி
0B9C
0BBF
ஜீ
0B9C
0BC0
ஜு
0B9C
0BC1
ஜூ
0B9C
0BC2
ஜெ
0B9C
0BC6
ஜே
0B9C
0BC7
ஜை
0B9C
0BC8
ஜொ
0B9C
0BCA
ஜோ
0B9C
0BCB
ஜௌ
0B9C
0BCC
ஷ்
0BB7
0BCD

0BB7
 
ஷா
0BB7
0BBE
ஷி
0BB7
0BBF
ஷீ
0BB7
0BC0
ஷு
0BB7
0BC1
ஷூ
0BB7
0BC2
ஷெ
0BB7
0BC6
ஷே
0BB7
0BC7
ஷை
0BB7
0BC8
ஷொ
0BB7
0BCA
ஷோ
0BB7
0BCB
ஷௌ
0BB7
0BCC
ஸ்
0BB8
0BCD

0BB8
 
ஸா
0BB8
0BBE
ஸி
0BB8
0BBF
ஸீ
0BB8
0BC0
ஸு
0BB8
0BC1
ஸூ
0BB8
0BC2
ஸெ
0BB8
0BC6
ஸே
0BB8
0BC7
ஸை
0BB8
0BC8
ஸொ
0BB8
0BCA
ஸோ
0BB8
0BCB
ஸௌ
0BB8
0BCC
ஹ்
0BB9
0BCD

0BB9
 
ஹா
0BB9
0BBE
ஹி
0BB9
0BBF
ஹீ
0BB9
0BC0
ஹு
0BB9
0BC1
ஹூ
0BB9
0BC2
ஹெ
0BB9
0BC6
ஹே
0BB9
0BC7
ஹை
0BB9
0BC8
ஹொ
0BB9
0BCA
ஹோ
0BB9
0BCB
ஹௌ
0BB9
0BCC
க்ஷ்
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCD
க்ஷ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
 
க்ஷா
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BBE
க்ஷி
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BBF
க்ஷீ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC0
க்ஷு
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC1
க்ஷூ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC2
க்ஷெ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC6
க்ஷே
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC7
க்ஷை
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BC8
ஷொ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCA
க்ஷோ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCB
ஷௌ
0B95
0BCD
0BB7
0BCC

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009), Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.), Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, http://www.ethnologue.com/, retrieved 2009-08-28  
  2. ^ The Unicode 5.0 Standard (5 ed.), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2006, ISBN 0321480910   at p. 324
  3. ^ University of Madras Tamil Lexicon, page 148: «அலியெழுத்து [ aliyeḻuttu n ali-y-eḻuttu . < அலி¹ +. 1. The letter , as being regarded neither a vowel nor a consonant; ஆய்தம். (வெண்பாப். முதன்மொ. 6, உரை.) 2. Consonants; மெய்யெ ழுத்து. (பிங்.).»]
  4. ^ a b Mahadevan 2003, p. 173
  5. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 230
  6. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 211
  7. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 209
  8. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 213
  9. ^ Mahadevan 2003, p. 212

References

  • Mahadevan, Iravatham (2003), Early Tamil Epigraphy from the Earliest Times to the Sixth Century A.D., Harvard Oriental Series, Volume 62, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, ISBN 0674012275  
  • Steever, Sanford B. (1996) "Tamil Writing" in William R. Bright and Peter B. Daniels (eds.) The World's Writing Systems. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message