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Tantō Mei: Kunimitsu. Complete knife in scabbard shown in views at left; bare blade shown in views on right.
Two tantō
Tantō blade hidden in a fan-shaped mounting

A tantō (短刀 ?, "short sword") is a common Japanese single or, occasionally, double edged knife or dagger with a blade length between 15 and 30 cm (6-12 inches). The tantō was designed primarily as a stabbing weapon, but the edge can be used for slashing as well. Tantō first began to appear in the Heian period, however these blades lacked any artistic quality and were purely weapons. In the early Kamakura period high-quality artistic tantō began to appear, and the famous Yoshimitsu (the greatest tantō maker in Japanese history) began his forging. Tantō production increased greatly around the Muromachi period and then declined in the Shintō period ("new sword" period). Consequently, Shintō period tantō are quite rare. They regained popularity in the Shin-Shintō Period ("new-new sword" period) and production increased.

Tantō are generally forged in hira-zukuri, meaning that their sides have no ridge line and are nearly flat, unlike the shinogi-zukuri structure of a katana. Some tantō have particularly thick cross-sections for armor-piercing duty, and are called yoroidoshi.

Tantō were mostly carried by samurai as commoners did not generally carry them. Women sometimes carried a small tantō called a kaiken in their obi primarily for self defense.

It was sometimes worn as the shōtō in place of a wakizashi in a daishō, especially on the battlefield. Before the 16th century, it was common for a samurai to carry a tachi and a tantō as opposed to a katana and a wakizashi.

Tantō with blunt wooden or blunt plastic blades exist and are used to practice martial arts involving the use of a tantō safely. Versions with a blunt metal blade are used in more advanced training or demonstrations. Martial arts that include techniques with tantō include:

Contents

History of Tantos in Japan

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Heian to Muromachi

The tantō was invented partway through the Heian period, when it was mainly used as a weapon. With the beginning of the Kamakura period, tantō were forged to be more aesthetically pleasing, and hira and uchi-sori tantō were the most popular styles. Near the middle of the Kamakura period, more tantō artisans were seen, increasing the abundance of the weapon, and the kanmuri-otoshi style became prevalent in the cities of Kyoto and Yamato. Because of the style introduced by the tachi in the late Kamakura period, tantō began to be forged longer and wider. The introduction of the Hachiman faith became visible in the carvings in the tantō hilts around this time. The hamon (line of temper) is similar to that of the tachi, except for the absence of choji-midare, which is nioi and utsuri. Gunomi-midare and suguha are found to have taken its place. In Nambokucho, the tantō were forged to be up to forty centimeters as opposed to the normal one shaku (about thirty centimeters) length. The tantō blades became thinner between the uri and the omote, and widen between the ha and mune. At this point in time, two styles of hamon were prevalent: the older style, which was subtle and artistic, and the newer, more ostentatious style. With the beginning of the Muromachi period, constant fighting caused the mass production of blades, meaning that with higher demand, lower-quality blades were manufactured. Blades that were custom-forged still were of exceptional quality, but the average blade suffered greatly. As the end of the period neared, the average blade narrowed and the sori became shallow.

Momoyama to Early Edo Age

Approximately two hundred fifty years of peace accompanied the unification of Japan, in which there was little need for blades. With weapon smiths given this time, both the katana and wakizashi were invented, taking the place of the tantō and tachi as the most-used pair of weapons, and the number of tantō forged was severely decreased. The only tantō produced during this period of peace were copies of others from earlier eras.

Late Edo Age

There were still few tantō being forged during this period, and the ones that were forged reflected the work of the Kamakura, Nambokucho, or Muromachi eras. Suishinshi Masahide was a main contributor towards the forging of tantō during this age.

Meiji to present

Many tantō were forged before World War II, due to the restoration of the Emperor to power. Members of the Imperial Court began wearing the set of tachi and tantō once more, and the number of tantō in existence increased dramatically. However, later on, a restriction on sword forging caused the number of tantō being produced to fall very low.

Types of Tantō

Tantō occupy two main categories, Suguta Tantō and Koshirae Tantō:

Suguta Tantō

  • Shinogi: This is not a true tantō, for it is usually created when a longer sword has been broken or cut. Tanto are seldom made in this form.
  • Ken: This is also not truly a tantō, though it is often used and thought of as one. Ken were often used for Buddhist rituals, and could be made from yari (Japanese spearheads) that were broken or cut shorter. They were often given as offerings from sword smiths when they visited a temple. The hilt of the ken tantō may be found made with a vajra (double thunderbolt related to Buddhism).
  • Kanmuri-otoshi: These tantō had a single edge and a flat back. They had a shingoni that extended to the tip of the blade and a groove running halfway up the blade. It was very similar to the unokubi style tantō.
  • Kubikiri: Kubikiri are rare tantō with the sharpened blade on the inside curve rather than the outside. One interesting fact about kubikiri is that they have no point, making them difficult to use in battle and enshrouding the weapon in mystery. Kubikiri can be roughly translated to “head cutter”. According to one myth, they were carried by assistants into battle in order to remove the heads of the fallen enemies as trophies for the warriors to show off during the triumphant return from battle. There are other speculations existing about the kubikiri’s possible uses. Perhaps they were used by doctors or carried by high-ranking officials as a badge is worn today. They could also have been used for cutting charcoal or incense, or used as an artistic tool for pruning bonsai trees.
  • Shobu: The shobu is a commonly found blade type that is very similar to the shinogi. It is sometimes found with a groove running halfway up the blade.
  • Kogarasamaru: The kogarasamaru is a very rare blade type that appears to be a branch of the shinogi blade type. The front third of the blade is double-edged.
  • Kissaki-moroha: The kissaki-moroha features an extremely long o-kissaki. This means that it is much longer than the one shaku length of the average tantō.
  • Unokubi: The unokubi is an uncommon tantō that features a single sharpened edge and a flat back. There is normally a short, wide groove extending to the midway point on the blade.
  • Hira: The hira is a tantō form with no shinogi and a mune. It is extremely common due to the simplicity of its design.
  • Hochogata: The hochogata is a tantō form that is commonly described as a short, wide, hira. The hochogata was one of the tantō forms that Masamune (an ancient sword smith whose name has become legend) favored.
  • Katakiriha: The katakiriha is a tantō form that has one side that is completely flat, while the other side turns at a sharp angle to create a chisel-shaped blade.
  • Moroha: The moroha is a rare, double bladed tantō type that has a diamond-shaped cross-section. The blade tapers to a point and contains a shinogi that runs to the point.

Koshirae Tantō

  • Aikuchi: The aikuchi is a tantō form where the fuchi is flush with the mouth of the saya. There is no tsuba on this form of tantō. Aikuchi normally have plain wood tsuka, and many forms of aikuchi have kashira that are made from animal horns.
  • Hamidashi: The hamidashi is a tantō style that features a small tsuba.
  • Kuaiken: The kuaiken is a generally short tantō that is commonly carried in aikuchi or shirasaya mounts. More women carry kuaiken than men do.
  • "Kamikaze" tantō: The "kamikaze" tantō is no more than a shirasaya tantō that is normally carried in horn mountings.

Other

  • Fan Tantō: The fan tantō is a common tantō with a blade entirely concealed within a fan-shaped scabbard. The blade was usually low quality, as this tantō was not designed to be a display piece, but rather a concealable dagger useful for self-defense. Many fan tantō were forged during the 19th and 20th centuries to rip off tourists.
  • Yari Tantō: Japanese spearheads were often altered so that it became possible to mount them as tantō. Yari tantō were carried by women for self-defense, and by samurai to pierce armor. Unlike most blades, yari tantō had triangular cross-sections.
  • Hachiwara: Hachiwara are not true tantō, because rather than in place of a blade they a flat iron bar, normally twelve to fifteen inches long, with a sharp hook on the end. They have been called “helmet breakers” and “sword breakers”. Their mounts were typically made of carved wood or carved cinnabar lacquer.

Another use of tanto blades is in modern tactical knives. Modern tantō have been made by knife makers Bob Lum, Phill Hartsfield, Ernest Emerson, Allen Elishewitz, Bob Terzuola, Strider Knives, Benchmade, Spyderco, Severtech, and Cold Steel. The tanto sheath sometimes were decorated with beautiful carvings to show status between nobles.

The handle shape may be altered slightly to provide better control.

Sources

See also


Tanto may refer to:

  • Tantō, a fixed-blade knife of Japanese origin
  • Daihatsu Tanto, a concept car based on the Daihatsu Move kei car

Places

  • Tanto, Stockholm, district of Stockholm, Sweden
  • Tantō, Hyōgo, Japan

See also


Simple English


The Tanto is a Japanese short sword or dagger.

The tanto's traditional overall length was 11.93 in (1 shaku, about 30cm). The blade's length was about 5in to 12in (12 1/2cm to 30cm). Blades that were bigger (13" to 14" inches) were called ko-wakizashi, or "small short sword." The tantos which varied from the traditional size were called O-tanto or Sunobi tanto.

The tanto was a weapon with a single-edged blade and a curved shape. It was designed for soft targets and was thought to be a hidden weapon of the samurai. It was extremely effective in close fighting.

The tanto appeared during the Heian Period (795-1192 A.D.) and developed as a weapon during the Kamakura Period (1192-1333 A.D.). At that time the tanto was not just a weapon but also a work of art. It was richly decorated using the most spread styles: hira-tsukuri and uchi-sori. Later, in the Nambokucho period (1336-1392 A.D), tantos become longer than 15.75 inches (37cm). Blades become thinner and broader and thus even more dangerous. Different styles developed and the shape changed. During the Muromachi Period (1336–1573 A.D.) the tanto becomes once more narrow-bladed.

By this time the quality of the blade was better. It was the time when professional smiths appeared and there were several styles of tanto making. The best known smiths were: Sukesada and Norimitsu (Bizen-den); Kanemoto and Kanesada (Mino-den); Muramasa and Masashige (Ise). The beginning of Edo period (1603-1867 A.D.) was a period of relative peace after Japanese unification and, although not so many were made, they were of good quality. The heat treated blade's edge (hamon) becomes more waved and so more beautiful.

A great number of tantos were made in the last 700 to 800 years. Some of them were for civil use. Others were made especially for samurai. One of the classifications is based on the hand guard type:

  • tanto with a guard called tsuba;
  • tanto with a aikuchi style of guard;
  • tanto with hamadashi style of guard.


The most popular of the three tantos were aikuchi and hamadashi. This was because of the fact that these two types had a small guard and they were easier to hide and carry. The tanto was not widely used on the battlefield, so the guard was mostly unnecessary.

Other styles of tanto differed by the shape of the blade. The best known are:

  • Hira-zukuri - with a flat, narrow and thick blade. This was designed for slashing and piercing blows.
  • Shobu-zukuri - with a ridge line and with a blood groove.
  • Moroha - a double edged and very rare tanto
  • Kissaki-moroha-zukuri - with a very long and sharp point (o-kissaki)
  • Kaikan - short tanto with small guards, usually carried by women.

When the tanto was used on the battlefield it was supposed to go through the armor of the opponent when he was close. The best tantos for this were those with a long, narrow blade and with a thick spine. The blow was applied with the point directed under or through the armor. The tanto was usually carried in a wide cloth belt (obi) with the edge up and the handle turned to the right. In the samurai house the tanto was often placed with the wakizashi (short sword). Samurai women were taught to use the tanto in case they needed to defend themselves or, if violated, to take their own life.

It is also considered that tantos of different type were used for suicide ritual (seppuku, also hara-kiri). Still, it was mainly used by women samurai whose suicidal ritual was to cut their own throat. The men samurai had a different ritual: they used a wakizashi sword for disembowelment.

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