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United Republic of Tanzania
Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"Uhuru na Umoja"  (Swahili)
"Freedom and Unity"
AnthemMungu ibariki Afrika
"God Bless Africa"
Capital Dodoma
Largest city Dar es Salaam
Official language(s) Swahili (de facto)
English (Higher courts, higher education)[1]
Demonym Tanzanian
Government Republic
 -  President Dkt.Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete
 -  Prime Minister Mizengo Pinda
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Tanganyika 9 December 1961 
 -  Zanzibar 12 January 1964 
 -  Merger 26 April 1964 
Area
 -  Total 945,203 km2 (31th)
364,898 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 6.2
Population
 -  2009 estimate 43,739,000[2] (32nd)
 -  2005 census 37,445,392 
 -  Density 46.3/km2 (124th)
119.9/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $53.790 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $1,353[3] 
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $20.668 billion[3] 
 -  Per capita $520[3] 
Gini (2000–01) 34.6 (medium
HDI (2008) 0.530 (medium) (151st)
Currency Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .tz
Calling code +2552
1 Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected.
² 007 from Kenya and Uganda.

Coordinates: 6°18′25″S 34°51′14″E / 6.307°S 34.854°E / -6.307; 34.854 The United Republic of Tanzania (pronounced /ˌtænzəˈniːə/; Swahili: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania)[4] is a nation in central East Africa bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north, Rwanda, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique to the south. The country's eastern borders lie on the Indian Ocean.

The United Republic of Tanzania is a unitary republic composed of 26 mikoa (regions).[5] The current head of state is President Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete, elected in 2005. Since 1996, the official capital of Tanzania has been Dodoma, where parliament and some government offices are located.[6] Between independence and 1996 the major coastal city of Dar es Salaam had been the country's political capital. Today Dar es Salaam remains the principal commercial city of Tanzania and the de-facto seat of most government institutions.[5][7] It is the major seaport for the country and its landlocked neighbours.

The name Tanzania is a portmanteau of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The two states united in 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, which later the same year was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.[5]

Contents

History

Tanzania is probably one of the oldest known continuously inhabited areas on Earth; fossil remains of humans and pre-human hominids have been found dating back over two million years. More recently, Tanzania is believed to have been populated by hunter-gatherer communities, probably cushitic and Khoisan speaking people. About 2000 years ago, Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations. Later, Nilotic pastoralists arrived, and continued to immigrate into the area through to the 18th century.[8] Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and Western India have visited the East African coast since early in the first millennium CE. Islam was practised on the Swahili coast as early as the eighth or ninth century CE.[9] Claiming the coastal strip, Omani Sultan Seyyid Said moved his capital to Zanzibar City in 1840. During this time, Zanzibar became the center for the Arab slave trade.[10] Between 65% to 90% of the population of Arab-Swahili Zanzibar was enslaved.[11] One of the most famous slave traders on the East African coast was Tippu Tip, who was himself the grandson of an enslaved African. The Nyamwezi slave traders operated under the leadership of Msiri and Mirambo.[12]

Celebrating the birthday of the German Emperor in Dar es Salaam, somewhere between 1906-1918
General von Lettow-Vorbeck in Dar es Salaam with two British Officers, march 1918

In the late 19th century, Imperial Germany conquered the regions that are now Tanzania (minus Zanzibar), Rwanda, and Burundi, and incorporated them into German East Africa. During World War I, an invasion attempt by the British was thwarted by German General Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck, who then mounted a drawn out guerrilla campaign against the British. The post-World War I accords and the League of Nations charter designated the area a British Mandate, except for a small area in the northwest, which was ceded to Belgium and later became Rwanda and Burundi).

British rule came to an end in 1961 after a relatively peaceful (compared with neighbouring Kenya, for instance) transition to independence. In 1954, Julius Nyerere transformed an organization into the politically oriented Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). TANU's main objective was to achieve national sovereignty for Tanganyika. A campaign to register new members was launched, and within a year TANU had become the leading political organisation in the country. Nyerere became Minister of British-administered Tanganyika in 1960 and continued as Prime Minister when Tanganyika became officially independent in 1961. Soon after independence, Nyerere's first presidency took a turn to the Left after the Arusha Declaration, which codified a commitment to socialism in Pan-African fashion. After the Declaration, banks were nationalised as were many large industries.

After the Zanzibar Revolution overthrew the Arab dynasty in neighboring Zanzibar, which had become independent in 1963, the island merged with mainland Tanganyika to form the nation of Tanzania on 26 April 1964. The union of the two, hitherto separate, regions was controversial among many Zanzibaris (even those sympathetic to the revolution) but was accepted by both the Nyerere government and the Revolutionary Government of Zanzibar owing to shared political values and goals. Nyerere set up one-party rule. The communist bloc powers of China, East Germany and the USSR established friendly relations with the new regime. Corruption was rampant.[13]

The regime burned villages and forced people to relocate onto collective farms, which greatly disrupted agricultural efficiency and output.[14] Tanzania turned from a nation of struggling sustenance farmers into a nation of starving collective farmers. From the late 1970s, Tanzania's economy took a turn for the worse. Tanzania also aligned with China, seeking Chinese aid. The Chinese were quick to comply, but with the condition that all projects be completed by imported Chinese labor.

The country is one of the poorest, the least developed and the most aid-dependent in the world.[15] From the mid 1980s, the regime financed itself by borrowing from the International Monetary Fund and underwent some reforms. From the mid 1980s Tanzania's GDP per capita has grown and poverty has been reduced.[16]

Politics

Tanzania's president and National Assembly members are elected concurrently by direct popular vote for five-year terms. The president appoints a prime minister who serves as the government's leader in the National Assembly. The president selects his cabinet from among National Assembly members. The Constitution also empowers him to nominate ten non-elected members of Parliament, who also are eligible to become cabinet members. Elections for president and all National Assembly seats were held in December 2005. Tanzania is a one party dominant state with the Chama Cha Mapinduzi in power. Opposition parties are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power, though the country remains peaceful.

The unicameral National Assembly elected in 2000 has 295 members. These 295 members include the Attorney General, five members elected from the Zanzibar House of Representatives to participate in the Parliament, the special women's seats which are made up of 20 percent of the seats that a given party has in the House, 181 constituent seats of members of Parliament from the mainland, and 50 seats from Zanzibar. Also in the list are forty-eight appointed for women and the seats for the 10 nominated members of Parliament. At present, the ruling Chama Cha Mapinduzi holds about 93 percent of the seats in the Assembly. Laws passed by the National Assembly are valid for Zanzibar only in specifically designated union matters.

Zanzibar's House of Representatives has jurisdiction over all non-union matters. There are currently seventy-six members in the House of Representatives in Zanzibar, including fifty elected by the people, ten appointed by the president of Zanzibar, five ex officio members, and an attorney general appointed by the president. In May 2002, the government increased the number of special seats allocated to women from ten to fifteen, which will increase the number of House of Representatives members to eighty-one. Ostensibly, Zanzibar's House of Representatives can make laws for Zanzibar without the approval of the union government as long as it does not involve union-designated matters. The terms of office for Zanzibar's president and House of Representatives also are five years. The semiautonomous relationship between Zanzibar and the union is a unique system of government.

Tanzania has a five-level judiciary combining the jurisdictions of tribal, Islamic, and British common law. Appeal is from the primary courts through the district courts, resident magistrate courts, to the high courts, and Court of Appeals. Judges are appointed by the Chief Justice of Tanzania, except those for the Court of Appeals and the High Court who are appointed by the president. The Zanzibari court system parallels the legal system of the union, and all cases tried in Zanzibari courts, except for those involving constitutional issues and Islamic law, can be appealed to the Court of Appeals of the union. A commercial court was established in September 1999 as a division of the High Court.

Economy

A market near Arusha.

The economy is mostly based on agriculture, which accounts for more than half of the GDP, provides 85 percent (approximately) of exports, and employs approximately 80 percent of the workforce. Topography and climate, though, limit cultivated crops to only 4 percent of the land area.

The nation has many resources including gold and natural gas. Extraction of natural gas began in the 2000s. Gas is drawn into the commercial capital, Dar Es Salaam and exported to various markets overseas. Lack of overall development has hampered the extraction of these various resources, and even up to the present there has been effort to develop the natural resource sector but no major quantifiable results.

Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. Tanzania has vast amounts of natural resources including gold, diamonds, coal, iron ore, uranium, nickel, chrome, tin, platinum, coltan, niobium and other minerals. It is the third-largest producer of gold in Africa after South Africa and Ghana. Tanzania is also known for the Tanzanite gemstones. Tanzania has dozens of beautiful national parks like the world famous Serengeti and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, that generate income with a large tourism sector that plays a vital part in the economy. Growth from 1991 to 1999 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Commercial production of natural gas from the Songo Songo island in the Indian Ocean off the Rufiji Delta commenced 2004,[17] with natural gas being pumped in a pipeline to the commercial capital Dar es Salaam, with the bulk of it being converted to electricity by the public utility and private operators. A new gas field is being brought on stream in Mnazi Bay.

Recent public sector and banking reforms, and revamped and new legislative frameworks have all helped increase private-sector growth and investment. Short-term economic progress also depends on curbing corruption.[18]

Prolonged drought during the early years of the 21st century has severely reduced electricity generation capacity (some 60 percent of Tanzania's electricity supplies are generated by hydro-electric methods).[19] During 2006, Tanzania suffered a crippling series of "load-shedding" or power rationing episodes caused by a shortfall of generated power, largely because of insufficient hydro-electric generation. Plans to increase gas- and coal-fueled generation capacity are likely to take some years to implement, and growth is forecast to be increased to seven per cent per year, and perhaps eight or more.[20]

There are 3 major airlines in Tanzania: the Air Tanzania Corporation; Precision Air, which provide local flights to Arusha, Kigoma, Mtwara, Mwanza, Musoma, Shinyanga, Zanzibar and regional flights to Kigali, Nairobi, Mombasa; and a third airline that provides only local flights. There are also several charter aeroplane firms. There are two railway companies: TAZARA caters for service between Dar-es-Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi, a district of the Central Province in Zambia. The other one is the Tanzania Railways Corporation, which provides services between Dar-es-Salaam and Kigoma, a town on the shores of Lake Tanganyika and between Dar-es-Salaam and Mwanza, a city on the shores of Lake Victoria. There is also a service across the Indian Ocean between Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar by several modern hydrofoil boats.

Tanzania is part of the East African Community and a potential member of the planned East African Federation.

Regions and districts

Regions of Tanzania.

Tanzania is divided into 26 regions (mkoa), twenty-one on the mainland and five in Zanzibar (three on Unguja, two on Pemba). Ninety-eight districts (wilaya), each with at least one council, have been created to further increase local authority; the councils are also known as local government authorities. Currently there are 114 councils operating in 99 districts; 22 are urban and 92 are rural. The 22 urban units are further classified as city councils (Dar es Salaam and Mwanza), municipal councils (Arusha, Dodoma, Iringa, Kilimanjaro, Mbeya, Morogoro, Shinyanga, Tabora, and Tanga) or town councils (the remaining eleven communities).

Tanzania's regions are: Arusha · Dar es Salaam · Dodoma · Iringa · Kagera · Kigoma · Kilimanjaro · Lindi · Manyara · Mara · Mbeya · Morogoro · Mtwara · Mwanza · Pemba North · Pemba South · Pwani · Rukwa · Ruvuma · Shinyanga · Singida · Tabora · Tanga · Zanzibar Central/South · Zanzibar North · Zanzibar Urban/West

For regions ranked by total area, land area and water area, see List of Tanzanian regions by area.

Geography

Map of Tanzania
Landscape in Northern Tanzania, inside the Great Rift Valley.

At 945,087 km²,[21] Tanzania is the world's 31st-largest country (after Egypt). It is comparable in size to Nigeria.

Tanzania is mountainous in the northeast, where Mount Kilimanjaro,[22] Africa's highest peak, is situated. To the north and west are the Great Lakes of Lake Victoria (Africa's largest lake) and Lake Tanganyika (Africa's deepest lake, known for its unique species of fish). Central Tanzania comprises a large plateau, with plains and arable land. The eastern shore is hot and humid, with the island of Zanzibar lying just offshore.

Tanzania contains many large and ecologically significant wildlife parks,[23] including the famous Ngorongoro Crater, Serengeti National Park[24] in the north, and Selous Game Reserve and Mikumi National Park in the south. Gombe National Park in the west is known as the site of Dr. Jane Goodall's studies of chimpanzee behavior.

The government of Tanzania through its department of tourism has embarked on a campaign to promote the Kalambo water falls in southwest Tanzania's region of Rukwa as one of Tanzania's many tourist destinations.[25][26] The Kalambo Falls are the second highest in Africa and are located near the southern tip of Lake Tanganyika.

Climate

Tanzania has a tropical climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10˚C and 20˚C (50°F and 68°F) during cold and hot seasons respectively. The rest of the country has temperatures rarely falling lower than 20˚C (68°F). The hottest period extends between November and February (25˚C - 31˚C, or 77°F - 88°F) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15˚C - 20˚C, or 59°F - 68°F).

Tanzania has two major rainfall regions. One is unimodal (December - April) and the other is bimodal (October -December and March - May). The former is experienced in southern, south-west, central and western parts of the country, and the latter is found to the north and northern coast.

In the bimodal regime the March - May rains are referred to as the long rains or Masika, whereas the October - December rains are generally known as short rains or Vuli.

Environment

Environmental consciousness is poorly developed, as this beach in Dar es Salaam shows

Tanzania has considerable wildlife habitat, including much of the Serengeti plain, where the white-bearded wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus mearnsi) and other bovids participate in a large-scale annual migration. Up to 250,000 wildebeest perish each year in the long and arduous movement to find forage in the drpippees 30 amphibian and over 275 reptile species, many of them strictly endemic and included in the IUCN Red Lists of different countries.[27] Tanzania has developed a Biodiversity Action Plan to address species conservation. A recently discovered species of elephant shrew called Grey-Faced Sengi was filmed first time in 2005, and it was known to live in just two forests in the Udzungwa Mountains. In 2008, it was listed as "vulnerable" on the 2008 Red List of Threatened Species. Lake Natron is northern Tanzania is the largest breeding site for the threatened Lesser Flamingo, a huge community of which nest in the salt marshes of the lake. Areas of East African mangroves on the coast are also important habitats.

Demographics

As of 2006, the estimated population is 38,329,000, with an estimated growth rate of 2 percent. Population distribution is extremely uneven, with density varying from 1 person per square kilometer (3/mi²) in arid regions to 51 per square kilometer (133/mi²) in the mainland's well-watered highlands, to 134 per square kilometer (347/mi²) on Zanzibar.[28] More than 80 percent of the population is rural. Dar es Salaam is the largest city and is the commercial capital; Dodoma, located in the center of Tanzania is the new capital and houses the Union's Parliament.

The African population consists of more than 120 ethnic groups, of which the Sukuma and Nyamwezi, the Hehe and Bena, the Gogo, the Haya, the Makonde, the Chagga and the Nyakyusa have more than 1 million members. Other groups include the Pare, Shambaa (or Shambala), and Ngoni. The majority of Tanzanians, including such large ethnic groups as the Sukuma and the Nyamwezi, have Bantu origins. Groups of Nilotic or related origin include the nomadic Maasai and the Luo, both of which are found in greater numbers in neighboring Kenya. The Sandawe and Hadza speak languages of the Khoisan family peculiar to the people of the Kalahari in southern Africa.[29]

The population also includes people of Arab, Indian, and Pakistani origin, and small European and Chinese communities.[30] As of 1994, the Asian community numbered 50,000 on the mainland and 4,000 on Zanzibar. An estimated 70,000 Arabs and 10,000 Europeans resided in Tanzania.[31] The Zanzibar Revolution of 12 January 1964 ended the local Arab dynasty. Thousands of Arabs and Indians in Zanzibar were massacred in riots, and thousands more were detained or fled the island.[32]

Religion

Mosque in Moshi
Church in Songea

Tanzania's population has been estimated to consist of roughly one-third each Muslims, Christians and followers of indigenous religious groups. The national census, however, has not asked for religious affiliation since 1967 as the religious balance is seen as a sensitive topic. Thus all figures on religious statistics for Tanzania are at best educated guesswork and differ widely on the question whether there are more Christians or Muslims. Most assume that the share of traditionalists has dwindled.[33]

The Christian population is mostly composed of Roman Catholics, Orthodox, Protestants, Pentecostals, Seventh-day Adventists, members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), and Jehovah's Witnesses. Among Protestants the strong numbers of Lutherans and Moravians point to the German past of the country, the numbers of Anglicans to the British history of Tanganyika. All of them have had some influence in varying degress from the Walokole movement (East African Revival) which has also been fertile ground for the spread of charismatic and Pentecostal groups.

Zanzibar is more than 99 percent Muslim.[5] On the mainland, Muslim communities are concentrated in coastal areas, with some large Muslim minorities also in inland urban areas especially and along the former caravan routes. Between 80 and 90 percent of the Muslim population is Sunni. There are also active communities of other religious groups, primarily on the mainland, such as Buddhists, Hindus, and Baha'is.[34]

English is no longer a de facto official language in the narrow sense. Hence Tanzania is one of the few African states in which a local language has gained importance to the disadvantage of the ex-colonial language. Since English is still the language of higher courts,[1] it can however be considered a de facto official language in the larger sense.

According to the official linguistic policy of Tanzania, as announced in 1984, Swahili is the language of the social and political sphere as well as primary and adult education, whereas English is the language of secondary education, universities, technology and higher courts.[1] Though the British government financially supports the use of English in Tanzania,[1] its usage in the Tanzanian society has diminished over the past decades: In the seventies Tanzanian university students used to speak English with each other, whereas now they almost exclusively use Swahili outside the classroom. Even in secondary school and university classes, where officially only English should be used, it is now quite common to use a mix of Swahili and English.

Other spoken languages are Indian languages, especially Gujarati, and Portuguese (both spoken by Mozambican blacks and Goans) and to a lesser extent French (from neighbouring Rwanda, Burundi and Democratic Republic of the Congo). Historically German was widely spoken during that colonial period, but few remain alive who remember that time.

Health

Malaria Clinic in Tanzania helped by SMS for Life program

The under-five mortality rate in 2006 was 118 out of 1,000. Life expectancy at birth in 2006 was 50 years.[35] The 15-60 year old adult mortality rate in 2006 was 518 out of 1,000 males and 493 out of 1,000 females.[35]

The leading cause of death in children who survive the neonatal period is malaria.[36] For adults, it is HIV/AIDS.[36] Anti-retroviral treatment coverage for people with advanced HIV infection in 2006 was 14 percent.[35]

2006 data show that 55 percent of the population had sustainable access to improved drinking water sources and 33 percent had sustainable access to improved sanitation.[35]

Culture

Makonde carvings.

The music of Tanzania stretches from traditional African music to the string-based taarab to a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava. Famous taarab singers names are Abbasi Mzee, Culture Musical Club, Shakila of Black Star Musical Group.

Internationally known traditional artists are Bi Kidude, Hukwe Zawose and Tatu Nane.

Tanzania has its own distinct African rumba music where names of artists/groups like Tabora Jazz, Western Jazz Band, Morogoro Jazz, Volcano Jazz, Simba Wanyika,Remmy Ongala, Marijani Shaabani, Ndala Kasheba,[37] NUTA JAZZ, ATOMIC JAZZ, DDC Mlimani Park, Afro 70 & Patrick Balisidya,[38][39][40] Sunburst, Tatu Nane[41] and Orchestra Makassy must be mentioned in the history of Tanzanian music.

Tanzania has many writers. The list of writers' names includes well-known writers such as Godfrey Mwakikagile, Mohamed Said, Abdulrazak Gurnah, Prof. Julius Nyang'oro, Prof. Clement Ndulute, Prof. Frank Chiteji, Prof. Joseph Mbele,[42] Juma Volter Mwapachu, Prof. Issa Shivji, Jenerali Twaha Ulimwengu, Prof. Penina Mlama,[43] Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, Adam Shafi, Dr. Malima M.P Bundala and Shaaban Robert.

Tanzania has remarkable position in art. Two styles became world known: Tingatinga and Makonde. Tingatinga are the popular African paintings painted with enamel paints on canvas. Usually the motifs are animals and flowers in colourful and repetitive design. The style was started by Mr. Edward Saidi Tingatinga born in South Tanzania. Later he moved to Dar Es Salaam. Since his death in 1972 the Tingatinga style expanded both in Tanzania and worldwide. Makonde is both a tribe in Tanzania (and Mozambique) and a modern sculpture style. It is known for the high Ujamaas (Trees of Life) made of the hard and dark ebony tree. Tanzania is also a birthplace of one of the most famous African artists – George Lilanga.

MDUNDIKO- This is a form of dance which takes place during wedding ceremonies. A call out to nearby neighbouring streets inviting them to come and celebrate with the family and friends of the Bride and Groom. A group of men lead by A Drummer playing different types of musical instruments i.e. drums, trumpets and many other followed by a women, men and children dancing as they walk heading towards the house in which the wedding takes place. This will be followed by a big feast and celebrations.

Education

Education is compulsory for seven years, until children reach the age of 15 years. Primary school tuition has been eliminated in Tanzania since 2002, but families still have the responsibility to pay for uniforms, testing fees and school supplies. Secondary schools are not tuition free and by law, all secondary education must be taught in English (excepting Swahili class). Tanzania hosts several universities.

Sports

Filbert Bayi and Suleiman Nyambui have won medals at the Olympic Games, both in the 1980 Summer Olympics. Tanzania competes in the Commonwealth Games as well as in the African Championships in Athletics.

Football is widely played all over the country with fans divided between two major clubs, Young African Sports Club (Yanga) and Simba sports club (Simba)

Basketball is also played but mainly in the army and schools. Tanzania is proud of having one NBA player (Hasheem Thabeet) who plays for the Memphis Grizzlies. He is the first Tanzanian to play in the NBA.

Media and communication

Television Zanzibar known as (TVZ) was the first colour TV station in Africa, The Daily News is the oldest newspaper and is state-run, as are the public broadcasting service television TVT, now Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation (TBC1) and radio networks of Radio Tanzania Dar es Salaam RTD [now TBC Radio] and Sauti ya Tanzania Zanzibar (STZ). Since 2007 the state owned television station popularly referred in Swahili as Televisheni Ya Taifa TVT, now Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation TBC and Radio Tanzania Dar-es-Salaam RTD are now both under the umbrella of Tanzania Broadcasting Corporation. Tanzania also has many privately run media outlets, for example more than 20 daily newspapers, more than 20 television stations and more than 30 FM radio stations like Radio One, Radio Sibuka- Shinyanga, Radio Faraja -Shinyanga, Radio Times, Radio Saut-Mwanza,Radio Sauti ya Injili-Moshi,Living water FM-Mwanza, Radio Tumaini, Radio Sauti ya Quran, Magic FM, Praise Power Radio,Radio Mwangaza-dodoma,Kifimbo Fm-Dodoma, Radio Maria, Radio Upendo, Wapo Radio, Mlimani Radio, Clouds FM,Morning Star FM, Passion FM and Radio Free Africa. Some of the private radio stations and newspapers are owned by political parties like the Uhuru newspaper and the Radio Uhuru FM.[citation needed]

International shortwave radio broadcasts from the BBC Radio, Voice of America and Deutsche Welle can be received.[44] There are also numbers of internet users in Tanzania,most of Tanzanians use their free time to read and write blogs almost everyday.[citation needed] Internet communication is continuing increasingly daily and is the one of the growing communication in Tanzania.

Over the years the Tanzanian Media Industry has grown and has become much more free than before. There are now a number of media houses whose products are much popular than the state owned ones. Such media houses include Mwananchi Communications Ltd, IPP Media, and Habari Corporation etc.

Communities

There are many Tanzanian communities abroad, most helping to reunite all Tanzanians from different countries. These communities have played important roles in many countries where there are no Tanzanian representatives such as Greece, the Netherlands, and others.

The Tanzanian community in Greece can easily be reached from their website. This community is in the front lines helping Tanzanians living in Greece.

Although it is a non-government organization, it has helped many Tanzanians on an event of Force Majeure like deaths, passport processing, and others.

There are also communities in Italy, the US, Canada, Sweden, the U.K, and others, which play important roles in helping Tanzanian expats in those countries.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace [2] Global Peace Index[45] 59 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 151 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 126 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 100 out of 133

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d J. A. Masebo & N. Nyangwine: Nadharia ya lugha Kiswahili 1. S. 126, ISBN 9987-676-09-X
  2. ^ Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) (.PDF). World Population Prospects, Table A.1. 2008 revision. United Nations. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wpp2008/wpp2008_text_tables.pdf. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Tanzania". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=738&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=59&pr.y=10. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  4. ^ Tanzania. Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/tanzania (accessed: 27 March 2007). This approximates the Swahili pronunciation [tanzaˈni.a]. However, /tænˈzeɪniə/ is also heard in English.
  5. ^ a b c d Central Intelligence Agency (2009). "Tanzania". The World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tz.html. Retrieved January 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ http://www.tanzania.go.tz/profilef.html
  7. ^ The Tanzania National Website: Country Profile
  8. ^ Phyllis Martin and Patrick O'Meara. Africa. 3rd edition. Indiana University Press, 1995.
  9. ^ Mark Horton and John Middleton, The Swahili: the social landscape of a mercantile society (Oxford, 2000); Derek Nurse and Thomas Spear, The Swahili (Philadelphia, 1985).
  10. ^ Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History
  11. ^ "Slavery (sociology)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  12. ^ The East African slave trade. BBC World Service | The Story of Africa.
  13. ^ Annabel Skinner. Tanzania & Zanzibar. p. 17. 
  14. ^ Annabel Skinner. Tanzania & Zanzibar. p. 18. 
  15. ^ Annabel Skinner. Tanzania & Zanzibar. p. 19. 
  16. ^ Anna Muganda (2004). "Tanzania’s Economic Reforms - and Lessons Learned". http://www.tanzaniagateway.org/docs/Tanzania_Country_Study_Full_Case.pdf. 
  17. ^ Songo Songo Gas-to-Electricity Project
  18. ^ "Tanzania's leader snubs new jet". BBC News. 2004-10-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3719712.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. 
  19. ^ http://www.tic.co.tz/IPA_Information.asp?hdnGroupID=26&hdnLevelID=2
  20. ^ A new lodestar for Africa? - Opinion - International Herald Tribune>
  21. ^ CIA - The World Factbook -- Rank Order - Area
  22. ^ Tanzania Tourist Board at tanzaniatouristboard.com
  23. ^ The official site of the Tanzania National Parks - Home at www.tanzaniaparks.com
  24. ^ Serengeti - The National Park's Official Site at www.serengeti.org
  25. ^ http://.www.tanzaniatouristboard.com
  26. ^ http://.www.mfaic.go.tz
  27. ^ E.Razzetti and Ch.A.Msuya.Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Arusha National Park (Tanzania)TANAPA*[1], 2002
  28. ^ Tanzania (12/07)
  29. ^ "Tanzania". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  30. ^ "'Michael Jackson' women in Tanzania search for Chinese husbands". The Times. 13 October 2009.
  31. ^ "Tanzania (08/09)". U.S. Department of State.
  32. ^ "Country Histories: Independence for Zanzibar". Empire's Children. Channel 4. 2007. http://channel4.empireschildren.co.uk/category/chapters/index.php?chapter=472&cat=3. Retrieved 2009-06-26. 
  33. ^ These sources give similar numbers for Muslims and Christians: These sources see a Muslim majority: Several estimates assume a Christian majority art least for the mainland:
  34. ^ U.S. Department of State
  35. ^ a b c d World Health Organization, http://www.who.int/whosis/en/, 3 June 2009
  36. ^ a b Mortality Country Fact Sheet - United Republic of Tanzania
  37. ^ Ndala Kasheba
  38. ^ Afro 70 & Patrick Balisidya - progg.se
  39. ^ Afro 70 & Patrick Balisidya - East African Tube
  40. ^ Afro 70 & Patrick Balisidya - gepr.net
  41. ^ Tatu Nane - afromix.org
  42. ^ Prof. Joseph Mbele
  43. ^ Prof. Penina Mlama
  44. ^ "Country Profile: Tanzania". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1072330.stm. .
  45. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. http://www.visionofhumanity.org/gpi/home.php. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 

External links

Government
General
Tourism

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Africa : East Africa : Tanzania
noframe
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:tz-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Dodoma (moved from Dar es Salaam in 1973)
Government Republic
Currency Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Area 945,087 km2
Population 37,187,939 (July 2002 est.)
Language Kiswahili or Swahili (official); English (official, commerce); Arabic (in Zanzibar), and many local languages.
Religion Mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - 99% Muslim
Electricity 230V/50Hz (Indian or UK plug)
Calling Code +255 (007 from Kenya and Uganda)
Internet TLD .tz
Time Zone UTC +3

Tanzania [1] is the largest country in East Africa, bordered by Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west, and Zambia, Malawi, and Mozambique to the south.

Understand

Geography

A large central plateau makes up most of the mainland, at between 900 m and 1800 m. The mountain ranges of the Eastern Arc and the Southern and Northern Highlands cut across the country to form part of the Great Rift Valley.

A land of geographical extremes, Tanzania houses the highest peak (Mount Kilimanjaro), the lowest point (the lake bed of Lake Tanganyika), and a portion of the largest lake (Lake Victoria, shared with Uganda and Kenya) on the African continent.

Climate

Tanzania's weather varies from humid and hot in low lying areas, such as Dar es Salaam, to hot during the day and cool at night in Arusha. There are no discernible seasons, such as winter and summer -- only the dry and wet seasons. Tanzania has two rainy seasons: The short rains from late-October to late-December, a.k.a. the Mango Rains, and the long rains from March to May.

Climate Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also Tanzánia

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

Blend of Tanganyika and Zanzibar + -ia, combining the names of the former countries that merged to form Tanzania

Proper noun

Singular
Tanzania

Plural
-

Tanzania

  1. Country in Eastern Africa. Official name: United Republic of Tanzania.

Translations

See also


Italian

Wikipedia-logo.png
Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Tanzania

Wikipedia it

Proper noun

Tanzania f.

  1. Tanzania

Derived terms


Norwegian

Proper noun

Tanzania

  1. Tanzania

Related terms


Polish

Proper noun

Tanzania f.

  1. Tanzania

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Tanzania
Genitive Tanzanii
Dative Tanzanii
Accusative Tanzanię
Instrumental Tanzanią
Locative Tanzanii
Vocative Tanzanio

Derived terms

  • Tanzańczyk m., Tanzanka f.
  • adjective: tanzański

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Protostomia
Cladus: Ecdysozoa
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Classis: Arachnida
Ordo: Araneae
Subordo: Opisthothelae
Infraordo: Araneomorphae
Taxon: Neocribellatae
Series: Entelegynae
Sectio: Dionycha
Superfamilia: Salticoidea
Familia: Salticidae
Subfamilia: Euophryinae
Tribus: Euophryini
Genus: Tanzania
Species: T. minutus - T. mkomaziensis - T. pusillus

Name

Tanzania Koçak & Kemal, 2008

Type species: Lilliput mkomaziensis Wesołowska & Russell-Smith, 2000

Synonyms

References

  • Wesolowska, W. & A. Russell-Smith. 2008. Jumping spiders from Mkomazi Game Reserve in Tanzania (Araneae Salticidae). Tropical Zoology 13: 11-127. [61] PDF
  • Platnick, N. I. 2009. The World Spider Catalog, version 9.5. American Museum of Natural History. [1]

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