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Tarsiers[1]
Fossil range: 45–0 Ma
Late Eocene to Recent
Philippine Tarsier (Tarsius syrichta)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorrhini
Infraorder: Tarsiiformes
Gregory, 1915
Family: Tarsiidae
Gray, 1825
Genus: Tarsius
Storr, 1780
Type species
Lemur tarsier
Erxleben, 1777
Species

Tarsius syrichta
Tarsius bancanus
Tarsius tarsier
Tarsius dentatus
Tarsius lariang
Tarsius pelengensis
Tarsius sangirensis
Tarsius tumpara
Tarsius pumilus

Tarsiers are haplorrhine primates of the genus Tarsius, a genus in the family Tarsiidae, which is itself the lone extant family within the infraorder Tarsiiformes. Although the group was once more widespread, all the species living today are found in the islands of Southeast Asia.

Contents

Evolutionary history

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Fossil record

Fossils of tarsiers and tarsiiform primates are found in Asia, Europe, and North America, and there are disputed fossils from Africa, but extant tarsiers are restricted to several Southeast Asian islands including the Philippines, Sulawesi, Borneo, and Sumatra. They also have the longest continuous fossil record of any primate genus,[2] and the fossil record indicates that their dentition has not changed much, except in size, in the past 45 million years.

Classification

The phylogenetic position of extant tarsiers within the order Primates has been debated for much of the past century, and tarsiers have alternately been classified with strepsirrhine primates in the suborder Prosimii, or as the sister group to the simians (=Anthropoidea) in the infraorder Haplorrhini. Analysis of SINE insertions, a type of macromutation to the DNA, is argued to offer very persuasive evidence for the monophyly of Haplorrhini, where other lines of evidence, such as DNA sequence data, remain ambiguous. Thus, some systematists argue that the debate is conclusively settled in favor of a monophyletic Haplorrhini. In common with simians, tarsiers do not make vitamin C, and must obtain it in the diet. Since the strepsirrhines have retained the ability to make vitamin C, the mutation in the L-gulonolactone oxidase (GULO) gene which confers need for vitamin C in the diet, would tend to place tarsiers with haplorrhines.[3]

At a lower level, it has been indicated that the tarsiers, currently all placed in the genus Tarsius, actually should be placed in two (a Sulawesi and a Philippine-Western group) or three separate genera (a Sulawesi, Philippine and Western group).[1][4] Species level taxonomy is complex, with morphology often being of limited use compared to vocalizations. Several "vocal morphs" may represent undescribed taxa, taxonomically separable from T. tarsier (=spectrum) (such as Minahasa and a tarsier from the Togian Islands), and many others from Sulawesi and surrounding islands (Shekelle & Leksono 2004). This may also be the case for a number of poorly known isolated Philippine populations (such as the Basilan, Leyte and Dinagat populations of the T. syrichta group). Further confusion exists over the validity of certain names. Among others, the widely used T. dianae has been shown to be a junior synonym of T. dentatus, and comparably T. spectrum is now considered a junior synonym of T. tarsier.[1]

Anatomy and physiology

Tarsier tree climbing

Tarsiers are small animals with enormous eyes; each eyeball is approximately 16 mm in diameter and is as large as their entire brain.[6] Tarsiers also have very long hind limbs. In fact, their feet have extremely elongated tarsus bones, from which the animals get their name. The head and body range from 10 to 15 cm in length, but the hind limbs are about twice this long (including the feet), and they also have a slender tail from 20 to 25 cm long. Their fingers are also elongated, with the third finger being about the same length as the upper arm. Most of the digits have nails, but the second and third toes of the hind feet bear claws instead, which are used for grooming. Tarsiers have very soft, velvety fur, which is generally buff, beige, or ochre in color.[7]

Unlike other prosimians, tarsiers have no toothcomb, and their dental formula is also unique:Upper: 2.1.3.3, lower: 1.1.3.3

Vision

All tarsier species are nocturnal in their habits, but like many nocturnal organisms some individuals may show more or less activity during the daytime. Unlike many nocturnal animals, however, tarsiers lack a light-reflecting area (tapetum lucidum) of the eye. They also have a fovea, which is atypical for nocturnal animals.

The tarsier's brain is different from other primates in terms of the arrangement of the connections between the two eyes and the lateral geniculate nucleus, which is the main region of the thalamus that receives visual information. The sequence of cellular layers receiving information from the ipsilateral (same side of the head) and contralateral (opposite side of the head) eyes in the lateral geniculate nucleus distinguishes tarsiers from lemurs, lorises, and monkeys, which are all similar in this respect.[8] Some neuroscientists suggested that "this apparent difference distinguishes tarsiers from all other primates, reinforcing the view that they arose in an early, independent line of primate evolution."[9]

Behavior

Tarsiers are the only entirely carnivorous primate on Earth: they are primarily insectivorous, and catch insects by jumping at them. They are also known to prey on small vertebrates, such as birds, snakes, lizards, and bats.[7] As they jump from tree to tree, tarsiers can catch even birds in motion.[citation needed]

Gestation takes about six months,[citation needed] and tarsiers give birth to single offspring. Young tarsiers are born furred, and with open eyes, and are able to climb within a day of birth. They reach sexual maturity by the end of their second year. Sociality and mating system varies, with tarsiers from Sulawesi living in small family groups, while Philippine and Western tarsiers are reported to sleep and forage alone.

Conservation

Tarsiers have never formed successful breeding colonies in captivity, and when caged, tarsiers have been known to injure and even kill themselves because of the stress.[10]

One site having some success at restoring tarsier populations is in the Philippine Island of Bohol. The Philippine Tarsier Foundation has developed a large semi-wild enclosure that uses lights to attract the nocturnal insects that make up the tarsier's diet.[11]

The 2008 described Siau Island Tarsier is regarded as critically endangered and was listed among the 25 most threatened primates by Conservation International and the IUCN/SCC Primate Specialist Group in 2008.[12] Malaysian government protects tarsiers by listing them in the Totally Protected Animals of Sarawak, the Malaysian state in Borneo where they are commonly found.[13]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 127-128. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3. 
  2. ^ "The Philippine Tarsier". IJsselstein, The Netherlands: Bohol.ph. April 2004. http://www.bohol.ph/article.php?id=15&sid=d0813a89bdf40f41363823a76edf72f2. Retrieved January 2010. 
  3. ^ Pollock, J. I. & Mullin, R. J. (1986). "Vitamin C biosynthesis in prosimians: Evidence for the anthropoid affinity of Tarsius". American Journal of Physical Anthropology 73 (1): 65-70. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330730106. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/110488482/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0. 
  4. ^ Brandon-Jones, D.; et al. (2004). "Asian primate classification". International Journal of Primatology 25 (1): 97–164. doi:10.1023/B:IJOP.0000014647.18720.32. 
  5. ^ Shekelle, Myron; Groves, Colin; Merker, Stefan; Supriatna, Jatna (2008). "Tarsius tumpara: A New Tarsier Species from Siau Island, North Sulawesi"]. Primate Conservation (23): 55–64. http://www.tarsier.org/media_pdf_files/2008-Shekelleetal-PC23-Tarsius%20tumpara.pdf. Retrieved January 2010. 
  6. ^ Shumaker, Robert W.; Benjamin B. Beck (2003). Primates in Question. Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-58834-151-8. 
  7. ^ a b Niemitz, Carsten (1984). Macdonald, D.. ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 338–339. ISBN 0-87196-871-1. 
  8. ^ Rosa, M. G.; Pettigrew J. D.; Cooper H. M. (1996). "Unusual pattern of retinogeniculate projections in the controversial primate Tarsius". Brain Behavior and Evolution 48 (3): 121–129. doi:10.1159/000113191. 
  9. ^ Collins, C. E.; Hendrickson, A.; Kaas, J. H. (2005). "Overview of the visual system of tarsius". The Anatomical Record Part A 287 (1): 1013–1025. doi:10.1002/ar.a.20263. 
  10. ^ Tarsiers (Tarsiidae) at the Internet Archive, Singapore Zoological Gardens Docents, 2000.
  11. ^ Jachowski, David S.; Pizzaras, Carlito (2005). "Introducing an innovative semi-captive environment for the Philippine tarsier (Tarsius syrichta)". Zoo Biology 24 (1): 101–109. doi:10.1002/zoo.20023. 
  12. ^ Shekelle, Myron; Salim, Agus. "Siau Island Tarsier". IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group. http://www.primate-sg.org/siau07.htm. Retrieved January 2010. 
  13. ^ "Totally Protected Animals of Sarawak". Forestry Department of Sarawak. http://www.forestry.sarawak.gov.my/forweb/wildlife/mgmt/tpa/tprotsp.htm. Retrieved January 2010. 
General references

External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Etymology

Proper noun

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Tarsiiformes

  1. a taxonomic infraorder, within suborder Haplorrhini - the tarsiers
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Wikispecies has information on:

Wikispecies

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Mammalia
Subclassis: Theria
Infraclassis: Placentalia
Ordo: Primates
Subordo: Haplorrhini
Infraordo: Tarsiiformes
Familiae: Tarsiidae - †Omomyidae - Problematic taxa: †Ekgmowechashala, †Afrotarsius, †Altanius, †Altiatlasius & †Kohatius

Name

Tarsiiformes Gregory, 1915

Vernacular names

Diné bizaad: Mágí binááʼtsohígíí
Galego: Tarsiformes
한국어: 안경원숭이하목
Polski: Wyrakokształtne
Português: Tarsiiformes
Svenska: Spökdjur
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Tarsiiformes on Wikimedia Commons.

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