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Tasmanian Devil[1]
A male Tasmanian Devil.
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Dasyuromorphia
Family: Dasyuridae
Genus: Sarcophilus
Species: Sarcophilus harrisii
Binomial name
Sarcophilus harrisii
(Boitard, 1841)

The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial now found in the wild only in the Australian island state of Tasmania.

The Tasmanian devil is the only extant member of the genus Sarcophilus. The size of a small dog, but stocky and muscular, the Tasmanian devil is now the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world after the extinction of the thylacine in 1936. It is characterized by its black fur, pungent odour when stressed, extremely loud and disturbing screech, and ferocity when feeding. It is known to both hunt prey and scavenge carrion and although it is usually solitary, it sometimes eats with other devils.

The Tasmanian devil was extirpated on the Australian mainland at least 3000 years ago,[3] well before European settlement in 1788. Because they were seen as a threat to livestock in Tasmania, devils were hunted until 1941, when they became officially protected.

Since the late 1990s, devil facial tumour disease has reduced the devil population significantly and now threatens the survival of the species, which in May 2009 was declared to be endangered. Programs are currently being undertaken by the Government of Tasmania to reduce the impact of the disease.

Contents

Taxonomy

Naturalist George Harris wrote the first published description of the Tasmanian devil in 1807, naming it Didelphis ursina.[4] In 1838 the devil was renamed Dasyurus laniarius by Richard Owen, before being moved to the genus Sarcophilus in 1841 and named Sarcophilus harrisii, or "Harris's meat-lover", by Pierre Boitard. A later revision of the devil's taxonomy, published in 1987, attempted to change the species name to Sarcophilus laniarius based on mainland fossil records of only a few animals.[5] However, this was not accepted by the taxonomic community at large; the name S. harrisii has been retained and S. laniarius relegated to a fossil species.[1]

Phylogeny

The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) belongs to the family Dasyuridae. The genus Sarcophilus contains two other species known only from Pleistocene fossils, S. laniarius and S. moomaensis. The relationships between the three species are not clear. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the devil is most closely related to quolls, and more distantly to the extinct Thylacine (Tasmanian Tiger).[6]

Physical description

The devil's whiskers help it locate prey

The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in Australia. It has a squat and thick build, with a large head and a tail which is about half its body length. Unusual for a marsupial, its forelegs are slightly longer than its hind legs. Devils can run up to 13 km (8.1 mi) per hour for short distances. The fur is usually black, although irregular white patches on the chest and rump are common. Males are usually larger than females, having an average head and body length of 652 mm (25.7 in), with a 258 mm (10.2 in) tail, and an average weight of 8 kg (18 lb). Females have an average head and body length of 570 mm (22 in), with a 244 mm (9.6 in) tail, and an average weight of 6 kg (13 lb).[7] The average life expectancy of a Tasmanian Devil in the wild is estimated at six years, although they may live longer in captivity.

The devil stores body fat in its tail, so unhealthy devils often have thin tails. An ano-genital scent gland at the base of its tail is used to mark the ground behind them with its scent. When agitated, the devil can produce a strong odour, its pungency rivalling even the skunk.

The devil has long whiskers on its face and in clumps on the top of the head. These help the devil locate prey when foraging in the dark, and aid in detecting when other devils are close during feeding. Hearing is its dominant sense, and it also has an excellent sense of smell. Since devils hunt at night, their vision seems to be strongest in black and white. In these conditions they can detect moving objects readily, but have difficulty seeing stationary objects.[8]

An analysis of mammalian bite force relative to body size shows that the devil has the strongest bite of any living mammal, over 5,100 psi (35,000 kPa).[9] The power of the jaws is in part due to its comparatively large head. A Tasmanian devil also has one set of teeth that grows slowly throughout its life.[8] The teeth and jaws of Tasmanian devils resemble those of hyenas, an example of convergent evolution.[10]

Reproduction

Developmental steps in the maturation of Tasmanian Devil young. The diagonal lines indicate the amount of time the changes take; for example, it takes 41 days for a devil to develop fur over all its body.

Females start to breed when they reach sexual maturity, typically in their second year. At this point, they become fertile once a year, producing multiple ova while in heat.[11] Mating occurs in March, in sheltered locations during both day and night. Males fight over females in the breeding season, and female devils will mate with the dominant male. Devils are not monogamous, and females will mate with several males if not guarded after mating. Gestation lasts 21 days, and devils give birth to 20-30 young,[8] each weighing approximately 0.18–0.24 grams.[12] When the young are born, competition is fierce as they move from the vagina to the pouch. Once inside the pouch, they each remain attached to a nipple for the next 100 days. The female Tasmanian Devil's pouch, like that of the wombat, opens to the rear, so it is physically difficult for the female to interact with young inside the pouch. Despite the large litter at birth, the female has only four nipples, so there are never more than four babies nursing in the pouch; and the older a female devil gets, the smaller her litters will become.[8] On average, more females survive than males.[11]

Inside the pouch, the nourished young develop quickly. At 15 days the external parts of the ear are visible. Eyelids are apparent at 16 days, whiskers at 17 days, and the lips at 20 days. The young start to grow fur at 49 days and have a full coat by 90 days. Their eyes open shortly after their fur coat develops—between 87 and 93 days—and their mouths can relax their hold of the nipple at 100 days.[11] They leave the pouch 105 days after birth, appearing as small copies of the parent and weighing approximately 500 grams (18 oz). Unlike kangaroo joeys, young devils do not return to the pouch; instead, they remain in the den for another three months, first venturing outside the den between October and December before becoming independent in January. Female devils are occupied with raising their young for all but approximately six weeks of the year.

Ecology and behaviour

Although Tasmanian devils are nocturnal, they like to rest in the sun. Scarring from fighting is visible next to this devil's left eye.

Tasmanian devils are widespread and fairly common throughout Tasmania, but are quickly dying from a contagious facial cancer. Found in all habitats on the island, including the outskirts of urban areas, they particularly like dry sclerophyll forests and coastal woodlands. The Tasmanian devil is a nocturnal and crepuscular hunter, spending the days in dense bush or in a hole. Young devils can climb trees, but this becomes more difficult as they grow larger. Devils can also swim. They are predominantly solitary animals and do not form packs.[12] They occupy territories of 8–20 km², which can overlap considerably amongst different animals.

A devil eating kangaroo

Tasmanian devils can take prey up to the size of a small kangaroo, but in practice they are opportunistic, and eat carrion more often than they hunt live prey. Although the devil favours wombats, it will eat all small native mammals, domestic mammals (including sheep), birds, fish, insects, frogs and reptiles. Their diet is largely varied and depends on the food available.[8] On average, they eat about 15% of their body weight each day; however, they can eat up to 40% of their body weight in 30 minutes if the opportunity arises.[13] Tasmanian devils eliminate all traces of a carcass, devouring the bones and fur in addition to the meat and internal organs. In this respect, the devil has earned the gratitude of Tasmanian farmers, as the speed at which they clean a carcass helps prevent the spread of insects that might otherwise harm livestock.

Although they hunt alone,[8] eating is a social event for the Tasmanian devil. Much of the noise attributed to the animal is a result of raucous communal eating, at which up to 12 individuals can gather, and can often be heard several kilometres away. A study of feeding devils identified 20 physical postures, including their characteristic vicious yawn, and the 11 different vocal sounds that devils use to communicate as they feed. They usually establish dominance by sound and physical posturing, although fighting does occur.[13] Adult males are the most aggressive, and scarring is common from fighting over food and mates.

Conservation status

At Healesville Sanctuary, Victoria

For some time, Tasmania was the last refuge of large marsupial carnivores. All of the larger carnivorous marsupials became extinct in mainland Australia shortly after humans arrived. Only the smallest and most adaptable survived. Fossil evidence from western Victoria shows that Tasmanian devils retained a place on the Australian mainland until around 600 years ago (about 400 years before European colonisation).[7] Their extinction is attributed to predation by dingoes and hunting by indigenous Australians.[14] In dingo-free Tasmania, carnivorous marsupials were still active when Europeans arrived. The extermination of the thylacine after the arrival of the Europeans is well known, but the Tasmanian devil was threatened as well.

The first Tasmanian settlers ate Tasmanian devil, which they described as tasting like veal.[4] As it was believed devils would hunt and kill livestock, a bounty scheme to remove the devil from rural properties was introduced as early as 1830. Over the next 100 years, trapping and poisoning brought them to the brink of extinction. After the death of the last thylacine in 1936, the threat to the devils was recognised. The Tasmanian devil was protected by law in 1941 and the population slowly recovered.

At least two major population declines, possibly due to a disease epidemic, have occurred in recorded history: in 1909 and 1950.[7] The Tasmanian devil's current population is reported by Tasmania's Department of Primary Industries and Water as being in the range of 10,000 to 100,000 individuals, with 20,000 to 50,000 mature individuals being likely.[8] Senior Scientist for the Devil Facial Tumour Disease program Hamish McCallum offers a more conservative estimate of at least 20,000 individuals and at most 75,000.[15]

Devil facial tumour disease

First seen in 1996, devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) has ravaged Tasmania's wild devils, and estimates of the impact range from 20% to as much as a 50% decline in the devil population with over 65% of the State affected.[16][17] Affected high-density populations suffer up to 100% mortality in 12–18 months.[18] The species was listed as vulnerable under the Tasmanian Threatened Species Protection Act 1995 and the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 in 2006 which means that it is at risk of extinction in the "medium term".[19][20] The IUCN classified the Tasmanian Devil as in the lower risk/least concern in 1996[2] but in 2009 they were reclassified as endangered.[21][22]

Wild Tasmanian devil populations are being monitored to track the spread of the disease and to identify changes in disease prevalence. Field monitoring involves trapping devils within a defined area to check for the presence of the disease and determine the number of affected animals. The same area is visited repeatedly to characterise the spread of the disease over time. So far, it has been established that the short-term effects of the disease in an area can be severe. Long-term monitoring at replicated sites will be essential to assess whether these effects remain, or whether populations can recover.[17] Field workers are also testing the effectiveness of disease suppression by trapping and removing diseased devils. It is hoped that the removal of diseased devils from wild populations should decrease disease prevalence and allow more devils to survive beyond their juvenile years and breed.[17]

The disease is an example of a transmissible cancer, which means that it is passed from one animal to another; i.e. it is contagious.[23] Short of a cure, scientists are removing the sick animals and quarantining healthy devils in case the wild population dies out.[23] Because Tasmanian devils have extremely low levels of genetic diversity and a chromosomal mutation unique among carnivorous mammals, they are more prone to the infectious cancer.[24]

Two "insurance" populations of disease-free devils are being established at an urban facility in the Hobart suburb of Taroona and on Maria Island off the east coast of Tasmania. Captive breeding in mainland zoos is also a possibility. The decline in devil numbers is also seen as an ecological problem, since its presence in the Tasmanian forest ecosystem is believed to have prevented the establishment of the red fox, illegally introduced to Tasmania in 2001.[18][25] Foxes are a problematic invasive species in all other Australian states, and the establishment of foxes in Tasmania would hinder the recovery of the Tasmanian devil.

Recent research from the University of Sydney has shown that the infectious facial cancer may be able to spread because of vanishingly low genetic diversity in devil immune genes (MHC class I and II) — raising questions about how well small, and potentially inbred, populations of animals are able to survive.[26]

Scientists have been shocked to find high levels of potentially carcinogenic flame retardant chemicals in Tasmanian devils. Preliminary results of tests ordered by the Tasmanian government on chemicals found in fat tissue from 16 devils have revealed high levels of hexabromobiphenyl (BB153) and "reasonably high" levels of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209).[27]

Cultural references

The devil's ears turn bright red when aroused.[28]
Tuz, the Tasmanian devil, and Linux Mascot for 2.6.29

The Tasmanian devil is an iconic animal within Australia; it is the symbol of the Tasmanian National Parks and Wildlife Service, and the former Tasmanian Australian rules football team which played in the Victorian Football League was known as the Devils. The defunct Hobart Devils basketball team in the NBL was also named after the animal. The devil was one of six native Australian animals to appear on commemorative Australian two dollar coins issued between 1989 and 1994. Tasmanian devils are popular with domestic and international tourists. Because of their unique personality the Tasmanian devil has been the subject of numerous documentaries and non-fiction children's books. The most recent Australian documentary on the Tasmanian devil, Terrors of Tasmania, directed and produced by David Parer and Elizabeth Parer-Cook, was released in 2005. The documentary follows a female devil called Manganinnie through breeding season and the birth and rearing of her young. The documentary also looks at the effect of devil facial tumour disease and the conservation measures being taken to ensure survival of the Tasmanian devil. The documentary has screened on television in Australia and in the United States on the National Geographic Channel.

Restrictions on the export of the Tasmanian devil means that devils can normally only be seen in captivity in Australia. The last known overseas devil died at the Fort Wayne Children's Zoo, Fort Wayne, Indiana, USA, in 2004.[29] However, the Tasmanian government has sent a pair of devils to the Copenhagen Zoo, following the birth of the first son of Frederik, Crown Prince of Denmark and his Tasmanian wife Mary in October 2005.[30] These are the only devils that can be seen outside Australia.

The Tasmanian devil is probably best known internationally as the inspiration for the Looney Tunes cartoon character the Tasmanian Devil, or "Taz". While the cartoon incarnation does resemble a stylised devil (prominent canines, large head, short legs) the behavioural similarities between the two seem to be limited, consisting mainly of a noisy comportment, voracious appetite, and shy demeanour. Researchers have also named a genetic-mutant mouse "the Tasmanian Devil". The mutant mouse is defective in the development of sensory-hair cells of the ear, leading the mutant to abnormal behaviours including head-tossing and circling,[31] more like the cartoon "Taz" than the actual Tasmanian Devil.

For the 2.6.29 release of the Linux kernel, Linus Torvalds temporarily replaced the Tux mascot with a Tasmanian devil mascot named 'Tuz'. This is to support the Save the Tasmanian Devil Campaign.[32]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Groves, C. (2005). Wilson, D. E., & Reeder, D. M. ed. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 28. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3. 
  2. ^ a b Hawkins, C.E., McCallum, H., Mooney, N., Jones, M. & Holdsworth, M. (2008). Sarcophilus harrisii. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 12 October 2008. Listed as Endangered(EN A2be+3e v3.1)
  3. ^ Brown O. 2006. Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) extinction on the Australian mainland in the mid-Holocene: multicausality and ENSO intensification. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Paleontology 31:49-57 DOI 10.1080/03115510608619574
  4. ^ a b Harris, G. P. 1807. Description of two species of Didelphis for Van Diemen's Land. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, Volume IX
  5. ^ Werdelin, L. 1987. Some observations on Sarcophilus laniarius and the evolution of Sarcophilus. Records of the Queen Victoria Museum, Launceston, 90:1–27
  6. ^ Krajewski, C. et al. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of the thylacine (Mammalia:Thylacinidae) among dasyuroid marsupials: evidence from cytochrome b DNA sequences. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 250:19–27 PMID 1361058
  7. ^ a b c Guiler, E.R. 1983. Tasmanian Devil in R. Strahan Ed. The Australian Museum Complete Book of Australian Mammals. p 27–28. Angus & Robertson ISBN 0-207-14454-0
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Department of Primary Industries, Water and Environment. Tasmanian Devil - Frequently Asked Questions
  9. ^ Wroe, S, McHenry, C, and Thomason, J. 2005. Bite club: comparative bite force in big biting mammals and the prediction of predatory behaviour in fossil taxa. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 272:619–625 PMID 15817436
  10. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. "Tasmanian devil (marsupial)". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/583942/Tasmanian-devil. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  11. ^ a b c Guiler, E.R. 1970. Observations on the Tasmanian devil, Sarcophilus harrisii II. Reproduction, Breeding and Growth of Pouch Young. Australian Journal of Zoology 18:63–70
  12. ^ a b Fisher, D.O. et al. 2001. The ecological basis of life history variation in marsupials, Appendix A. Ecology 82:3531–3540
  13. ^ a b Pemberton, D. and Renouf, D. 1993. A field-study of communication and social behaviour of Tasmanian Devils at feeding sites. Australian Journal of Zoology, 41:507–526.
  14. ^ Johnson, C.N. and Wroe, S. 2003. Causes of extinction of vertebrates during the Holocene of mainland Australia: arrival of the dingo, or human impact? Holocene 13:941–948
  15. ^ Byrnes, M. 2007. Battle to save Tasmanian devil from extinction Retrieved on 15 March 2007.
  16. ^ DPIWE. 2005. Devil Facial Tumour Disease - Update June 2005
  17. ^ a b c DPIWE. 2005. Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Disease Management Strategy
  18. ^ a b DPIWE. Disease Affecting Tasmanian Devils
  19. ^ DPIWE. 2006. Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Newsletter March
  20. ^ Department of the Environment and Heritage. July 2006. EPBC Policy Statement 3.6 - Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii)
  21. ^ "Sarcophilus harrisii (Tasmanian Devil)". Iucnredlist.org. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/40540/0. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  22. ^ Mercer, Phil (2009-05-22). "Asia-Pacific | Tasmanian devils now endangered". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/8062840.stm. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  23. ^ a b Shea, N. Wildlife: Devils in danger. National Geographic Magazine, November 2006.
  24. ^ Project to Save Endangered Tasmanian Devil Newswise, Retrieved on November 3, 2008.
  25. ^ Bostanci, A. 2005. A Devil of a Disease. Science, 307:1035 PMID 15718445
  26. ^ "Tasmanian devil epidemic: cause isolated?". Cosmos Magazine. 27 June 2007. http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1412. 
  27. ^ Denholm, Matthew (2008-01-22). "Cancer agents found in Tasmanian devils". News.com.au. http://www.news.com.au/story/0,23599,23087523-421,00.html. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 
  28. ^ Personal observations; n.a. & n.d
  29. ^ Last Tasmanian Devil not in Australia dies United Press International, HighBeam Research
  30. ^ Tassie sends devils to celebrate birth, AAP, October 17, 2005
  31. ^ Erven, A. et al. 2002. A novel stereocilia defect in sensory hair cells of the deaf mouse mutant Tasmanian Devil. European Journal of Neuroscience 16:1433–1441 PMID 12405956
  32. ^ [Posted March 17, 2009 by corbet] (2009-03-17). "The kernel gets a new logo". Lwn.net. http://lwn.net/Articles/323966/. Retrieved 2010-03-16. 

External links

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Tasmanian Devil
Conservation status

Endangered (EPBC Act)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Marsupialia
Order: Dasyuromorphia
Family: Dasyuridae
Subfamily: Dasyurinae
Genus: Sarcophilus
Species: S. harrisii
Binomial name
Sarcophilus harrisii
(Boitard, 1841)

The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a meat eating mammal. It is also a marsupial, which means they have a small pouch to carry their babies. It is the largest meat eating marsupial in the world.[1] They are nocturnal which means they sleep during the day and are awake during the night. They now live only in Tasmania, an island state of Australia.

The devil is the same size as a small dog with a wide head and a short tail. Male devils can weigh 12 kg and be 30 cm tall. It has black fur and makes a loud and very scary screeching noise. It will hunt other animals and also feed on dead animals. The devil has strong teeth and jaws and will eat all its prey even bones and fur.[2]

The Tasmanian Devil became extinct on the Australian mainland about 400 years before European settlement in 1788[2]. They were hunted in Tasmania; in the 1930's the Van Dieman's Land Company offered 25 cents for each male and 35 cents for each female killed.[1] In 1941 they became officially protected.

File:Tasmanian Devil Tumour
Spread of tumours shown in red

Disease

In 1996 the devils began to get very sick and then die with large tumours on their faces. Devil facial tumour disease has greatly reduced the number of devils and now threatens their survival. In some areas 85% of devils have been found with the disease.[3] In the places where the tumours were seen first, devil numbers have dropped by 95%.[1] The tumour is spread by biting. Because the devils are all closely related (not enough genetic diversity), the tumour cells are not seen as new; so the devil's immune system does not fight it.[3] In May 2008 the Tasmanian Devil was listed as endangered. Programs are being tried by the Tasmanian government to reduce the impact of the disease. About 60 devils without the disease have been captured and are to be kept as a tumour free group for rebreeding. Scientists have been looking at ways to give the devils immunity but so far this has not worked.

New research is showing the devils are having babies earlier, they use to breed at two years, but now are breeding at one year old. Devils used to have babies every year for three years, but they are now dying before they can produce a second litter (family).[4]

Genetics

The devils have a low genetic diversity which is consistent with a 'founder effect'. What this means is: a small number colonised Tasmania from Australia at some stage. So their genetic variety was much less than the parent population. Disease like the present may have happened before, and reduced the population to a small number. These events are called 'population bottlenecks'. A small population which carries less variation is always vulnerable to extinction, because none of the animals may be resistant to the infection.[5]

Its genome was sequenced in 2010 by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[6] There is some hope for their survival because, since 2005, three females have been found that are partially resistant to the disease.[7]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Parks & Wildlife Service -". parks.tas.gov.au. http://www.parks.tas.gov.au/index.aspx?base=387. Retrieved 21 September 2010. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Tasmanian devil" (html). Wildlife of Tasmania, National Parks and Wildlife Service. http://www1.parks.tas.gov.au/wildlife/mammals/devil.html. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Department of Primary Industry and Water. Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumour Disease
  4. Leung, Chee Chee (July 15, 2008), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Tasmanian Devils take to breeding younger to combat deadly disease"], The Age: 3 .
  5. Jones, Menna E.; Paetkau, David; Geffen, Eli; Moritz, Craig. (2004). [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Genetic diversity and population structure of Tasmanian devils, the largest marsupial carnivore"]. Molecular Ecology 13 (8): 2197–2209. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2004.02239.x. 
  6. Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute: Completed genome is first step to tackling Tasmanian devil facial tumours (16th September 2010 )
  7. Dennis, Carina (2006-02-02). "Endangered species: time to raise the devil". Nature 439 (7076): 530. doi:10.1038/439530a. PMID 16452951. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v439/n7076/full/439530a.html. Retrieved 2010-01-02. 
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