Tatarstan: Wikis


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Republic of Tatarstan (English)
Республика Татарстан (Russian)
Татарстан Республикасы (Tatar)
-  Republic  -
Map of Russia - Republic of Tatarstan (2008-03).svg
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan.svg
Coat of arms of Tatarstan
Flag of Tatarstan.svg
Flag of Tatarstan
Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of Tatarstan[citation needed]
Political status
Country Russia
Political status Republic
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Volga[2]
Capital Kazan[citation needed]
Official languages Russian[3]; Russian, Tatar[4]
Population (2002 Census)[5] 3,779,265 inhabitants
- Rank within Russia 8th
- Urban[5] 73.8%
- Rural[5] 26.2%
- Density 56 /km2 (100/sq mi)[6]
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[7] 68,000 km2 (26,254.9 sq mi)
- Rank within Russia 44th
Established May 27, 1920[citation needed]
License plates 16
ISO 3166-2:RU RU-TA
Time zone MSK/MSD (UTC+3/+4)
Government (as of November 2008)
President[8] Mintimer Shaymiyev[9]
Legislature State Council[8]
Constitution Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan
Official website

Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: Респу́блика Татарста́н; Tatar Cyrillic: Татарстан Республикасы, Latin: Tatarstan Respublikası) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). Its size is 68,000 km² with a population of 3,800,000. Its capital is Kazan. The unofficial Tatarstan motto is: Bez Buldırabız! (We can!).[10]



Another Tatar version of the name reads Tatarstan Cömhüriäte / Татарстан Җөмһүрияте (cömhüriät is the Turkic form of the Arabic word for "republic," جمهوریة [jumhuuriya]), but it is not official. The direct romanization of its name from Russian is Respublika Tatarstan. Another (old) version of the Russian name is Тата́рия (Tatariya), which was official along with Tatar ASSR during Soviet rule.


Middle Ages

The Little Minaret of Bolghar has been preserved since the Middle Ages
The Black Chamber is another notable building in Bolghar

The earliest known organized state within the boundaries of Tatarstan was Volga Bulgaria (c. 700–1238 CE). The Volga Bulgars had an advanced mercantile state with trade contacts throughout Inner Eurasia, the Middle East and the Baltic, which maintained its independence despite pressure by such nations as the Khazars, the Kievan Rus and the Kipchaks. Islam was introduced by missionaries from Baghdad around the time of ibn Fadlan's journey in 922.

Volga Bulgaria finally fell to the armies of the Mongol prince Batu Khan in the late 1230s (see Mongol invasion of Volga Bulgaria.) The inhabitants, mixing with the Golden Horde's Turco-Mongolian, Kipchak-speaking troops and settlers, became known as the "Volga Tatars." Another theory postulates that there were no ethnic changes in that period, and Bulgars simply switched to the Kipchak-based Tatar language. In the 1430s, the region again became independent as the base of the Khanate of Kazan, a capital having been established in Kazan, 170 km up the Volga from the ruined capital of the Bulgars.

Tatarstan was conquered by the troops of Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in the 1550s, with Kazan being taken in 1552. Some Tatars were forcibly converted to Christianity and cathedrals were built in Kazan; by 1593 all mosques in the area were destroyed. The Russian government forbade the construction of mosques, a prohibition that was not lifted until the 18th century by Catherine II. The first mosque to be rebuilt under Catherine's auspices was constructed in 1766-1770.

Modern times

History of Tatarstan
Coat of Arms of Tatarstan
This article is part of a series
Great Bulgaria
Volga Bulgaria
Mongol invasion
Golden Horde
Khanate of Kazan
Kazan Governorate
Idel-Ural State
Tatar ASSR
Republic of Tatarstan

Tatarstan Portal
 v • d • e 

In the 19th century Tatarstan became a center of Jadidism, an Islamic sect that preached a tolerance to other religions. Under the influence of local Jadidist theologians, the Tatars were renowned for their friendly relations with other peoples of the Russian Empire. However, after the October Revolution religion was largely outlawed and all theologians were repressed.

During the Civil War of 1918-1920 Tatar nationalists attempted to establish an independent republic (the Idel-Ural State). They were, however, put down by the Bolsheviks and the Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was established on May 27, 1920. The boundaries of the republic did not include majority of the Volga Tatars. The Tatar Union of the Godless were liquidated in the 1928 purges.

Tatarstan today

On 30th Aug 1990 Tatarstan announced its sovereignty with Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic[11] and in 1992 Tatarstan held a referendum on the new constitution [12] , and 62 percent of those who took part voted in favor of the constitution. Articles 1 and 3 of the constitution, as introduced in 2002 [12] define Tatarstan as a part of Russian Federation.

On February 15, 1994 the Treaty On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Authority between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan[13] and Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan (On Delimitation of Authority in the Sphere of Foreign Economic Relations) were signed.


Map of the region with the Republic of Tatarstan highlighted

The Republic is located in the center of the East European Plain, approximately 800 kilometers (497 mi) east of Moscow. It lies between the Volga River and the Kama River (a tributary of the Volga), and extends east to the Ural mountains.

Map of Russia - Moscow time zone.svg
Tatarstan map


Mouth of the Kama River

Major rivers include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):


Major reservoirs of the republic include (Tatar names are given in parentheses):

The biggest lake is Qaban. The biggest swamp is Kulyagash.


Natural resources

View of the Volga River in the confluence with the Kama River
View on the Taima River from Devil's Tower in Yelabuga

Major natural resources of Tatarstan include oil, natural gas, gypsum, and more. It is estimated that the Republic has over one billion tons of oil deposits.[14]


  • Average January temperature: −16 °C (3.2 °F)
  • Average July temperature: 19 °C (66.2 °F)
  • Average annual precipitation: up to 500 mm (20 in)

Administrative divisions


  • Population: 3,779,265 (2002)
    • Urban: 2,790,661 (73.8%)
    • Rural: 988,604 (26.2%)
    • Male: 1,749,050 (46.3%)
    • Female: 2,030,215 (53.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,161
  • Average age: 36.5 years
    • Urban: 35.7 years
    • Rural: 38.7 years
    • Male: 33.8 years
    • Female: 38.8 years
  • Number of households: 1,305,360 (with 3,747,267 people)
    • Urban: 970,540 (with 2,762,818 people)
    • Rural: 334,820 (with 984,449 people)
  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 47,817 25,622 15.2 8.1
1975 55,095 29,686 16.6 9.0
1980 54,272 32,758 15.7 9.5
1985 64,067 34,622 18.1 9.8
1990 56,277 36,219 15.4 9.9
1991 50,160 37,266 13.6 10.1
1992 44,990 39,148 12.1 10.6
1993 41,144 44,291 11.0 11.9
1994 41,811 48,613 11.2 13.0
1995 39,070 48,592 10.4 12.9
1996 38,080 45,731 10.1 12.1
1997 37,268 46,270 9.9 12.3
1998 37,182 45,153 9.8 11.9
1999 35,073 46,679 9.3 12.3
2000 35,446 49,723 9.4 13.1
2001 35,877 50,119 9.5 13.2
2002 38,178 51,685 10.1 13.7
2003 38,461 52,263 10.2 13.8
2004 38,661 51,322 10.3 13.6
2005 36,967 51,841 9.8 13.8
2006 37,303 49,218 9.9 13.1
2007 40,892 48,962 10.9 13.0
2008 44,290 48,952 11.8 13.0

Ethnic groups

There are about two million ethnic Bolgars and a million and a half ethnic Russians, along with significant numbers of Chuvash, Mari, and Udmurts, many of whom are Tatar-speaking. The Ukrainian, Mordvin, and Bashkir minorities are also significant. Most Tatars are Sunni Muslims, but a small minority known as Keräşen Tatars are Orthodox and some of them regard themselves as being different from other Tatars even though most Keräşen dialects differ only slightly from the Central Dialect of the Tatar language.[15] There is a fair degree of speculation as to the early origins of the different groups of Tatars, but most Tatars no longer view religious identity as being as important as it once was, and the religious and linguistic subgroups have intermingled considerably. Nevertheless, despite many decades of assimilation and intermingling, some Keräşen demanded, and were awarded, the option of being specifically enumerated in 2002. This has provoked great controversy however, as many intellectuals have sought to portray the Tatars as homogenous and indivisible.[16] Although listed separately below, the Keräşen are still included in the grand total for the Tatars. Another unique ethnic group, living in Tatarstan only are the Qaratay Mordvins.

According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Ethnic Tatar 52.92% • Ethnic Russian 39.49% • Chuvash 3.35% • Udmurt 0.64% • Ukrainian 0.64% • Mordvin 0.63% • Mari 0.50% • Keräşen Tatars 0.50% • Bashkir 0.39% • Azeri 0.26% • Belarusians 0.16% • Armenian 0.16% • Uzbek 0.13% • Tajik 0.10% • Jewish 0.09% • Ethnic German 0.08% • Kazakh 0.05% • Georgian 0.05% • Moldovan 0.03% • Roma 0.02% • Lezgin 0.02% • and various other groups of less than eight hundred persons each. • An additional 0.02% of residents declined to state their nationality or ethnocultural identity on the census questionnaire.[17] Historical figures are shown below:

census 1926 census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Tatars 1,263,383 (48.7%) 1,421,514 (48.8%) 1,345,195 (47.2%) 1,536,430 (49.1%) 1,641,603 (47.6%) 1,765,404 (48.5%) 2,000,116 (52.9%)
Russians 1,118,834 (43.1%) 1,250,667 (42.9%) 1,252,413 (43.9%) 1,382,738 (42.4%) 1,516,023 (44.0%) 1,575,361 (43.3%) 1,492,602 (39.5%)
Chuvash 127,330 (4.9%) 138,935 (4.8%) 143,552 (5.0%) 153,496 (4.9%) 147,088 (4.3%) 134,221 (3.7%) 126,532 (3.3%)
Others 84,485 (3.3%) 104,161 (3.6%) 109,257 (3.8%) 112,574 (3.6%) 140,698 (4.1%) 166,756 (4.6%) 160,015 (4.2%)

The official languages are Tatar and Russian. According to the 2002 Russian Federal Law (On Languages of Peoples of the Russian Federation), the official script is Cyrillic. RFE/RL correspondents say Tarters are strongly opposed to this law.[18][19]


The head of the government in Tatarstan is the President. As of 2008, the President is Mintimer Shaymiyev. Tatarstan's unicameral State Council has 100 seats: fifty are for representatives of the parties, other fifty are for deputies from the republic's localities. The Chairman of the State Council is Farit Mukhametshin from May 27, 1998.

According to the Tatarstan Constitution, the President can be elected only by the people of Tatarstan, but due to Russian federal law this law was suspended for an indefinite term. The Russian law about election of governors says they should be elected by local parliaments and that the candidate can be presented only by the president.

On March 25, 2005 Shaymiyev was re-elected for his fourth term by the State Council. This election was held after changes in electoral law and does not contradict the Constitutions of Tatarstan and Russia.

Political status

The Republic of Tatarstan is a constituent republic of the Russian Federation. Most of the Russian federal subjects are tied with the Russian federal government by the uniform Federal Treaty, but relations between the government of Tatarstan and the Russian federal government are more complex, and are precisely defined in the Constitution. The following passage from the Constitution defines the republic's status without contradicting the Constitution of the Russian Federation:

The Republic of Tatarstan is a democratic constitutional State associated with the Russian Federation by the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan and the Treaty between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan On Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Mutual Delegation of Powers between the State Bodies of the Russian Federation and the State Bodies of the Republic of Tatarstan, and a subject of the Russian Federation. The sovereignty of the Republic of Tatarstan shall consist in full possession of the State authority (legislative, executive and judicial) beyond the competence of the Russian Federation and powers of the Russian Federation in the sphere of shared competence of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tatarstan and shall be an inalienable qualitative status of the Republic of Tatarstan.


The Spirit of Kazan

Tatarstan is one of the most economically developed regions of Russia. The republic is highly industrialized, and ranks second only to Samara Oblast in terms of industrial production per km2.[20] Tatarstan's GDP per capita was USD 12,325 in 2004[21], with GDP in 2008 at about 930 billion rubles.[14]

The region's main source of wealth is oil. Tatarstan produces 32 million tonnes of crude oil per year and has estimated oil reserves of more than 1 billion tons.[14][22] Industrial production constitutes 45% of the Republic's gross regional domestic product. The most developed manufacturing industries are petrochemical industry and machine building. The truck-maker KamAZ is the region's largest enterprise and employs about 1/5 of Tatarstan's work force.[22] Kazanorgsintez, based in Kazan, is one of Russia's largest chemical companies.[23] Tatarstan's aviation industry produces Tu-214 passenger airplanes and helicopters.[14] The Kazan Helicopter Plant is one of the largest helicopter manufacturers in the world.[24] Engineering, textiles, clothing, wood processing, and food industries are also of key significance in Tatarstan.[20]

Tatarstan consists of three distinguished industrial regions. The northwestern part is an old industrial region where engineering, chemical and light industry dominate. In the new industrial Northeast region with its core in the Naberezhnye Cheiny-Nizhnekamsk agglomeration, major industries are automobile construction, chemical industry, and power engineering. The Southeast region has oil production with engineering under development. The North, Central, South, and Southwest parts of the Republic are rural regions.[25]

The Republic has a highly developed transport network. It mainly comprises highways, railway lines, four navigable rivers — Volga (İdel), Kama (Çulman), Vyatka (Noqrat) and Belaya (Ağidel), and oil pipelines and airlines. The territory of Tatarstan is crossed by the main gas pipelines carrying natural gas from Urengoy and Yamburg to the west and the major oil pipelines supplying oil to various cities in the European part of Russia.


Major libraries include the Science Library of Kazan State University and the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan. There are two museums of republican significance, as well as 90 museums of local importance. In the past several years new museums appeared throughout the Republic.

There are twelve theatrical institutions in Tatarstan.[26] The state orchestra is the National Tatarstan Orchestra.


The most important facilities of higher education include Kazan State University, Kazan State Medical University, Kazan State Technological University,Kazan State Technical University, Kazan State Finance and Economics Institute and Russian Islam University, all located in the capital Kazan.


The most common faiths are Islam, including Sunni and variants of Shi'a and Sufi belief, and the Russian Orthodox Church.

As of January 1, 2008, as many as 1398 religious organizations were registered in Tatarstan, comprising the following: 1055 - Muslim, 255 - Orthodox Christian under the Moscow Patriarchate, Real-Orthodox Church - 5, Old Believers’ Church -2, Catholics - 2, Jews - 4, Protestant communities of different doctrines – 71 (Evangelic Christians-Baptists - 4, Evangelic Christians – 30, Christians of Evangelic faith – 16, Adventists of the 7th day – 10, Lutherans – 5, New Apostle Church – 1), Jehovah’s Witnesses -5, Bahá'í Faith – 1, Krishnaists – 2, Church of the Last Testament (Vissarionov’s) – 1.


The people of ethnic majority of Tatarstan are usually offended when called Tartars. The preferred name is Tatars. Inhabitants of Tatarstan regardless of ethnicity are usually called Tatarstaners (Tatar Cyrillic: татарстанлы, Latin: Tatarstanlı, татарстанцы).

The name Tatarstan derives from the Tatar and Persian -stan (an ending common to many Central Asian countries). Other variants of the republic's name are Russian Tataria (former official Russian name) and Turkish Tataristan.

Some Tatarstaners wish for their state to be renamed Bulgaristan (like Alania), claiming that the region was called Bulgaristan by its inhabitants until 1922 in tribute to the early settlers.

See also

Further reading

  • Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist Daniel Kalder
  • The Model of Tatarstan: Under President Mintimer Shaimiev Ravil Bukharaev
  • The Volga Tatars: A Profile in National Resilience Azadeayse Rorlich


  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ According to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia, Russian is the official language on the whole territory of the Russian Federation. Article 68.2 further stipulates that only the republics have the right to establish official languages other than Russian.
  4. ^ Constitution, Article 8.1
  5. ^ a b c Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек (Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2010-03-01. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2002 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the Census (2002).
  7. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  8. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.2
  9. ^ Official website of the President of the Republic of Tatarstan. Biography of Mintimer Sharipovich Shaymiyev
  10. ^ (Tatar) Президент Татарстанның милли идеясен - "Булдырабыз!" дип билгеләде
  11. ^ Declaration on the State Sovereignty of the Tatar Soviet Socialist Republic
  12. ^ a b (In Russian)Конституция Республики Татарстан
  13. ^ Treaty on Delimitation of Jurisdictional Subjects and Powers between Bodies of Public Authority of the Russian Federation and Bodies of Public Authority of the Republic of Tatarstan
  14. ^ a b c d Economy: The Republic of Dagestan
  15. ^ Tatar The language of the largest minority in Russia. American Association of Teachers of Turkic. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  16. ^ (PDF) Tatars as Meso-Nation. Hokkaido University. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  17. ^ (XLS) National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation. 2002 Russian All-Population Census. 2002. Retrieved 2006-07-20. 
  18. ^ Strasbourg Court To Hear On Lawsuit Promoting Tatar Latin Alphabet
  19. ^ (Russian) Верховный суд РТ признал республиканский закон о латинице недействительным, но спикер татарстанского парламента Фарид Мухаметшин считает этот вопрос открытым
  20. ^ a b Tatarstan Microsoft Encarta
  21. ^ Human Development Index in the Regions of Russia United Nations
  22. ^ a b Tatarstan Economy
  23. ^ Kazanorgsintez
  24. ^ Kazan Helicopter Plant (KHP)
  25. ^ General information on the Tatarstan Republic
  26. ^ Culture: The Republic of Tatarstan


  • 30 ноября 1992 г. «Конституция Республики Татарстан». (November 30, 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Tatarstan. ).

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Tatarstan is a region (republic) in the Middle Volga, bordering Ulyanovsk Oblast to the southwest, Chuvashia to the west, Mari El to the northwest, Kirov Oblast to the north, Udmurtia to the northeast, Bashkortostan to the east, Orenburg Oblast to the southeast, and Samara Oblast to the south.

  • Kazan — the Tatar capital is a big and attractive city (the third most wealthy in Russia), very much worth a visit for its impressive kremlin, largest mosque in Russia, and just to soak up the Tatar culture
  • Almetyevsk — a mid-sized oil city
  • Kamaevo — a small village not too far from Yelabuga and Naberezhnye Chelny, which is next to the archaeological site and museum-reserve of Old Kazan
  • Naberezhnye Chelny — a major Soviet industrial city
  • Nizhnekamsk — a big oil city
  • Yelabuga — an old, small city notable for the ruins of an 11th century Volga Bulgarian castle, the birthplace of the great Russian landscape painter Ivan Shishkin, and the site of the Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva's suicide
  • Zelenodolsk — a mid-sized city which has an important regional transit hub and shipbuilding yard; the famous Raifa Monastery is nearby
  • Bolghar — The ruins of the historic capital of Volga Bulgaria is considered in some ways to be the spiritual center of Tatarstan. The city walls and towers remain and the site was a pilgrimage destination for Muslims of the Soviet Union, who came here on a "Little Hajj," when barred from traveling to Mecca.
  • Nizhnyaya Kama National Park
  • Volzhsko-Kamsky Nature Reserve
    • Raifa section
  • Sviyazhsk Island


Tatarstan is a nation within a nation. Tatars are Russia's largest minority at about five million people. Although they are named after a Mongol tribe, the Tatars trace their origins to the ancient Volga Bulgars, who inhabited the Volga Region since at least the days of Ancient Greece, and who were conquered by the Golden Horde, which set up the powerful Kazan Khanate. They are predominantly Sunni Muslim, but have significant numbers of Orthodox Christians as well.

Kazan is the undisputed capital of the region and should be the principal destination for any traveler in the region. The Russian capture of Kazan by Ivan the Terrible was a truly momentous event in human history, marking the beginning of the end of Turkic and the rise of Russian dominance over the northern Eurasian continent. Today, it is perhaps the most interesting and vibrant city in the entire Volga Region, as the center of Tatar culture and also just as a big city with a lot to see and do.


Tatar, a Turkic language, shares official status with Russian and is widely spoken, although nearly all Tatars are fully bilingual in Russian.

Get in

Kazan's airport services flights from international cities such as Tashkent, Kiev, Simferopol, Baku, Istanbul, Antalya, Dubai, and Frankfurt, as well as numerous Russian airports, including two daily flights to/from Moscow. The "Begishevo Airport," which offers flights to/from Istanbul, Tashkent, Antalya, Simferopol, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, and many other Russian cities.

The main rail line in the region is the Moscow-Kazan-Yekaterinburg Railway, which passes through Zelenodolsk, Kazan, and Agryz.

Kazan has the largest port on the Volga River and can be reached by boat from virtually any city in European Russia that has a river port.


Tatar cuisine is very different from Russian—more similar to other Central Asian cuisines (e.g., Uzbek). And it is really good. It is a diverse cuisine with a lot to try and food-lovers should make a point of hitting the many good restaurants in Kazan.


The national drink "qatiq," as with many Central Asian nations, is made from fermented milk. Despite of being predominantly Muslim, Tatars don't avoid alcohol.

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Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary



Proper noun

Wikipedia has an article on:





  1. an autonomous republic in east European Russia


Related terms

Simple English

File:Tatar Nationalist
Nationalist flag

Tatarstan is an autonomous republic within Russia. The Republic is located approximately 800 kilometers (497 miles) east of Moscow. It lies between the Volga River and the Kama River (a tributary of the Volga), and extends east to the Ural mountains. The majority of population are the Tatars,

Its capital is Kazan.

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