Taurine: Wikis

  

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Taurine
Identifiers
CAS number 107-35-7 Yes check.svgY
PubChem 1123
ChemSpider 1091
SMILES
Properties
Molecular formula C2H7NO3S
Molar mass 125.15 g mol−1
Density 1.734 g/cm3 (at −173.15 °C)
Melting point
305.11 °C
Acidity (pKa) <0, 9.06
 Yes check.svgY (what is this?)  (verify)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references
.Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is an organic acid.^ Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a free -amino acid.
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Taurine in the Rat Ovary, Oviduct, and Uterus -- Lobo et al. 49 (9): 1133 -- Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jhc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is known to have a cardiotonic action.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine, also known as 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid , is a nonessential amino acid.

.It is also a major constituent of bile and can be found in the lower intestine and, in small amounts, in the tissues of many animals, including humans.^ The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wheydepot.com - L-Taurine - 500mg / 60ct 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, intestinal health is a major factor in the ability to provide taurine in sufficient amounts for the multitude of biological processes in which it is involved.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine is found free in millimolar concentrations in animal tissues, particularly those that are excitable, rich in membranes, and generate oxidants.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] .Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing (sulfhydryl) amino acid cysteine.^ In addition to the foregoing example, Taurine is a derivative of the sulfur-containing amino acid Cysteine.
  • Amino Acid Compounds - Patent application - Carnitine and Taurine Compounds are described 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid .
  • Key Nutrients vis-a-vis Omnivorous Adaptation, Vegetarianism/A 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.beyondveg.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consider supplementing the amino acid taurine.

.Taurine is one of the few known naturally occurring sulfonic acids.^ It is a necessary acid that our body produces naturally.Taurine is possibly best known as a health supplement, and is used in a variety of products.
  • BevNET.com: Ky. Bill would ban energy drink sales to minors 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bevnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Taurine is an amino sulfonic acid that is found in high levels in the skeletal and heart muscles of humans, as well as in white blood cells, and the central nervous system.
  • BevNET.com: Ky. Bill would ban energy drink sales to minors 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bevnet.com [Source type: General]

^ The osmoregulatory process involves several amino acids, one of the most critical of which is now identified as taurine.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.Taurine is named after the Latin Taurus, which means bull or ox, as it was first isolated from ox bile in 1827 by German scientists Friedrich Tiedemann and Leopold Gmelin.^ Taurine, or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, was originally discovered in ox ( Bos taurus ) bile and was named after taurus, or bull.
  • Taurine | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Taurine , or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, was originally discovered in ox (Bos taurus) bile and was named after taurus,...
  • Taurine | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ While the word taurine has its root in the Latin word Taurus , meaning bull, it was originally found in the bile of an ox (an ox is a castrated bull).

[3] .In the strict sense, it is not an amino acid, as it lacks a carboxyl group,[4] but it is often called one, even in scientific literature.^ But it is called an "essential" amino acid because the human body, although it desperately needs it, cannot synthetize it; we must get it from our foods.
  • Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]
  • taurine-epilepsy.html> 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The osmoregulatory process involves several amino acids, one of the most critical of which is now identified as taurine.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Remember that taurine's sulfonic acid group makes it a unique amino acid molecule; indeed, it is the sulfinyl group in the hypotaurine molecule which is responsible for its efficiency as a radical scavenger.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[5][6][7] .It does contain a sulfonate group and may be called an amino sulfonic acid.^ But it is called an "essential" amino acid because the human body, although it desperately needs it, cannot synthetize it; we must get it from our foods.
  • Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]
  • taurine-epilepsy.html> 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, it has been reported that taurine, an amino acid with anticonvulsant properties, does not suppress experimental seizures generated by the "kindling" technique.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Comparison of the effects of buthioninesulfoximine and phorone on the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids in rat liver.
  • View Pathway: Taurine and hypotaurine metabolism 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC apropos.mcw.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Small polypeptides have been identified which contain taurine, but to date no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has been identified as specifically recognizing taurine and capable of incorporating it into a tRNA.^ Further, the host cell of the present invention is capable of expressing the taurine transporter strongly, promoting taurine uptake, and increasing the yield of the desired polypeptide.
  • Taurine Transporter Gene - Patent application - method capable of producing a natural or recombinant protein at low cost 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ By permitting the host cell to strongly express the taurine transporter, taurine uptake into the host cell is promoted, which leads to an increased production of a desired polypeptide in the host cell.
  • Taurine Transporter Gene - Patent application - method capable of producing a natural or recombinant protein at low cost 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ To apply simply let me know how you can incorporate Allmax Taurine into your current supplement regimen and why I should pick you to review it.
  • **Allmax TAURINE now on bb.com + Free Giveaway** - Bodybuilding.com Forums 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

[8]

Contents

Average daily consumption from food

.Taurine occurs naturally in food, especially in seafood and meat.^ Taurine is found naturally in meat, fish and breast milk, and it's commonly available as a dietary supplement.
  • OhioHealth - Taurine in energy drinks: What is it? 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ohiohealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taurine is free-form amino acid found in meat and other animal foods (except for milk and milk products).
  • Taurine Shop on discount at Homeherb Special Health Stores! 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.homeherb.com [Source type: General]

^ Glucuronolactone is a carbohydrate that occurs naturally in the body and, like taurine, is suspected of helping “detoxify the body” (Raging Bull, 2005, p.
  • Energy Drinks’ Effects on Student-Athletes and Implications for Athletic Departments | The Sport Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.thesportjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

.The mean daily intake from omnivore diets was determined to be around 58 mg (range from 9 to 372 mg) and to be low or negligible from a strict vegan diet.^ The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues.
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wheydepot.com - L-Taurine - 500mg / 60ct 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A suggested dosage range is 1500-4000 mg daily."
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

.In another study, taurine intake was estimated to be generally less than 200 mg/day, even in individuals eating a high-meat diet.^ The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Just 3 gelcaps in less than 24 hours gave me a 5 day headache.
  • Battling the MSG Myth: Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ Oral replacement of taurine should be 250 mgs, given twice a day.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

.According to another study, taurine consumption was estimated to vary between 40 to 400 mg/day.^ The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Bulk Nutrition - 1Fast400 Taurine Powder at discount prices! 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bulknutrition.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Wheydepot.com - L-Taurine - 500mg / 60ct 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.wheydepot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oral replacement of taurine should be 250 mgs, given twice a day.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Seizures: No Benefit: Taurine at 375 to 8,000 mg/day was given to six patients with mixed seizure disorders refractory to standard anticonvulsant treatment.

[9]

Biosynthesis

.Mammalian taurine synthesis occurs in the pancreas via the cysteine sulfinic acid pathway.^ Taurine synthesis is regulated by the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD).
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase .
  • HMDB: Showing Taurine (HMDB00251) 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ It is synthesized in the liver via the cysteine sulfonic pathway ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurine ).

.In this pathway, the sulfhydryl group of cysteine is first oxidized to cysteine sulfinic acid by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase.^ Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase .
  • HMDB: Showing Taurine (HMDB00251) 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Tsunoda M. "Changes in cysteine sulfinic acid in rat brain under the experimental elevation of taurine content."
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ At 3 weeks and thereafter, a significant increase of retinal cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSD; EC 4.1.1.12) activity, an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathway of taurine, also occurred in the dark, whereas the activity in the light-adapted retina was reduced.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cysteine sulfinic acid, in turn, is decarboxylated by sulfinoalanine decarboxylase to form hypotaurine.^ It is formed in the body as an endproduct of the decarboxylation of cysteine and hypotaurine.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase Cysteine-sulfinate decarboxylase .
  • HMDB: Showing Taurine (HMDB00251) 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase .
  • HMDB: Showing Taurine (HMDB00251) 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC hmdb.ca [Source type: Academic]

.It is unclear whether hypotaurine is then spontaneously or enzymatically oxidized to yield taurine.^ It is unclear whether hypotaurine is then spontaneously or enzymatically oxidized to yield taurine.
  • Taurine - Drug information from Medic8.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People with diabetes have lower-than-average blood levels of taurine, but whether this means they should take extra taurine is unclear.
  • Your Health - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.aurorahealthcare.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine - Content Viewer 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.svmh.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Saint Francis Breast Health Services - 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.saintfrancis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • St. David's HealthCare - Health Information - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC stdavids.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]
  • Home | Health Information 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC health-healthresources.caremark.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypotaurine exists in low concentrations in liver and brain of adult mammals, and at least 90% of it is readily oxidized to taurine [ Osman97 ].
  • MetaCyc taurine biosynthesis 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC biocyc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Taurine is naturally produced in the testicles of many mammals.^ It is a necessary acid that our body produces naturally.Taurine is possibly best known as a health supplement, and is used in a variety of products.
  • BevNET.com: Ky. Bill would ban energy drink sales to minors 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bevnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Taurine Transporter Gene - Patent application - method capable of producing a natural or recombinant protein at low cost .
  • Taurine Transporter Gene - Patent application - method capable of producing a natural or recombinant protein at low cost 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.Urban legends surrounding the source of taurine have included bull urine extract and bull semen.^ The activities of several enzymes were assayed in extracts of cells grown with either taurine or succinate as the sole source of carbon.
  • Genome-enabled analysis of the utilization of taurine as sole source of carbon or of nitrogen by Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1 -- Denger et al. 152 (11): 3197 -- Microbiology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Wed, 08/22/2007 - 6:50pm Report Comment The Italian Jem [ + ] My boyfriend kept insisting Taurine was from bull semen (ew!!
  • You Asked: Red Bull Ingredients 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: General]

^ Also,Taurine is not derived from bull semen, but a long time ago, was originally derived from the bile of oxen.
  • BevNET.com: Ky. Bill would ban energy drink sales to minors 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bevnet.com [Source type: General]

[10] .While it's true that taurine is found in both sources, taurine in the pharmaceutical or food industry is chemically synthesized (see below).^ Taurine was found in both cell types.
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Taurine in the Rat Ovary, Oviduct, and Uterus -- Lobo et al. 49 (9): 1133 -- Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jhc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine is free-form amino acid found in meat and other animal foods (except for milk and milk products).
  • Taurine Shop on discount at Homeherb Special Health Stores! 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.homeherb.com [Source type: General]

^ As a conditionally essential amino acid, the body is able to synthesize taurine, but prefers to obtain supply directly from food sources.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

Health Benefits

.Despite being present in many energy foods, taurine has not been proven to be energy-giving.^ At this point, not enough research has been done to substantiate any positive effect of taurine, much less to investigate long-term effects of consuming taurine in the amounts present in energy drinks.
  • Energy Drinks’ Effects on Student-Athletes and Implications for Athletic Departments | The Sport Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.thesportjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the exception of cow's milk, taurine is widely distributed in foods from many animal, but not plant, sources.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Various supplemental Taurine forms are available in the consumer marketplace, including many sports supplements and energy drinks.
  • Amino Acid Compounds - Patent application - Carnitine and Taurine Compounds are described 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

.A study of mice hereditarily unable to transport taurine suggests that it is needed for proper maintenance and functioning of skeletal muscles.^ Taurine concentrates in Skeletal Muscles.

^ A study of mice hereditarily unable to transport taurine suggests that it is needed for proper maintenance and functioning of skeletal muscles .
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine is essential to the proper function of the kidney.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[11] .In addition, it has been shown to be effective in removing fatty liver deposits in rats, preventing liver disease, and reducing cirrhosis in tested animals.^ Fatty liver was prevented in animals receiving taurine supplementation.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This agent, which has been shown to prevent apoptosis in a broad spectrum of neurologic and systemic diseases [ 92 , 93 ], is deconjugated by the bacterial flora of the intestinal lumen to release taurine.
  • Molecular Vision: Taurine suppresses the spread of cell deathin electrically coupled RPE cells 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Grape seed extracts have also been shown in animal studies to prevent damage to the lining of the artery, lower blood cholesterols, and shrink the size of cholesterol deposits in the arteries.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

[12][13] .There is also evidence that taurine is beneficial for adult human blood pressure and possibly, the alleviation of other cardiovascular ailments (in humans suffering essential hypertension, taurine supplementation resulted in measurable decreases in blood pressure).^ Supplementation in adult humans .

^ There is some evidence to suggest that Taurine can lower cholesterol and blood pressure.
  • - Twinlab Taurine 1000 Mg 50 Cap 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bodybuilding.md [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Decrease of urinary taurine in essential hypertension.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.It is believed that prematurely born infants lack the enzymes needed to convert cystathionine to cysteine and may, therefore, become deficient in taurine.^ Moreover, the loss of these properties may account for the multiple abnormalities in the visual, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems when taurine is depleted from the diet of animals deficient in cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, an essential enzyme for the biosynthesis of taurine from cysteine or methionine [ 64 ].
  • Molecular Vision: Taurine suppresses the spread of cell deathin electrically coupled RPE cells 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Endogenous production of taurine and l-arginine may decline in aging perturbing cardiac rhythm, and these "conditional" essential nutrients therefore become "essential" and require supplementation to prevent morbidity and mortality.

^ Deficiencies occasionally occur in vegetarians, whose diets may not provide the building blocks for making taurine.
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

.Thus, taurine has been added to many infant formulas as a measure of prudence, since the early 1980s.^ In fact, taurine is now added to many infant formulas to provide improved nourishment.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine is now added to many infant formulas as a measure of prudence to provide improved nourishment with the same margin of safety for its newly identified physiologic functions as that found in human milk.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In pre-term infants, taurine supplementation of formula is important specifically to promote the absorption of vitamin D, a process found to be lagging compared to that of full term infants (95).
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, this practice has never been rigorously studied, and as such it has yet to be proven to be necessary, or even beneficial.^ However, with respect to hamster taurine transporter, even its existence has not been known yet.
  • Taurine Transporter Gene - Patent application - method capable of producing a natural or recombinant protein at low cost 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Whether such alterations of the amino acid balance are beneficial or detrimental is yet to be determined.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, it has not been established if it was due to a synergistic relationship, as taurine-only studies have not yet been conducted in humans.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

[14]
.Taurine is also used in some contact lens solutions.^ Taurine is also used in some contact lens solutions.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Where does the taurine from red bull come from? - Yahoo! Answers 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

^ FYI, I was contacted by someone who warns that those who are sulfur sensitive should not use taurine --- her reactions to Solgar's taurine sounded life threatening.
  • Battling the MSG Myth: Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

^ TAURINE AND STROPHANTHIN-K SOLUTIONS In tests on the isolated guinea pig heart taurine, prepared in Tyrode solution at concentrations of 5.10 -4 , 5.10 -3 and 2.10 2 g/ml and strophanthin-K at a concentration of 10 -5 g/ml were used.
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

[15]

Toxicity

.Taurine is involved in a number of crucial physiological processes.^ Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), well known for its role in bile salt synthesis, is also involved in a number of crucial physiological processes including modulation of calcium flux and neuronal excitability, osmoregulation, detoxification, and membrane stabilization.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The osmoregulatory process involves several amino acids, one of the most critical of which is now identified as taurine.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, intestinal health is a major factor in the ability to provide taurine in sufficient amounts for the multitude of biological processes in which it is involved.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.However, the role of taurine in these processes is not clearly understood and the influence of high taurine doses on these processes is uncertain.^ Possible role of high taurine concentration.
  • Effects of taurine on human embryo development in vitro -- Devreker et al. 14 (9): 2350 -- Human Reproduction 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC humrep.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Immunohistochemical Localization of Taurine in the Rat Ovary, Oviduct, and Uterus -- Lobo et al. 49 (9): 1133 -- Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jhc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Eye health The retina is another area where taurine is found in particularly high concentrations, although its role there is not well established.

^ The role of taurine on atherogenesis induced by high fat diet in rats, a species which depends entirely on taurine for conjugation of bile acids has been investigated.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.A substantial increase in the plasma concentration of growth hormone was reported in some epileptic patients during taurine tolerance testing (oral dose of 50 mg/kg bw/day), suggesting a potential to stimulate the hypothalamus and to modify neuroendocrine function.^ Taurine doses ranged from 0.05 to 0.3 g/kg/day.

^ Taurine (1000 mg, 50 VCaps) .
  • Taurine (Recover Nervous System) - BUY Taurine supplements on discount 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.nutrovita.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects of taurine on seizures and growth hormone release in epileptic patients.

.There is an indication that taurine (2 g/day) has some function in the maintenance and possibly in the induction of psoriasis.^ There is strong evidence that taurine is safe at levels up to 3 g per day, although higher dosages have been tested without apparent adverse effects.
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Proceeding from these observations, we attempted to study the effect of taurine on the electrical activity of the heart and to develop a possible mechanism for the effects of taurine on this important indicator of cardiac function.
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, we found that taurine (10 mmol/L) abolished the induction of GRP78 mRNA caused by homocysteine (5 mmol/L), as shown in Figure 6 A, indicating that taurine prevents the induction of ER stress by homocysteine.
  • Taurine Prevents the Decrease in Expression and Secretion of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Induced by Homocysteine: Amelioration of Homocysteine-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Taurine -- Nonaka et al. 104 (10): 1165 -- Circulation 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.It may also be necessary to take into consideration that absorption of taurine from beverages may be more rapid than from foods.^ A little more than a year ago I came across an article by a woman who had very good results stopping her convulsions using taurine.

^ Taurine reacts with HOCl/OCl to form taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl), 4 an oxidant that is far less reactive and more stable than HOCl/OCl ( 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 ).
  • Taurine Chloramine Inhibits Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase and TNF-{alpha} Gene Expression in Activated Alveolar Macrophages: Decreased NF-{kappa}B Activation and I{kappa}B Kinase Activity -- Barua et al. 167 (4): 2275 -- The Journal of Immunology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taking into account these results one can conclude that the main structure able to synthesize 3H-tauret is probably pigment epithelium rather than retina.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Energy drinks

.Taurine in regularly used as an ingredient in energy drinks, with many containing 1000mg per serving,[16] and some as much as 1,420 mg.^ Energy drink, caffeine, taurine, Thrive Energy Drinks .
  • zBeverages - Beverage Reviews - BeveragesDirect.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.beveragesdirect.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I drink one of the energy drinks with 1000 mg of taurine.
  • L-Taurine (Taurine) - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Caffeine is the main “energy” ingredient in energy drinks.
  • Energy Drinks’ Effects on Student-Athletes and Implications for Athletic Departments | The Sport Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.thesportjournal.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .A 2003 study by the European Food Safety Authority found no adverse effects for up to 1,000 mg of Taurine per kilogram of bodyweight per day; however this was in regards to Taurine alone, noting they did not compare the effects of Taurine when combined with the other ingredients in energy drinks.^ However, taurine supplementation was without effect.
  • Taurine Supplementation of a Low Protein Diet Fed to Rat Dams Normalizes the Vascularization of the Fetal Endocrine Pancreas -- Boujendar et al. 133 (9): 2820 -- Journal of Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, taurine did not enhance further the beneficial effects of glutamine.
  • Effects of taurine on human embryo development in vitro -- Devreker et al. 14 (9): 2350 -- Human Reproduction 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC humrep.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I drink one of the energy drinks with 1000 mg of taurine.
  • L-Taurine (Taurine) - User ratings & reviews - Revolution Health 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.revolutionhealth.com [Source type: General]

[18]
A review published in 2008 found no documented reports of negative health effects associated with the amount of taurine used in energy drinks, concluding that "The amounts of guarana, taurine, and ginseng found in popular energy drinks are far below the amounts expected to deliver either therapeutic benefits or adverse events".[19]

Physiological functions

.Taurine is conjugated via its amino terminal group with chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid to form the bile salts sodium taurochenodeoxycholate and sodium taurocholate.^ Taurine is an amino acid.

^ Taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC): a bile salt formed in the liver by the conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ratios of glycine/taurine-conjugated bile acids were decreased.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

.The low pKa [20] of taurine's sulfonic acid group ensures that this moiety is negatively charged in the pH ranges normally found in the intestinal tract and, thus, improves the surfactant properties of the cholic acid conjugate.^ Taurocholic acid (taurocholate) (TC): is formed when cholic acid and taurine conjugate.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Recently, it has been reported that taurine, an amino acid with anticonvulsant properties, does not suppress experimental seizures generated by the "kindling" technique.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A pancreatic insufficiency and an adverse bile acid conjugation that results from an abnormal glycine/taurine ratio of bile acids likely cause this situation.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.Taurine crosses the blood-brain barrier[21][22][23] and has been implicated in a wide array of physiological phenomena including inhibitory neurotransmission,[24] long-term potentiation in the striatum/hippocampus,[25] membrane stabilization,[26] feedback inhibition of neutrophil/macrophage respiratory burst, adipose tissue regulation and possible prevention of obesity,[27][28] calcium homeostasis,[29] recovery from osmotic shock,[30] protection against glutamate excitotoxicity[31] and prevention of epileptic seizures.^ Taurine has been shown to be neuroprotective against the excitotoxicity of glutamate (27) .
  • Taurine prevents the neurotoxicity of {beta}-amyloid and glutamate receptor agonists: activation of GABA receptors and possible implications for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders -- LOUZADA et al. 18 (3): 511 -- The FASEB Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It interacts with the membranes of blood cells to protect against free radicals.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ingestion of 3 g taurine/d for 7 wk has been reported to prevent obesity in humans ( 23 ).
  • Taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid) Deficiency Creates a Vicious Circle Promoting Obesity -- Tsuboyama-Kasaoka et al. 147 (7): 3276 -- Endocrinology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[32] .It also acts as an antioxidant and protects against toxicity of various substances (such as lead and cadmium).^ Taurine potently protected neurons in culture against the toxicity of Aß, glutamate, kainate, and NMDA (Fig.
  • Taurine prevents the neurotoxicity of {beta}-amyloid and glutamate receptor agonists: activation of GABA receptors and possible implications for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders -- LOUZADA et al. 18 (3): 511 -- The FASEB Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Antioxidant effect of taurine against lead-induced oxidative stress.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Heavy metals & toxins Taurine protects many of the body's organs against toxicity and oxidative stress due to various substances.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

[33][34][35][36] .Additionally, supplementation with taurine has been shown to prevent oxidative stress induced by exercise.^ Antioxidant effect of taurine against lead-induced oxidative stress.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Effects of taurine supplementation on VDT work induced visual stress.

^ Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men.

[37] .In a 2008 study, taurine has been shown to reduce the secretion of apolipoprotein B100 and lipids in HepG2 cells.^ Indeed, we found that taurine blocked lipid peroxidation induced by Aß and by glutamate receptor agonists in retinal cell cultures (data not shown).
  • Taurine prevents the neurotoxicity of {beta}-amyloid and glutamate receptor agonists: activation of GABA receptors and possible implications for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders -- LOUZADA et al. 18 (3): 511 -- The FASEB Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Insulin and IGF should be elevated in the surrounding environment of the islet blood vessel because of the vicinity of insulin-secreting cells and IGF-containing cells as shown by Petrik et al.
  • Taurine Supplementation of a Low Protein Diet Fed to Rat Dams Normalizes the Vascularization of the Fetal Endocrine Pancreas -- Boujendar et al. 133 (9): 2820 -- Journal of Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC jn.nutrition.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When taurine is lost, these cardiac cells reduce in size and change in shape as well as configuration.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[38] .High concentrations of serum lipids and apolipoprotein B100 (essential structural component of VLDL and LDL) are major risk factors of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.^ Extra folate reduces homocysteine - a risk factor for heart disease.
  • CHFpatients.com - Nutrient Stew - Nutrients 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.chfpatients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dietary taurine enhances cholesterol degradation and reduces serum and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

^ High fat diet caused significant increase of serum total cholesterol (2 fold), serum triglycerides (92.6%), LDL cholesterol (92.3%) and body weight gain (2.8 fold).
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Hence, it is possible that taurine supplementation is beneficial for the prevention of these diseases.^ These products are not inteded to diagnose, cure, mitigate, treat, or prevent any disease.
  • Taurine Shop on discount at Homeherb Special Health Stores! 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.homeherb.com [Source type: General]

^ Furthermore, they upregulated GRP78 mRNA expression and activated PERK. Taurine (0.5 to 10 mmol/L), conversely, prevented these actions induced by homocysteine.
  • Taurine Prevents the Decrease in Expression and Secretion of Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Induced by Homocysteine: Amelioration of Homocysteine-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Taurine -- Nonaka et al. 104 (10): 1165 -- Circulation 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC circ.ahajournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatty liver was prevented in animals receiving taurine supplementation.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.In a 2003 study, Zhang et al.^ Moreover, the study by Malfait et al.
  • Molecular Vision: Taurine suppresses the spread of cell deathin electrically coupled RPE cells 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.molvis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Zhang M, Bi LF, et al.

^ But no consistency can be found in the Portuguese cattle study ( Cymbron et al.
  • African-Derived Mitochondria in South American Native Cattle Breeds (Bos taurus): Evidence of a New Taurine Mitochondrial Lineage -- Miretti et al. 93 (5): 323 -- Journal of Heredity 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC jhered.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

have demonstrated the hypocholesterolemic .(blood cholesterol-lowering) effect of dietary taurine in young overweight adults.^ Yes Taurine can help to relax blood vessel by helping control water in the body, has mild diuretic effects.
  • **Allmax TAURINE now on bb.com + Free Giveaway** - Bodybuilding.com Forums 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Changes in lipid metabolism Serum concentrations of triacylglycerol and cholesterol were significantly higher in the OLETF rats than in the nondiabetic rats and significantly lower in the taurine-supplemented rats than in the unsupplemented rats ( Table 1 ).
  • Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes1 -- Nakaya et al. 71 (1): 54 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the present study, the effects of taurine on blood pressure, plasma levels of glucose and insulin, glucose tolerance, and renal function were studied in fructose-fed rats.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.Furthermore, they reported that body weight also decreased significantly in the taurine supplemented group.^ Body weight also reduced significantly in the taurine group.

^ Taurine supplementation did not change body weight significantly in the OLETF rats, although it tended to reduce abdominal fat accumulation.
  • Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes1 -- Nakaya et al. 71 (1): 54 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Total fat weight in the abdominal cavity tended to be less in the taurine-supplemented group than in the unsupplemented group, although total body weight was not significantly different between the 2 groups.
  • Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes1 -- Nakaya et al. 71 (1): 54 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

[39] .These findings are consistent with animal studies.^ One possible reason for the difference is that the animal models employed in these studies have not adequately reflected the pathophysiology of human epilepsy.
  • Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]
  • taurine-epilepsy.html> 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Lange said the study "was done to confirm that folic acid supplements reduced restenosis, so these findings were surprising."
  • CHFpatients.com - Nutrient Stew - Nutrients 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.chfpatients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These findings suggest that the increased basal GABA levels observed in this animal model are not simply a consequence of seizure activity but may contribute to the initiation of absence seizures.
  • Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: Academic]
  • taurine-epilepsy.html> 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.indiana.edu [Source type: Academic]

[40] .Taurine has also been shown to help people with congestive heart failure by increasing the force and effectiveness of heart-muscle contractions.^ Therapy of congestive heart failure with orally administered taurine.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Beneficial effect of taurine in rabbits with chronic congestive heart failure.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ Effects on heart membranes after taurine treatment in rabbits with congestive heart failure.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.Taurine levels were found to be significantly lower in vegans than in a control group on a standard American diet.^ Urinary excretion of albumin was significantly lower in the taurine-supplemented group than in the unsupplemented group.
  • Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes1 -- Nakaya et al. 71 (1): 54 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The activity of membrane bound ATPases were significantly lower in fructose-fed rats than in the control rats and were significantly higher in the taurine supplemented group than in the fructose-fed group.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), the concentration of glycine is significantly higher and taurine significantly lower than levels found in healthy people.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.Plasma taurine was 78% of control values, and urinary taurine 29%.^ Plasma taurine was 78% of control values, and urinary taurine 29%.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Serum and urinary concentrations and ER of SAAs and plasma vitamin B 12 and folic acid concentrations in patients with active and cured CD and controls .
  • Sulfur Amino Acids in Cushing's Disease: Insight in Homocysteine and Taurine Levels in Patients with Active and Cured Disease -- Faggiano et al. 90 (12): 6616 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Control cultures exhibited a mean viability of 78%, and the viability decreased to 26% in cultures treated with Aß vs. Aß in the presence of 100 µM taurine (Fig.
  • Taurine prevents the neurotoxicity of {beta}-amyloid and glutamate receptor agonists: activation of GABA receptors and possible implications for Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders -- LOUZADA et al. 18 (3): 511 -- The FASEB Journal 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fasebj.org [Source type: Academic]

[42]
.In the cell, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell while keeping excessive sodium out.^ In the cell, taurine keeps potassium and magnesium inside the cell while keeping excessive sodium out.
  • Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drlam.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Medical Publications - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC medicalpublications.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taurine acts by regulating the sodium and potassium concentration in the cells and the magnesium level between the cells.
  • Taurine Keeps Immune Systems Strong and Protects Organs 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.naturalnews.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine polices our cell membranes, keeping potassium and magnesium inside the cells and keeping excess sodium out.

In this sense, it works like a diuretic. .Because it aids the movement of potassium, sodium, and calcium in and out of the cell, taurine has been used as a supplementation for epileptics as well as for people who have uncontrollable facial twitches.^ Taurine aids the movement of potassium, sodium, calcium, and magnesium in and out of cells and thus helps generate nerve impulses.

^ So is there any use for taurine supplements?
  • The Amino Acid Taurine Reviewed: What Benefits Does Taurine Supplementation Offer? 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC bodybuilding.ultimatefatburner.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevent Cramping — Taurine aids the movement of important nutrients such as potassium, magnesium, calcium and sodium in and out of our cells.
  • BulkPowders.co.uk : Bodybuilding, Sports and Nutritional Supplements 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.bulkpowders.co.uk [Source type: General]

[43]
.According to animal studies, taurine produces anxiolytic effect and may act as a modulator or anti-anxiety agent in the central nervous system.^ The cells of the nervous system have been studied in detail for their ability to modulate tonicity.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system.

^ Taurine may be an important modulator of effects of ethanol on the nervous system.

[44][45][46]
.Taurine is necessary for normal skeletal muscle functioning.^ Taurine concentrates in Skeletal Muscles.

^ Taurine is shown to increase skeletal muscle function.
  • Taurine Review | How It works, Pros/Cons, In-Depth Reviews 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.dietspotlight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taurine is necessary for normal skeletal muscle functioning in humans and mice [13].
  • Taurine - MOTM 2008 - HTML-only version 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.chm.bris.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This was shown by a 2004 study,[47] using mice with a genetic taurine deficiency.^ Prompted by our finding that uptake of taurine and expression of the transporter for taurine, TAUT, are up-regulated by UVB exposure in keratinocytes ( 15 ), we studied whether taurine deficiency in the skin of mice influences their susceptibility to UVB-induced immunosuppression.
  • The Osmolyte Taurine Protects against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression -- Rockel et al. 179 (6): 3604 -- The Journal of Immunology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Reduced taurine levels in the skin of taut -deficient mice Mice deficient for the functional taurine transporter TAUT have previously been generated by disruption of exon 1 of the taut gene ( 17 ).
  • The Osmolyte Taurine Protects against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression -- Rockel et al. 179 (6): 3604 -- The Journal of Immunology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Appearances of pentetrazole-, picrotoxin- and strychnine-induced convulsive seizures in taurine-deficient mice produced by treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a taurine transport antagonist, were investigated.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

.They had a nearly complete depletion of skeletal and cardiac muscle taurine levels.^ Taurine concentrates in Skeletal Muscles.

^ They had a nearly complete depletion of skeletal and cardiac muscle taurine levels.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine level is depleted in the failing heart.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

.These mice had a reduction of more than 80% of exercise capacity compared to control mice.^ Pottenger's cat studies were done under limitations that make them less well- controlled than more modern studies.
  • Lesson of the Pottenger's Cats Experiment--Cats Are Not Humans 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.beyondveg.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the first clinical trial to show that exercise and taking L-arginine improves blood vessel dilation more than either factor alone.
  • CHFpatients.com - Nutrient Stew - Nutrients 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.chfpatients.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It’s a carbohydrate, and a lot of exercise regiments suggest a good dose of carbs for workouts lasting more than an hour.

.The authors expressed themselves as "surprised" that cardiac function showed as largely normal (given various other studies about effects of taurine on the heart).^ The authors expressed themselves as "surprised" that cardiac function showed as largely normal (given various other studies about effects of taurine on the heart).
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Welty JD, Read WO: Studies on the function of taurine in the heart.
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine is also important for healthy heart function.
  • VitaBlog: Add Taurine to Your Weight Loss Regimen 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC vitacost.typepad.com [Source type: General]

.Studies have shown that taurine can influence (and possibly reverse) defects in nerve blood flow, motor nerve conduction velocity, and nerve sensory thresholds in experimental diabetic neuropathic rats.^ In fact, the Japanese use Taurine to treat ischemic heart disease (heart attacks).Studies have shown that Taurine acts as a powerful antioxidant, improves drug-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in lab rats, and combats the destruction of oxygen free radicals on the pancreas.
  • Bulk Taurine Supplement 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC purebulk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The experimental period was 7 weeks and the rats were administered streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tsunoda M. "Changes in cysteine sulfinic acid in rat brain under the experimental elevation of taurine content."
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[48][49] .In another study on diabetic rats, taurine significantly decreased weight and decreased blood sugar in these animal models.^ However, the effect of taurine in an animal model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes has not been studied.
  • Taurine improves insulin sensitivity in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rat, a model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes1 -- Nakaya et al. 71 (1): 54 -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In diabetic rats, 2 and 5% taurine significantly decreased CD. This reduction is long lasting.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People with diabetes have lower-than-average blood levels of taurine, but whether this means they should take extra taurine is unclear.
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

[50] .Likewise, a 2008 study demonstrated that taurine administration to diabetic rabbits resulted in 30% decrease in serum glucose levels.^ The chronic administration of taurine had no effects on serum glucose levels.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ People with diabetes have lower-than-average blood levels of taurine, but whether this means they should take extra taurine is unclear.
  • Taurine | Lifescript.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lifescript.com [Source type: General]

^ The results of the current study demonstrated that CD is associated with a series of abnormalities in SAA levels mainly characterized by increase of serum and urinary levels of cystine and homocysteine, and decrease of serum and increase of urinary levels of taurine, which display an increase in the rate of excretion by the kidney.
  • Sulfur Amino Acids in Cushing's Disease: Insight in Homocysteine and Taurine Levels in Patients with Active and Cured Disease -- Faggiano et al. 90 (12): 6616 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] .According to the single study on human subjects, daily administration of 1.5g taurine had no significant effect on insulin secretion or insulin sensitivity.^ The chronic administration of taurine had no effects on serum glucose levels.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The mean taurine intake in humans is estimated to be around 60 mg daily, but supplementation can far exceed this amount and readily increases taurine levels in many tissues.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In a lab study that produced degenerated hepatocytes and necrosis damage from exposure to carbon tetrachloride, researchers discovered that the concurrent administration of taurine with carbon tetrachloride could ameliorate the damage.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[52] .There is evidence that taurine may exert a beneficial effect in preventing diabetes-associated microangiopathy and tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic nephropathy.^ Taurine also acts like insulin in the body and may have a beneficial effect on diabetes .

^ Dietary taurine might be beneficial in preventing obesity and diabetes.
  • Taurine (2-Aminoethanesulfonic Acid) Deficiency Creates a Vicious Circle Promoting Obesity -- Tsuboyama-Kasaoka et al. 147 (7): 3276 -- Endocrinology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine administration reduced the total proteinuria and albuminuria by approximately 50%, prevented glomerular hypertrophy, diminished glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, overall ameliorating diabetic nephropathy by reducing renal oxidant injury.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[53][54] Taurine acts as a glycation inhibitor. .Studies have shown that taurine treated diabetic rats had a decrease in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and AGEs content.^ In fact, the Japanese use Taurine to treat ischemic heart disease (heart attacks).Studies have shown that Taurine acts as a powerful antioxidant, improves drug-induced type 1 diabetes mellitus in lab rats, and combats the destruction of oxygen free radicals on the pancreas.
  • Bulk Taurine Supplement 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC purebulk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The changes in renal function and structure in taurine-treated diabetic rats were associated with normalization of renal cortical malondialdehyde content, lowering of serum free Fe2+ concentration, and decreased formation of the advanced glycooxidation products, pentosidine, and fluorescence in skin collagen.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tsunoda M. "Changes in cysteine sulfinic acid in rat brain under the experimental elevation of taurine content."
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

[55][56]
.Lately, cosmetic compositions containing taurine have been introduced, possibly due to its antifibrotic properties.^ It is concluded that taurine attenuated the atherogenesis possibly by its hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant property.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A beverage containing taurine, caffeine, and simple carbs increases endurance performance in humans, and a significant portion of these effects is due to the taurine alone [1, 4].
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has been shown that taurine acts as a TGFB1 inhibitor.^ Taurine has been shown to act as a preventive treatment against the disturbances associated with hypoxia.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cosmunity : Drinking nice RED BULL SUGARFREE Taurine is involved in vital functions of the human body acts as antioxidant shown promote detoxification.
  • Taurine | LIVESTRONG.COM 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[57] .It also helps to maintain skin hydration.^ As an osmolyte, taurine helps maintain hydration in the epidermis when it is exposed to a dry environment [53], but the effect of oral taurine supplementation on skin hydration and healing has not been determined.
  • Taurine - Supplement Review 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.ironmagazine.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Taurine Information by David Tolson 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.1fast400.com [Source type: Academic]

[58]

Taurine and cats

.Taurine is an essential dietary requirement for feline health, since cats cannot synthesize the compound.^ As a conditionally essential amino acid, the body is able to synthesize taurine, but prefers to obtain supply directly from food sources.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no lack of evidence derived from lab studies conducted on rats (where taurine is not essential), cats (where taurine is essential), dogs, and other animals.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Also, chicken and beef are low in Taurine, an essential amino acid for cats.
  • Care and Feeding of Windwalker Maine Coon cats and kittens 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.windwalkermainecoons.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The absence of taurine causes a cat's retina to slowly degenerate, causing eye problems and (eventually) irreversible blindness — a condition known as central retinal degeneration (CRD),[59][60] as well as hair loss and tooth decay.^ Retinal degeneration associated with taurine deficiency in the cat.
  • The Osmolyte Taurine Protects against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced Immunosuppression -- Rockel et al. 179 (6): 3604 -- The Journal of Immunology 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.jimmunol.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Eye health The retina is another area where taurine is found in particularly high concentrations, although its role there is not well established.

^ In the absence of taurine under similar conditions, the initial ECG was restored by the tenth minute.
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

.It was discovered in 1987 that taurine deficiency can also cause feline dilated cardiomyopathy.^ Both myocardial trace element accumulation (increased cobalt) and deficiency (decreased selenium) have been associated with a cardiac dilation and dysfunction not distinguishable from an idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Taurine deficiency is associated with feline central retinal degeneration, reproductive failure, developmental abnormalities, dilated cardiomyopathy and compromised immune function.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research on families of boxers with dilated cardiomyopathy discovered that all dogs had decreased concentrations of myocardial L-carnitine when compared to control groups.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

[61] Unlike CRD, the condition is reversible with supplementation. .Taurine is now a requirement of the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) and any dry or wet food product labeled approved by the AAFCO should have a minimum of 0.1% taurine in dry food and 0.2% in wet food.^ Cat foods are now supplemented with taurine.
  • Taurine Deficiency Causes Heart Disease in Cats and Dogs 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Feline diets should contain at least 1,000-1,200 mg taurine per kg of diet, and canned commercial diets should contain at least 2,000 to 2,500 mg per kg diet on a dry matter basis.
  • Nutrition Therapy for Hearth Health in pets - holistic pet care articles 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.drbasko.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I was put on an estradiol product and regularly take taurine now to counteract its effects.
  • Battling the MSG Myth: Femring, Estradiol, taurine, and MSG reactions 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.msgmyth.com [Source type: General]

[62]

Taurine and bird development

.Recent research has provided evidence that taurine is essential in early bird development of passerines.^ However, taurine is so important in the body, that since 1986 it has been added to baby formula because it is essential for proper growth and development in humans.
  • Remedies 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.msgtruth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many studies have shown Taurine to be essential in mammalian development, and low levels of it are associated with developmental problems such as growth retardation, and retinal degeneration.

^ Infants have also been studied and the results found that Taurine is essential for proper development and growth.
  • Bulk Taurine Supplement 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC purebulk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many passerines, regardless of spider availability, seek out many taurine-rich spiders to feed their young particularly in their youngest stages of life.^ Many passerines, regardless of spider availability, seek out many taurine-rich spiders to feed their young particularly in their youngest stages of life.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ALOT in my life and i plan to drink many more ^-^ btw red bull+sprite+lemon gin= AMZAING go ahead try it out .
  • You Asked: Red Bull Ingredients 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: General]

^ Taurine is found free in millimolar concentrations in animal tissues, particularly those that are excitable, rich in membranes, and generate oxidants.
  • vitacost.com - Physician's Guide - Taurine 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.vitacost.com [Source type: Academic]

.Researchers later compared the behaviors and development of birds fed a taurine-supplemented diet to a control diet and found that juveniles that were fed taurine-rich diets as neonates were much larger risk takers and more adept at spatial learning tasks.^ The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.
  • Taurine supplement benefit and side effects : by Ray Sahelian, M.D., 500 mg tablets 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.raysahelian.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Should one supplement the diet with taurine?

^ Learn more about L-Taurine .
  • Bodybuilding.com - NOW Taurine Powder - 100% Pure! On sale now! 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

[63]

Synthesis and production

.In 1993, approximately 5,000–6,000 t.^ In 1993, approximately 5,000–6,000 t of taurine was produced; 50% for pet food manufacture, 50% in pharmaceutical applications.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

of taurine were produced; .50% for pet food manufacture, 50% in pharmaceutical applications.^ In 1993, approximately 5,000–6,000 t of taurine was produced; 50% for pet food manufacture, 50% in pharmaceutical applications.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All pet food manufacturers use synthetic taurine, being both easier to use and more economical.
  • Veganpet » A Balanced Diet 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC veganpet.com.au [Source type: General]

^ Wintersun Chemical , US Wintersun Chemical is one of the leading international manufacturers and suppliers of chemical raw materials, pharmaceutical ingredients, intermediates and food additives in the United States.
  • Taurine (107-35-7) Suppliers Worldwide 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: General]

[64] .Synthetic taurine is obtained from isethionic acid (2-hydroxyethanesulfonic acid), which in turn is obtained from the reaction of ethylene oxide with aqueous sodium bisulfite.^ As a conditionally essential amino acid, the body is able to synthesize taurine, but prefers to obtain supply directly from food sources.
  • CONTEMPORARY REVIEW OF THERAPEUTIC BENEFITS OF THE AMINO ACID TAURINE 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.mgwater.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alteration of metabolism of taurine in prolonged light- and dark-adapted frog retinae were studied in comparison with that of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the following results were obtained.
  • Comprehensive Nutrient Review: Taurine Research Abstracts 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.lef.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It was shown, in sections of dog heart, that taurine is a precursor of isethionic acid.
  • Taurine Role in Cardiology and Cardiac Arrhythmias 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC george-eby-research.com [Source type: Academic]

[65] Another approach is the reaction of aziridine with sulfurous acid. .This leads directly to taurine.^ This leads directly to taurine.
  • Taurine encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 16 January 2010 13:55 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

See also

References

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