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Part of a series on the
Islamic Jurisprudence

– a discipline of Islamic studies

This article is about Hygiene in Islam.

Tayammum (Arabic: تيمم‎) refers to the dry ablution in Islam using sand or dust, which may be performed in place of wudu or ghusl, only if no clean water is readily available.

Circumstances when Tayammum is necessary

Tayammum becomes necessary in place of wudu or ghusl when one of the following circumstances prevails:

  1. When water is not available within a radius of approximately 1.7 km.
  2. When there is fear of an enemy or a dangerous animal or a snake is near the water.
  3. When the water is so little that, if the water is used up for Wudhu or Ghusl then there is fear of thirst.
  4. When there is no rope or bucket to draw water from a well or one cannot reach water that is nearby (due to some reason) and no other person is available to fetch the water.
  5. When it is known by ones own experience or a capable doctor says that the use of water would definitely be injurious to ones health.
  6. When one does not have sufficient amount of money to pay for water which is being sold.
  7. If water is sold at a very ridiculous price.

Performing Tayammum

Tayammum consists of the following steps:

  1. Finding a piece of ground which is free of najaasah. This could be any natural surface such as rock, sand or dust.
  2. Recite the bismillah.
  3. Make niyyah, or intention to make tayammum.
  4. Place the hands on the surface of the ground.
  5. Lift hands with palms downwards, ensuring that no dust remains, may rub them together
  6. Rub face with hands.
  7. Press hands to ground and touch sides of hands together.
  8. Rub right arm with left hand, from the fingers to the elbow, and back along the inner arm to the hand. Do the same with the other arm.

The same conditions that invalidate wudu also invalidate tayammum. In addition, a person's tayammum is invalidated as and when water becomes available.


  • Lemu, B. A. Islamic Aqidah and Fiqh:A textbook of Islamic Belief and Jurisprudence revised and expanded edition of Tawhid and Fiqh), IQRA' International Educational Foundation, Chicago, 1997.


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