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By the mid 20th century, humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the atmosphere of the Earth for the first time and explore space.
.Technology is the usage and knowledge of tools, techniques, and crafts, or is systems or methods of organization, or is a material product (such as clothing) of these things.^ These include products such as System 7 Survey Builder, System 7 Issue Tracking System (ITS), System 7 Time Tracker (TT), System 7 Project Manager & Scheduler, as well as customized information management systems .
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Among the top technologies that contribute to productivity are collaborative software tools, newer PCs, increased network bandwidth, mobile computing devices, and wireless devices.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The word technology comes from the Greek technología (τεχνολογία) — téchnē (τέχνη), 'craft' and -logía (-λογία), the study of something, or the branch of knowledge of a discipline.[1] The term can either be applied generally or to specific areas: examples include "construction technology", "medical technology", or "state-of-the-art technology".
Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. .The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools.^ Amid acidic plumes of smoke and vast mountains of trash, migrants scour for valuable scraps using their bare hands and simple tools.
  • Technology on The WIP 28 January 2010 0:58 UTC thewip.net [Source type: News]

^ Earth’s veneer of millions of plant and animal species is a vital resource that will need careful tending as human populations and their demands for land, protein and fuels grow.

^ The storm is about the customers, partners, and suppliers discussing your products and brand in the public using social media, report problems using the SaaS tools, and engage into the conversations in ways that you never anticipated.

The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. .Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale.^ Perlustro, L.P. has enabled the development of a new technology that will allow forensics specialists to access system data indexes on all Microsoft platforms, including Windows Vista.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

.However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.^ This breakthrough in precise and efficient authentication is a result of using biometric technology from M2SYS Technology, an award-winning biometric technology research and development firm.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Perlustro, L.P. has enabled the development of a new technology that will allow forensics specialists to access system data indexes on all Microsoft platforms, including Windows Vista.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ This program can be used on all the server and desktop computers within the whole company with a range of powerful functions to manage server partitions.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

.Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways.^ Find your way quickly to the technology fields that interest you with the Browse by Subject feature in the Computer Society Digital Library.
  • The IEEE Computer Society 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computer.org [Source type: General]

.In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class.^ Similarities across industries with respect to software development and use and, in particular, software testing labor costs allowed a projection of the cost to the entire U.S. economy.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Usability specialists find 130% more problems (more than twice as many) as regular developers.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Technology is not bringing more people onto the roads, but simply allows workers to make more productive use of their time while traveling, Edwards says.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. .Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions.^ "Most U.S. workers feel at ease with technology, according to a new Society of Financial Service Professionals survey of 1,130 members.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. .Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.^ The product eliminates the need to learn Photoshop, Dreamweaver, HTML, CSS or other Web technologies to produce original Website designs.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Using technology increases knowledge in the workplace, said 87 percent of participants, while 80 percent said technology develops job skills.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Definition and usage

The invention of the printing press made it possible for scientists and politicians to communicate their ideas with ease, leading to the Age of Enlightenment; an example of technology as a cultural force.
.The use of the the term technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years.^ "In a period of 25 years that has been the period of greatest change in history, the institution that has been effectively left behind in terms of systemic and radical change is the public education system in our country....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gartner Group reports that 200 billion lines of Cobol code existed as of last year, with an expected growth of 5 billion lines of code per year for the next four years.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year, Californians passed Proposition 209, barring the use of race and ethnicity as determinants of college admissions...
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, and usually referred to the description or study of the useful arts.[2] .The term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861).^ "In a period of 25 years that has been the period of greatest change in history, the institution that has been effectively left behind in terms of systemic and radical change is the public education system in our country....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] "Technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the second industrial revolution. .In the process, the concept of technology became associated with the worlds of science, big business, and engineering, implicitly excluding workers, women, and non-Western peoples.^ Designed and engineered with assistance from TZ's product development subsidiary, Product Development Technologies (PDT), the Adamo now claims the 'world's thinnest notebook' crown.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

[4][5] The meanings of technology changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology." In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between Technik and Technologie that is absent in English, as both terms are usually translated as "technology." By the 1930s, "technology" referred not to the study of the industrial arts, but to the industrial arts themselves.[6] .In 1937, the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools, machines, utensils, weapons, instruments, housing, clothing, communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them."^ "In 1990, company purchases of high-tech equipment (computers, communication gear, instruments) was 20 percent of all business investment, which includes everything from office buildings to industrial machinery...
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the top technologies that contribute to productivity are collaborative software tools, newer PCs, increased network bandwidth, mobile computing devices, and wireless devices.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using technology increases knowledge in the workplace, said 87 percent of participants, while 80 percent said technology develops job skills.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] Bain's definition remains common among scholars today, especially social scientists. .But equally prominent is the definition of technology as applied science, especially among scientists and engineers, although most social scientists who study technology reject this definition.^ The new study found that most respondents knew very little about how search engines compare rank, and list results.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dick Kelsey, "Most U.S. Workers Comfy with Technology - Study," Newsbites, July 5, 2001 .
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .More recently, scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason, as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self.^ The European Media Lab in Heidelberg gives you 10737418240 reasons to love the sticky stuff, and the same technique could be used for holographic storage.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ "A recent Meta Group survey found 55 percent of employees skilled in mainframe technologies at more than 300 companies are over 50 years of age."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. .The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a definition of the term: "the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area" and "a capability given by the practical application of knowledge".[1] Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture, gave another definition of the concept; it is "practice, the way we do things around here".[9] The term is often used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics, rather than technology as a whole.^ "Mobile phones are rapidly becoming the preferred means of personal communication, creating the world's largest consumer electronics industry.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) -- Worries about the economy, the arrival of shorter days in the Northern Hemisphere and the stresses of the upcoming holiday season are just some of the things weighing on minds around the world.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Nowadays the term refers to programming flaws--commands that don't accomplish the desired result because computers have a habit of following the letter rather than the spirit of the instructions handed to them.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10] Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time, 1, defines technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life", and as "organized inorganic matter."[11]
.Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value.^ The amateur producers in the “crowd” wish to see their creations and this turns them into customers or producers of "clicks," both of which are valuable roles on the Internet.
  • Technology on The WIP 28 January 2010 0:58 UTC thewip.net [Source type: News]

^ Since then, the company has grown to more than 10,000 employees worldwide, with a management team that represents some of the most experienced technology professionals in the industry.
  • Corporate Information - Google Management 16 September 2009 12:56 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

^ Some of the most common tasks are creating a new connection to a remote computer, assigning an application to users or computers, and publishing an application to users.
  • Computer Repair St Augustine $50 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC 11pccomputers.com [Source type: General]

.In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems.^ DNA computers: Seeks to use biological molecules such as DNA and RNA to solve basic mathematical problems.
  • Pharmaceutical Computing & Computers glossary taxonomy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Reference]

^ I see this as a socioeconomic problem that technology can help solve to provide accessible healthcare to the people who really need them without any pilferage.

^ However, worldwide growth patterns of Internet usage suggest that only a few countries will experience a real boom in Internet use.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator.^ Simple templates are used to enter course content, such as glossary terms, facts from lecture, or multiple choice questions.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

.Tools and machines need not be material; virtual technology, such as computer software and business methods, fall under this definition of technology.^ The survey of 630 random households found that 79 percent had machines compatible with computers made by International Business Machines Corp., while 16 percent had Apple Computer Inc.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the top technologies that contribute to productivity are collaborative software tools, newer PCs, increased network bandwidth, mobile computing devices, and wireless devices.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computing Industry News Recent Computer Industry News Stories from Send2Press Newswire : Computer Technology News includes computing news, computer industry news, IT accessibility, computer hardware news, biometrics news, peripherals news, software industry news, computer education news, and related newswire stories.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques.^ The first use of the word "computer" was recorded in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations, or computations, and the word continued to be used in that sense until the middle of the 20th century.
  • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The field of "green technology " encompasses a broad range of subjects — from new energy-generation techniques to the study of advanced materials to be used in our daily life.

^ The Trimble Digital Pen Solution leverages the Capturx technology --a jobsite proven technology used by hundreds of organizations to automate paper-based data collection.
  • Pen Computing and Rugged PC Review - your source for mobile and rugged computing reviews and specs 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pencomputing.com [Source type: General]

.In this context, it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products, to solve problems, fulfill needs, or satisfy wants; it includes technical methods, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials.^ Advanced models of interpersonal and human-computer dialogue; advanced methods for language processing by providing robust, accurate and efficient treatment of language in a range of applications and of user-situations.
  • Subject benchmark statements: Computing 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.qaa.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ I just wanted to let you know how much I love my wheels and to let anyone who is thinking about getting a set of Velomax Wheels needs too.

^ I see this as a socioeconomic problem that technology can help solve to provide accessible healthcare to the people who really need them without any pilferage.

.When combined with another term, such as "medical technology" or "space technology", it refers to the state of the respective field's knowledge and tools.^ Emerging technology trend such as cloud-based rendering , when combined with such AR deployments, has potential for some killer innovative applications.

^ Another insider finally sobering up and realizing that futurism and technology are tools and not the basis of a retro-future utopia .
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

^ Glassdoor is another example of such a tool that not only works as a great salary benchmarking tool but also provides insights into culture of an organization.

."State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any field.^ Originally launched in 2006, SYSTEN has completely re-architected the web-based software to establish a state-of-the-art technology platform.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ VE will now have access to GLD's impressive client roster; and GLD's clients will enjoy VE's best-in-class technology and state-of-the-art E-discovery solutions.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture.[13] Additionally, technology is the application of math, science, and the arts for the benefit of life as it is known. .A modern example is the rise of communication technology, which has lessened barriers to human interaction and, as a result, has helped spawn new subcultures; the rise of cyberculture has, at its basis, the development of the Internet and the computer.^ Now, companies are tweaking their internal corporate computer networks so that they can communicate through the Internet with the networks of their customers.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Human Computer Interaction Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3891, bam@cs.cmu.edu .
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The emulator won't run at nearly the speed of a real quantum computer, but it should at least be helpful for developing algorithms before we finish developing the computers.
  • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

[14] Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way; technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. .As a cultural activity, technology predates both science and engineering, each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor.^ We publish or sponsor over 30 magazines and scholarly journals, as well as books and conference proceedings, covering all aspects of computer science and engineering.
  • The IEEE Computer Society 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.computer.org [Source type: General]

^ Computer science , Human-computer interaction , Information technology , Software engineering , Scientific computing , Web design , Desktop publishing .
  • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

^ SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING .
  • Computers Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.allconferences.com [Source type: News]


Science, engineering and technology

.The distinction between science, engineering and technology is not always clear.^ Computer science , Human-computer interaction , Information technology , Software engineering , Scientific computing , Web design , Desktop publishing .
  • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena, aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientific method.[15] Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science, because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility, usability and safety.
.Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means, often (but not always) using results and techniques from science.^ Computer recovery software is a result oriented tool designed exclusively for the recovery of vital data or files & folders from corrupted, formatted, deleted FAT and NTFS file systems.
  • Computer downloads at VicMan 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.vicman.net [Source type: General]

^ But ultimately cloud computing could provide a means to stretch limited resources and make them more useful, to more people, more of the time.
  • Cloud Computing - 94 Resources | EDUCAUSE 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.educause.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A larger proportion use operating system (OS) search, native search within applications, and desktop search tools.
  • The analyst view - a blog from computing.co.uk 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC forrester.computing.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The development of technology may draw upon many fields of knowledge, including scientific, engineering, mathematical, linguistic, and historical knowledge, to achieve some practical result.^ The work will show some problem solving and evaluation skills drawing on some supporting evidence, and demonstrate a requisite understanding of the need for quality; demonstrate transferable skills and an ability to work under guidance and as a team member; identify appropriate practices within a professional and ethical framework and understand the need for continuing professional development; discuss applications based upon the body of knowledge.
  • Subject benchmark statements: Computing 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.qaa.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ But you can get convincing results with some 80-grit emery cloth, patience, and some practice.
  • Classic racing wheels 2 February 2010 17:017 UTC www.roadsters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason for this statistic may be a result of developers not understanding what their users need."
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two fields.^ The fund is designed to spur the growth of small businesses, startups and spin-outs in the fields of digital and life sciences, clean technology and advanced manufacturing.
  • From the newsdesk- a blog from computing.co.uk 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC newsdesk.computing.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ This field of research is emerging from the convergence of two technologies: digital cameras and high performance computing and high bandwidth networks.
  • Pharmaceutical Computing & Computers glossary taxonomy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Computer science , Human-computer interaction , Information technology , Software engineering , Scientific computing , Web design , Desktop publishing .
  • Computer (Linux Reviews) 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC linuxreviews.org [Source type: Reference]

For example, science might study the flow of electrons in electrical conductors, by using already-existing tools and knowledge. .This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines, such as semiconductors, computers, and other forms of advanced technology.^ The survey of 630 random households found that 79 percent had machines compatible with computers made by International Business Machines Corp., while 16 percent had Apple Computer Inc.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new study found that most respondents knew very little about how search engines compare rank, and list results.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ SilverFast's advanced technology now ensures precise colors from input to output without requiring new hardware!
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

.In this sense, scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists; the three fields are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference.^ Then you may want to consider the new WikiReader, a US$99 device that lets you access three million topics with just three buttons.
  • Pen Computing and Rugged PC Review - your source for mobile and rugged computing reviews and specs 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC pencomputing.com [Source type: General]

^ We are no longer maintaining the content, but it may have value for research purposes.
  • Home Computer Security 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.cert.org [Source type: General]

^ This is often a very difficult task to get scientists across a multi- site company to agree on one.
  • Pharmaceutical Computing & Computers glossary taxonomy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Reference]

[16]
.The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists, historians, and policymakers in the late 20th century, in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science.^ The fund is designed to spur the growth of small businesses, startups and spin-outs in the fields of digital and life sciences, clean technology and advanced manufacturing.
  • From the newsdesk- a blog from computing.co.uk 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC newsdesk.computing.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ American Association for the Advancement of Science A half century of federal investment in basic research and development.

^ Plenty of IT part-time openings 200-acre solar farm planned in Brookhaven Hackerspaces - tinkering in the 21st century more technology Lifestyle food .
  • Technology News - Newsday - Gadgets, Video Games & Breaking Tech News 28 January 2010 0:58 UTC www.newsday.com [Source type: News]

.In immediate wake of World War II, for example, in the United States it was widely considered that technology was simply "applied science" and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time.^ For the 54 million people living with disabilities in the United States, assistive technology can transform their lives, making it possible to fully participate in the able-bodied world – if they are able to afford it.
  • Technology on The WIP 28 January 2010 0:58 UTC thewip.net [Source type: News]

^ The fund is designed to spur the growth of small businesses, startups and spin-outs in the fields of digital and life sciences, clean technology and advanced manufacturing.
  • From the newsdesk- a blog from computing.co.uk 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC newsdesk.computing.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Earlier in his career, Kent was an Assistant U.S. Attorney with the United States Department of Justice, where he specialized in the prosecution of technology crimes and advised the Attorney General on management and technology issues.
  • Corporate Information - Google Management 16 September 2009 12:56 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

.An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy, Science—The Endless Frontier: "New products, new industries, and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature...^ And over the past decade, the computer industry (including software) has generated about 1 million new jobs...
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still, colleges are churning out more graduates than the job market really requires....
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the semiconductor, telecommunication, and computing industries saw the highest numbers of new patent applications filed in 2000.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientific research."^ Well, in an attempt to provide as much assistance to new entrants as possible, I've looked through some of the research I've received recently.

In the late-1960s, however, this view came under direct attack, leading towards initiatives to fund science for specific tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientific community). .The issue remains contentious—though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientific research.^ A multi- year effort to build and deploy the world's largest, fastest, most comprehensive, distributed infrastructure for open scientific research.
  • Pharmaceutical Computing & Computers glossary taxonomy 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC www.genomicglossaries.com [Source type: Reference]

^ This breakthrough in precise and efficient authentication is a result of using biometric technology from M2SYS Technology, an award-winning biometric technology research and development firm.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

[17][18]

Role in human history

Paleolithic (2.5 million – 10,000 BC)

A primitive chopper
The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery, partly of evolution. Early humans evolved from a race of foraging hominids which were already bipedal,[19] with a brain mass approximately one third that of modern humans.[20] .Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history, but approximately 50,000 years ago, a complex set of behaviors and tool use emerged, believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully-modern language.^ ILook forensics tools have trusted and court validated 10 year history of use by law enforcement, military, and intelligence agencies around the world, and it is the only analysis tool used by many large government agencies.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

[21]

Stone tools

Hand axes from the Acheulian period
.Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens approximately 200,000 years ago.^ Two years ago, a similar study found 300 people, or 3%, said they had written software, but 70% of them did so for personal use.
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^ Teens from families earning less than $25,000 a year were twice as likely to say they never use a computer at home.
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^ "Last year, there were more than 8,200 cases involving patents, copyrights, and other intellectual property brought under federal law.
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[22] .The earliest methods of stone tool making, known as the Oldowan "industry", date back to at least 2.3 million years ago,[23] with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley, dating back to 2.5 million years ago.^ It was years ago but still an undeseved neg hurts when she kept the item and got all her money back from PP .

^ "The information technology industry, which was nonexistent 50 years ago, has grown to be over 10% of the GNP and is responsible for over 5% of the total employment in the country."
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^ This is the largest number estimate so far of adult Internet usage, and indicates a 15% increase over the 51 million estimated by Nielsen six months ago.
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[24] .This era of stone tool use is called the Paleolithic, or "Old stone age", and spans all of human history up to the development of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago.^ "In 2002 all 12- to 19-year olds spent $172 billion...an average of $92 a week for 16- to 17-year olds.
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^ Children of all ages preferred games with violent content; boys preferred human violence, girls, fantasy violence.
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^ Furthermore, about 1,000 software development projects per year are started within Ericsson."
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.To make a stone tool, a "core" of hard stone with specific flaking properties (such as flint) was struck with a hammerstone.^ A game like Quake comes with tools specifically for making Quake plug-ins.
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This flaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the flakes, either of which could be used as tools, primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers.[25] .These tools greatly aided the early humans in their hunter-gatherer lifestyle to perform a variety of tasks including butchering carcasses (and breaking bones to get at the marrow); chopping wood; cracking open nuts; skinning an animal for its hide; and even forming other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood.^ Prodigy is a scalable and configurable network integration tool suite that allows users to greatly simplify the deployment of AFDX, or other deterministic Ethernet, networks.
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[26]
.The earliest stone tools were crude, being little more than a fractured rock.^ Nearly half of all American households now use the Internet, with more than 700 new households being connected every hour.
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^ [T]he workplace is central to people's sense of well-being and is more important to them than anything, including family.
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.In the Acheulian era, beginning approximately 1.65 million years ago, methods of working these stone into specific shapes, such as hand axes emerged.^ The at-work broadband population jumped 42 percent to 25.5 million office workers, compared to 18 million the year prior, reaching 63 percent of the Internet office population."
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^ DEC ships 300,000 Alpha chips a year, while Intel ships 65 million microprocessors.
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.The Middle Paleolithic, approximately 300,000 years ago, saw the introduction of the prepared-core technique, where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone.^ PDK saw same thing in Watertown NY couple of years ago .

[25] .The Upper Paleolithic, beginning approximately 40,000 years ago, saw the introduction of pressure flaking, where a wood, bone, or antler punch could be used to shape a stone very finely.^ Two years ago, a similar study found 300 people, or 3%, said they had written software, but 70% of them did so for personal use.
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^ We all seem far busier on average than 30 or 40 years ago at the heyday of mass production, and getting busier still.
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^ Five years ago a talented programmer and an artist could make a hit.
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[27]

Fire

.The discovery and utilization of fire, a simple energy source with many profound uses, was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.^ Check out sources for many of the common "exploits" being used by netizen youths to ruin the Net.
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[28] .The exact date of its discovery is not known; evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1,000,000 BC;[29] scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled fire by between 500,000 BC and 400,000 BC.[30][31] Fire, fueled with wood and charcoal, allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility, improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten.^ The number of computers is increasing at an annual rate of between 300,000 and 400,000 machines....
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^ 'Anne's combined expertise in the areas of law and electronic discovery makes her a valuable addition to our Visual Evidence team,' David W. Porter, a principal at Visual Evidence, says.
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[32]

Clothing and shelter

.Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter; the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly, but they were a key to humanity's progress.^ The award was made by the New York State Center for Digital Government and Government Technology in the category of 'Project Best Advancing Service to the Public.'
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As the Paleolithic era progressed, dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate; as early as 380,000 BC, humans were constructing temporary wood huts.[33][34] Clothing, adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals, helped humanity expand into colder regions; humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200,000 BC and into other continents, such as Eurasia.[35]
Humans began to work bones, antler, and hides, as evidenced by burins and racloirs produced during this period.[citation needed]

Neolithic through Classical Antiquity (10,000BC – 300AD)

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools.
Man's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic period ("New stone age"). The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance because it allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. The discovery of agriculture allowed for the feeding of larger populations, and the transition to a sedentist lifestyle increased the number of children that could be simultaneously raised, as young children no longer needed to be carried, as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle. .Additionally, children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle.^ In addition, slightly more than half of women worked at least one weekend per month, compared with 61 percent of men.
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^ An elementary school teacher once told me they don't have time to allow the kids to get a drink after PE or more than once a day.

^ "More than 9.8 million children are using the Internet, a number projected to triple in the next four years...
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[36][37]
With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.[38] .What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to the first cities, such as Uruk, and the first civilizations, such as Sumer, is not specifically known; however, the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures, the specialization of labor, trade and war amongst adjacent cultures, and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges, such as the building of dikes and reservoirs, are all thought to have played a role.^ Although superficially reminiscent of first-person shooters , fantasy role-playing games , and multi-player dollhouses , There follows a trail blazed by such efforts as Lucasfilms Habitat and Electric Communities The Palace to create immersive social realms online.
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^ PCs tend to excel at strategy, role-playing and war games as well as realistic simulators, puzzles and board games.
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[39]

Metal tools

Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form).[40] Gold, copper, silver, and lead, were such early metals. .The advantages of copper tools over stone, bone, and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans, and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 8000 BC).^ This exciting new artificial intelligence enhancement uses a unique 'dynamic profiling' technique to learn about a person's fingerprints over time.
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^ U.S. Consumers spend about 13 hours a week using home PCs; 80% of that time is work-related."
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[41] Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts, but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal fires. Eventually, the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BC). The first uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1400 BC.

Energy and Transport

Meanwhile, humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat..May 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] The earliest record of a ship under sail is shown on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200 BC.[citation needed] From prehistoric times, Egyptians probably used "the power of the Nile" annual floods to irrigate their lands, gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely-built irrigation channels and 'catch' basins.^ This exciting new artificial intelligence enhancement uses a unique 'dynamic profiling' technique to learn about a person's fingerprints over time.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Moodle, the leading open-source learning management software system, built on Facebook Platform has been awarded a grant through Facebook's fbFund.
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

Similarly, the early peoples of Mesopotamia, the Sumerians, learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for much the same purposes. But more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention.
The wheel was invented in circa 4000 BC.
According to archaeologists, the wheel was invented around 4000 B.C. The wheel was probably independently invented in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq) as well. .Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 B.C., with most experts putting it closer to 4000 B.C. The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3000 B.C.; however, the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made.^ While in CS theory this is about as useful as square wheels, it's great for making fellow coder's heads go blooey.
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^ It may be hard for These Kids Today to believe, but there was computer porn before the public discovered the internet.
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^ Figures on earlier use of games may not be reliable, however, because they were based on long-term recall...In a 1999 study, most parents were not able to name their child's favorite game, or named an incorrect game.
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.There is also evidence from the same period of time that wheels were used for the production of pottery.^ At the same time, the amount of people using it has increased from 2 million in 1998 to 23 million today."
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^ Technology is not bringing more people onto the roads, but simply allows workers to make more productive use of their time while traveling, Edwards says.
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(Note that the original potter's wheel was probably not a wheel, but rather an irregularly shaped slab of flat wood with a small hollowed or pierced area near the center and mounted on a peg driven into the earth. It would have been rotated by repeated tugs by the potter or his assistant.) .More recently, the oldest-known wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia.^ "A recent Meta Group survey found 55 percent of employees skilled in mainframe technologies at more than 300 companies are over 50 years of age."
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[42]
.The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation, war, and the production of pottery (for which it may have been first used).^ (Output, Income, Employment, Unemployment, and Earnings, Production and Business Activity, Prices, Money, Credit, and Securities Markets, Transportation, International Statistics).
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It didn't take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery. But it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels, windmills, and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources.

Modern history (300 AD —)

.Tools include both simple machines (such as the lever, the screw, and the pulley), and more complex machines (such as the clock, the engine, the electric generator and the electric motor, the computer, radio, and the Space Station, among many others).^ All this at a time when fewer students are graduating with college degrees in computer science and electrical engineering--24,200 in 1994, compared to 42,000 in 1986....
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As tools increase in complexity, so does the type of knowledge needed to support them. .Complex modern machines require libraries of written technical manuals of collected information that has continually increased and improved — their designers, builders, maintainers, and users often require the mastery of decades of sophisticated general and specific training.^ Top 5 Causes of Failure: Lack of user input, Lack of executive support, Incomplete requirements and specifications, Changing requirements, Technologically inept."
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^ This designation recognizes Parallel Technologies as having fulfilled the training requirements and program prerequisites to design, resell, install and maintain a full range of video surveillance and access-control solutions.
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^ The Museum of HP Calculators is a precious collection of photographs, historical notes, programming information, and manuals for HP calculators, including the first (non IC!) RPN calculator HP ever made, the HP 9100 .
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.Moreover, these tools have become so complex that a comprehensive infrastructure of technical knowledge-based lesser tools, processes and practices (complex tools in themselves) exist to support them, including engineering, medicine, and computer science.^ The number PhDs conferred in the U.S.: Computer and information sciences: 1982: 251 1992: 772 Mathematics 1982: 721 1992: 1082 Engineering 1982: 2621 1992: 5488 .
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^ "There are 154 Computer Science and Engineering departments in the U.S. that grant Ph.D. degrees and several times that number that grant BS degrees."
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^ The Networked Computer Science Technical Reference Library is a search engine for academic papers in Computer Science topics that lets you search by journal, title, abstract, author and institution.
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Complex manufacturing and construction techniques and organizations are needed to construct and maintain them. .Entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools.^ Similarities across industries with respect to software development and use and, in particular, software testing labor costs allowed a projection of the cost to the entire U.S. economy.
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The relationship of technology with society ( culture) is generally characterized as synergistic, symbiotic, co-dependent, co-influential, and co-producing, i.e. technology and society depend heavily one upon the other (technology upon culture, and culture upon technology). It is also generally believed that this synergistic relationship first occurred at the dawn of humankind with the invention of simple tools, and continues with modern technologies today. Today and throughout history, technology influences and is influenced by such societal issues/factors as economics, values, ethics, institutions, groups, the environment, government, among others. The discipline studying the impacts of science, technology, and society and vice versa is called Science and technology in society.

Technology and philosophy

Technicism

Generally, technicism is an over reliance or overconfidence in technology as a benefactor of society.
Taken to extreme, some argue that technicism is the belief that humanity will ultimately be able to control the entirety of existence using technology. .In other words, human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology.^ Nearly half of all American households now use the Internet, with more than 700 new households being connected every hour.
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Some, such as Monsma,[43] connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority.

Optimism

Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism, which view technological development as generally having beneficial effects for the society and the human condition. In these ideologies, technological development is morally good. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and techno-utopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist.[44]

Pessimism

On the somewhat pessimistic side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan, who believe that technological societies are inherently flawed a priori. They suggest that the result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health.
Many, such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger, hold serious reservations, although not a priori flawed reservations, about technology. Heidegger presents such a view in "The Question Concerning Technology": "Thus we shall never experience our relationship to the essence of technology so long as we merely conceive and push forward the technological, put up with it, or evade it. Everywhere we remain unfree and chained to technology, whether we passionately affirm or deny it."[45]
.Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics, for example Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and other writings, Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange, and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four.^ SilverFast's advanced technology now ensures precise colors from input to output without requiring new hardware!
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^ "Most U.S. workers feel at ease with technology, according to a new Society of Financial Service Professionals survey of 1,130 members.
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^ Now that raw power combines for the first time on a network level , openening a whole new world for evil sysadmins everywhere.
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And, in Faust by Goethe, Faust's selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world, is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology.
An overtly anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future, written by Theodore Kaczynski (aka The Unabomber) and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.

Appropriate technology

.The notion of appropriate technology, however, was developed in the 20th century (e.g., see the work of Jacques Ellul) to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere.^ SilverFast's advanced technology now ensures precise colors from input to output without requiring new hardware!
  • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

^ Red Herring's lists of top private companies are an important part of the publication's tradition of identifying new and innovative technology companies and entrepreneurs.
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^ For those who're fiddling with cryptographic protocols, BAN & GNY Logic are some useful tools.
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The eco-village movement emerged in part due to this concern.

Other animal species

This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth; an example of technology usage by primates.
Credit: Public Library of Science
.The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans.^ The featured "Go To" link on PCWorld.com contains tips for "buying, using, and fixing technology products."

^ There are thousands of different programming languages—some intended to be general purpose, others useful only for highly specialized applications.
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.These include primates such as chimpanzees, some dolphin communities,[46][47] and crows.^ These include products such as System 7 Survey Builder, System 7 Issue Tracking System (ITS), System 7 Time Tracker (TT), System 7 Project Manager & Scheduler, as well as customized information management systems .
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[48][49] Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control, we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams, or bees and their honeycombs.
The ability to make and use tools was once considered a defining characteristic of the genus Homo.[50] However, the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans. .For example, researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges, termite fishing probes, pestles and levers.^ For those who're fiddling with cryptographic protocols, BAN & GNY Logic are some useful tools.
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^ UNIX sysadmins may find some utility in a new easy-to-use graphical administrator tool: DOOM to Computing by faisal .
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[51] West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts,[52] as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista, Brazil.[53]

See also

Theories and concepts in technology

References

  1. ^ a b "Definition of technology". Merriam-Webster. http://mw1.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/technology. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  2. ^ For ex., George Crabb, Universal Technological Dictionary, or Familiar Explanation of the Terms Used in All Arts and Sciences, Containing Definitions Drawn From the Original Writers, (London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1823), s.v. "technology."
  3. ^ Julius Adams Stratton and Loretta H. Mannix, Mind and Hand: The Birth of MIT (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2005), 190-92. ISBN 0262195240.
  4. ^ Ruth Oldenziel, Making Technology Masculine: Men, Women and Modern Machines in America, 1870-1945 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1999), esp. chap. 1. ISBN 9053563814.
  5. ^ Leo Marx, "Technology: The Emergence of a Hazardous Concept," Social Research 64 (Fall 1997): 965-88.
  6. ^ Eric Schatzberg, "Technik Comes to America: Changing Meanings of Technology Before 1930," Technology and Culture 47 (July 2006): 486-512.
  7. ^ Read Bain, "Technology and State Government," American Sociological Review 2 (December 1937): 860.
  8. ^ Donald A. MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman, "Introductory Essay" in The Social Shaping of Technology, 2nd ed. (Buckingham, England : Open University Press, 1999) ISBN 0335199135.
  9. ^ Franklin, Ursula. "Real World of Technology". House of Anansi Press. http://www.anansi.ca/titles.cfm?series_id=4&pub_id=58. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  10. ^ "Technology news". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/default.stm. Retrieved 2006-02-17. 
  11. ^ Stiegler, Bernard (1998). Technics and Time, 1: The Fault of Epimetheus. Stanford University Press. pp. 17, 82. ISBN 0-8047-3041-3. 
  12. ^ "Industry, Technology and the Global Marketplace: International Patenting Trends in Two New Technology Areas". Science and Engineering Indicators 2002. National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/statistics/seind02/c6/c6s5.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  13. ^ Borgmann, Albert (2006). "Technology as a Cultural Force: For Alena and Griffin" (fee required). The Canadian Journal of Sociology 31 (3): 351–360. doi:10.1353/cjs.2006.0050. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/canadian_journal_of_sociology/v031/31.3borgmann.html. Retrieved 2007-02-16. 
  14. ^ Macek, Jakub. "Defining Cyberculture". http://macek.czechian.net/defining_cyberculture.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-25. 
  15. ^ "Science". Dictionary.com. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/science. Retrieved 2007-02-17. 
  16. ^ "Intute: Science, Engineering and Technology". Intute. http://www.intute.ac.uk/sciences/. Retrieved 2007-02-17. 
  17. ^ Wise, George (1985), "Science and Technology", Osiris (2nd Series) 1: 229–246 .
  18. ^ Guston, David H. (2000), Between politics and science: Assuring the integrity and productivity of research, New York: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521653185 .
  19. ^ "Mother of man – 3.2 million years ago". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/sn/prehistoric_life/human/human_evolution/mother_of_man1.shtml. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  20. ^ "Human Evolution". History channel. http://www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId=212317. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  21. ^ Wade, Nicholas (2003-07-15). "Early Voices: The Leap to Language". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9503E0DF173CF936A25754C0A9659C8B63&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  22. ^ "Human Ancestors Hall: Homo sapiens". Smithsonian Institution. http://anthropology.si.edu/humanorigins/ha/sap.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-08. 
  23. ^ "Ancient 'tool factory' uncovered". BBC News. 1999-05-06. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/336555.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  24. ^ Heinzelin, Jean de (April 1999). "Environment and Behavior of 2.5-Million-Year-Old Bouri Hominids". Science 284 (5414): 625–629. doi:10.1126/science.284.5414.625. PMID 10213682. 
  25. ^ a b Burke, Ariane. "Archaeology". Encyclopedia Americana. http://ea.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0019880-04. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  26. ^ Plummer, Thomas (2004). Flaked Stones and Old Bones: Biological and Cultural Evolution at the Dawn of Technology. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology. 
  27. ^ Haviland, William A. (2004). Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge. The Thomson Corporation. p. 77. ISBN 0534624871. 
  28. ^ Crump, Thomas (2001). A Brief History of Science. Constable & Robinson. p. 9. ISBN 1-84119-235-X. 
  29. ^ "Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs". UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=915. Retrieved 2007-03-10. 
  30. ^ "History of Stone Age Man". History World. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab10. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  31. ^ James, Steven R. (February 1989). "Hominid Use of Fire in the Lower and Middle Pleistocene" (fee required). Current Anthropology 30 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1086/203705. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204(198902)30%3A1%3C1%3AHUOFIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2-J. 
  32. ^ Stahl, Ann B. (1984). "Hominid dietary selection before fire" (fee required). Current Anthropology 25: 151–168. doi:10.1086/203106. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204(198404)25%3A2%3C151%3AHDSBF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E. 
  33. ^ O'Neil, Dennis. "Evolution of Modern Humans: Archaic Homo sapiens Culture". Palomar College. http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo2/mod_homo_3.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-31. 
  34. ^ Villa, Paola (1983). Terra Amata and the Middle Pleistocene archaeological record of southern France. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 303. ISBN 0-520-09662-2. 
  35. ^ Cordaux, Richard; Stoneking, Mark (2003). "South Asia, the Andamanese and the genetic evidence for an "early" human dispersal out of Africa" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 1586. doi:10.1086/375407. http://site.voila.fr/rcordaux/pdfs/04.pdf. 
  36. ^ "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period". Science Daily. 2006-01-04. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/01/060103114116.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  37. ^ Sussman, Robert W.; Hall, Roberta L. (April 1972). "Child Transport, Family Size, and Increase in Human Population During the Neolithic". Current Anthropology (University of Chicago Press) 13 (2): 258–267. doi:10.1086/201274. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0011-3204(197204)13%3A2%3C258%3AACTFSA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-5. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  38. ^ Ferraro, Gary P. (2006). "Cultural Anthropology: An Applied Perspective". The Thomson Corporation. http://books.google.com/books?id=isGyuX9motEC&pg=PA163&lpg=PA163&dq=labor+neolithic+population&source=web&ots=SehEQ4H3bw&sig=thq_cZXpdkanmO4rNe7DzcswmR0#PPA163,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  39. ^ Patterson, Gordon M. (1992). "The ESSENTIALS of Ancient History". Research & Education Association. http://books.google.com/books?id=8pKKwlEcpwYC&pg=PA7&lpg=PA7&dq=labor+surplus+neolithic+population&source=web&ots=P4xGsewlSs&sig=CB8Kcgsobsfz03KMstsE-DbSyoU#PPA10,M1. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  40. ^ Cramb, Alan W. "A Short History of Metals". Carnegie Mellon University. http://neon.mems.cmu.edu/cramb/Processing/history.html. Retrieved 2007-01-08. 
  41. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1910). Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 708. http://books.google.com/books?id=VANVAEjBG-QC&pg=PA708&lr=&as_brr=1&ei=fl2NR6ODGYbWiwGW8Zi_BA. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  42. ^ "Slovenian Marsh Yields World's Oldest Wheel". Ameriška Domovina. 2003-03-27. http://www.angelfire.com/country/veneti/AmerDomoOldestWheel.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  43. ^ Monsma, Stephen V. (1986). Responsible Technology. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. 
  44. ^ Hughes, James (2002). Democratic Transhumanism 2.0. http://www.changesurfer.com/Acad/DemocraticTranshumanism.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-26. 
  45. ^ Lovitt, William (1977). "The Question Concerning Technology". The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays. Harper Torchbooks. pp. 3–35. http://www.culturaleconomics.atfreeweb.com/Anno/Heidegger%20The%20Question%201954.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  46. ^ Sagan, Carl; Druyan, Ann; Leakey, Richard. "Chimpanzee Tool Use". http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/dept/d10/asb//anthro2003/origins/hominid_journey/optional3.html. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  47. ^ Rincon, Paul (2005-06-07). "Sponging dolphins learn from mum.". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4613709.stm. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  48. ^ Schmid, Randolph E. (2007-10-04). "Crows use tools to find food". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21135366/. Retrieved 2008-05-17. 
  49. ^ Rutz, C.; Bluff, L.A.; Weir, A.A.S.; Kacelnik, A. (2007-10-04). "Video cameras on wild birds". Science. 
  50. ^ Oakley, K. P. (1976). Man the Tool-Maker. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0226612706. 
  51. ^ McGrew, W. C (1992). Chimpanzee Material Culture. Cambridge u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0521423717. 
  52. ^ Boesch, Christophe; Boesch, Hedwige (1984). "Mental map in wild chimpanzees: An analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking" (fee required). Primates 25 (25): 160–170. doi:10.1007/BF02382388. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e7x6620732717288/. 
  53. ^ Nut-cracking monkeys find the right tool for the job, New Scientist, 15 January 2009

Further reading

.

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.Technology is a broad term dealing with the use and knowledge of humanity's tools and crafts.^ Using technology increases knowledge in the workplace, said 87 percent of participants, while 80 percent said technology develops job skills.
  • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

  • We are stuck with technology when what we really want is just stuff that works.
  • Technology and the machine resurrected San Francisco while Pompeii still slept in her ashes.
    • Silas Bent, Machine Made Man, p. 326. (1930)
  • Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic.
    • Arthur C. Clarke, Profiles of the Future: An Inquiry Into The Limits of the Possible (1962; revised 1973)
  • Civilization advances by extending the number of important operations which we can perform without thinking of them.

Unsourced

  • Technology is a sprinter, the Law is a marathon runner.
    • A.K.T. Rex
  • A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to add, but when there is nothing left to take away. .
  • The drive toward complex technical achievement offers a clue to why the U.S. is good at space gadgetry and bad at slum problems.^ According to EASEUS' technical support department, most EASEUS Partition Master customers email to ask for the help of expanding their C drive to solve the problem of low disk space and slow speed.
    • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

  • For a list of all the ways technology has failed to improve the quality of life, please press three.
    • Alice Kahn
  • Technology is the ultimate driving force behind history. Technology cares nothing for human welfare, or for which people happens to be in the ascendant. It shows no preference for peace over war, and happily exploits both. As is the case with the gene, so also technology's sole object is its own survival, evolution and propagation. Technology cares only for its own advance, which it pursues with relentless tenacity.
  • The general precept of any product is that simple things should be easy, and hard things should be possible.
  • Humanity is acquiring all the right technology for all the wrong reasons. .
    • R. Buckminster Fuller
  • I am sorry to say that there is too much point to the wisecrack that life is extinct on other planets because their scientists were more advanced than ours.^ Some of us more than others.
    • memepool.com: Computing archive 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC memepool.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Usenet is a collection of 40,000 bulletin boards On American Online there are more than 14,000 chat rooms active on any given night.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You'll pay more but it likely much more reliable than a cheap one.

    .
  • I like my new telephone, my computer works just fine, my calculator is perfect, but Lord, I miss my mind!^ W7 is just fine working alone!!

    ^ John Schwartz, "Computer Vandals Clog Antivandalism Web Site," New York Times p.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
  • I think I should not go far wrong if I asserted that the amount of genuine leisure available in a society is generally in inverse proportion to the amount of labor-saving machinery it employs.^ Ronnie, I think you should build up your resistance to cold by going running every afternoon....running nekked thru the trees hollering....I'm warm!!!

  • If it keeps up, man will atrophy all his limbs but the push-button finger.
  • I'm struck by the insidious, computer-driven tendency to take things out of the domain of muscular activity and put them into the domain of mental activity. The transfer is not paying off. Sure, muscles are unreliable, but they represent several million years of accumulated finesse.
    • Brian Eno, Wired, January 1999
  • In the future, airplanes will be flown by a dog and a pilot. And the dog's job will be to make sure that if the pilot tries to touch any of the buttons, the dog bites him.
  • It has become appallingly obvious that our technology has exceeded our humanity. .
  • The most important and urgent problems of the technology of today are no longer the satisfactions of the primary needs or of archetypal wishes, but the reparation of the evils and damages by the technology of yesterday.^ This innovative program is designed with improved technology to address the needs of important data security: encrypt/decrypt or wipe files, folders, partitions or hard disk.
    • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

    • Dennis Gabor, Innovations: Scientific, Technological and Social, 1970
  • The real danger is not that computers will begin to think like men, but that men will begin to think like computers.
  • The system of nature, of which man is a part, tends to be self-balancing, self-adjusting, self-cleansing. Not so with technology.
  • Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going backwards. .
  • Technology can do little for people who have nothing to say.^ Technology is not bringing more people onto the roads, but simply allows workers to make more productive use of their time while traveling, Edwards says.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Eric Auchard, "Blog Publishers Stealing Web Limelight" (3/1/03), from the Reuters Internet Report
  • Technology…is a queer thing. It brings you great gifts with one hand, and it stabs you in the back with the other. .
  • Technology...^ Lisa Guernsey, "You've Got Inappropriate Mail", New York Times , 04/05/00, p.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Schwartz, "Computer Vandals Clog Antivandalism Web Site," New York Times p.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Markoff, "Technology's Toxic Trash Is Sent to Poor Nations," New York Times p.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    the knack of so arranging the world that we don't have to experience it. .
  • This is perhaps the most beautiful time in human history; it is really pregnant with all kinds of creative possibilities made possible by science and technology which now constitute the slave of man - if man is not enslaved by it.^ "Up to 37 percent of all physicians now have some kind of Web presence, however rudimentary.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • Technology presumes there's just one right way to do things and there never is. .
  • We live in a society exquisitely dependent on science and technology, in which hardly anyone knows anything about science and technology.^ Overall, teens are upbeat about technology's impact on their lives..."
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • We've arranged a civilization in which most crucial elements profoundly depend on science and technology. We have also arranged things so that almost no one understands science and technology. This is a prescription for disaster. .We might get away with it for a while, but sooner or later this combustible mixture of ignorance and power is going to blow up in our faces.^ Face it: Sooner or later, most people have to reshape their hard disks.
    • Computing News from Send2Press Newswire :: Thu, 04 Feb 2010, 13:50:03 EST 6 February 2010 10:54 UTC www.send2press.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Nancy if your motherboard is not powering up to run the OS you will NOT HAVE A VIDEO SIGNAL GOING TO YOUR MONITOR. if the HDD is keeping the mobo from powering up (and this has happened to me several times) you will not get a signal!!

    .
  • Western society has accepted as unquestionable a technological imperative that is quite as arbitrary as the most primitive taboo: not merely the duty to foster invention and constantly to create technological novelties, but equally the duty to surrender to these novelties unconditionally, just because they are offered, without respect to their human consequences.^ "The U.S. Census Bureau reports that the United States has 60 million disabled individuals, 70% of whom say they are underemployed or without employment at all because of that disability.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ However, not all of these nodes have an equal value in the network, and there is very little to protect hackers from targeting the most connected nodes.
    • Computer Almanac - Numbers About Computers 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.cs.cmu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up technology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Wikibooks:Computing department article)

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Bookshelves
.Biology | Computer Science | Computer Software | Education | Health science | History | Humanities | Language and Literature | Languages | Law | Mathematics | Natural Sciences | Physics | Programming Languages | Social Sciences | Study Guides | Misc.^ CLASSIFIED ADS ** Tutors Help Wanted Books for Sale For Sale (Misc) Classroom Supplies Items Wanted Fundraising Tutors Wanted Teacher Created Computers Educational Software Educational Games Continuing Education Distance Learning Manipulatives .
  • COMPUTER TEACHERS (Teachers.Net) - Computer Lesson Plans, Computer Teachers Chatboard, Computer Teachers Mailing Lists, and other computer teachers resources. 19 January 2010 8:49 UTC computer.teachers.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Computer system is a combined functional unit of hardware equipments and software programs which work together to process meaningful data.
  • Computer Systems, Computer Systems Manufacturers, Computer Systems Suppliers, Computer Systems Wholesale 10 February 2010 13:40 UTC www.digitivity.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Vint is a Fellow of the IEEE, ACM, AAAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum and the National Academy of Engineering.
  • Corporate Information - Google Management 16 September 2009 12:56 UTC www.google.com [Source type: News]

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Simple English

Technology deals with the knowledge of human tools and crafts. "Technology" is simply the application of knowledge. Humans from around the world find different ways to increase the efficiency of different technology functions.

Depending on when the word technology is used, technology is:

  • The tools and machines that help to solve problems;
  • The techniques (knowledge) that includes methods, materials, tools, and ways for solving a problem (such as building technology or medical technology);
  • A culture-forming activity (such as manufacturing technology, or space-travel technology).
  • Using resources to solve a problem (such as knowledge, skills, processes, techniques, tools and raw materials).
  • A term to describe the level of achievement in science, mathematics and engineering of a group or culture.
  • In economics, technology is the current state of our knowledge of how to put resources together to produce wanted products (and our knowledge of what can be produced).

= Information Technology

=

  • A set of tools that help you work with information and perform tasks related to the informal processing.
  • Information technology is not limited to computer technology (hardware and software) used for processing and storing information, but also include sending communications technology recycle information.
  • Technology that combines computing with the lines of communication that brings high speed data, voice and video.

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Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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