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Teleostei
Fossil range: Early Triassic–Recent
[1]
Top to bottom:
Retroculus lapidifer (Perciformes: Cichlidae)
Hairy Blenny, Labrisomus nuchipinnis
(Perciformes: Labrisomidae)
Ogcocephalus notatus
(Lophiiformes: Ogcocephalidae)
Blue Tang, Acanthurus coeruleus
(Perciformes: Acanthuridae)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Superorders

Osteoglossomorpha
Elopomorpha
Clupeomorpha
Ostariophysi
Protacanthopterygii
Stenopterygii
Cyclosquamata
Scopelomorpha
Lampridiomorpha
Polymyxiomorpha
Paracanthopterygii
Acanthopterygii

Teleostei is one of three infraclasses in class Actinopterygii, the ray-finned fishes. This diverse group, which arose in the Triassic period[1], includes 20,000 extant species in about 40 orders; most living fishes are members of this group.[2] The other two infraclasses, Holostei and Chondrostei, may be paraphyletic.[3]

Characteristics

Teleosts have a movable maxilla and premaxilla and corresponding modifications in the jaw musculature. These modifications make it possible for teleosts to protrude their jaws outwards from the mouth.[3][4] The caudal fin is homocercal, meaning the upper and lower lobes are about equal in size. The spine ends at the caudal peduncle, distinguishing this group from those in which the spine extends into the upper lobe of the caudal fin.[3]

Systematics and evolution

The oldest teleost fossils date back to early Triassic. Teleosts are here divided into twelve superorders, but this system is unlikely to be entirely correct and is in the process of being studied.

Silver Arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum) of the ancient Osteoglossiformes

References

  1. ^ a b Palmer, Douglas (1999). The Marshall Illustrated Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs & Prehistoric animals. London: Marshall Editions Developments Ltd. ISBN 3-8290-6747-X. 
  2. ^ Miller, Stephen, and John P. Harley. Zoology, Seventh Edition, pg 297. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. New York, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c Benton, Michael J. (1990). Vertebrate Paleontology. London: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 0-412-54010-X. 
  4. ^ Ben Waggoner (1995-07-17). "Telostei". Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/actinopterygii/teleostei.html. Retrieved 2006-06-08. 
  5. ^ In ITIS, Gobiesociformes is placed as the suborder Gobiesocoidei of the order Perciformes.
  6. ^ In ITIS, Syngnathiformes is placed as the suborder Syngnathoidei of the order Gasterosteiformes.
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Simple English

Teleost
Fossil range: Lower Triassic – Recent
File:F de
Retroculus (Cichlidae); Hairy Blenny, Labrisomus; Ogcocephalus and Acanthurus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Actinopterygii
Subclass: Neopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei

Teleosts are the dominant fish of the present day. They arose in the Triassic period, and include 20,000 living species. They are, in order of evolution, vertebrates, jawed fish (Gnathostomata), bony fish (Osteichthyes) and ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).[1][2][3]

Teleost Superorders

Teleostei

References

  1. R. Froese and D. Pauly (editors) (February 2006). "FishBase". http://www.fishbase.org. 
  2. Nelson, Joseph S. 2006. Fishes of the World. Wiley, N.Y. ISBN 0471250317.
  3. Helfman G. Collette B. & Facey D. 1997. The diversity of fishes. Blackwell, Oxford. ISBN 0-86542-256-7


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