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Telugu
తెలుగు
Spoken in India
Region Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands where it has official status; with significant minorities in Canada, United States, Malaysia, Mauritius, Myanmar and Réunion, and emigrant communities around the world
Total speakers 74 million native speakers as of 2001
Ranking 14[1]
Language family Dravidian
Writing system Telugu script
Official status
Official language in  India
Regulated by No official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1 te
ISO 639-2 tel
ISO 639-3 tel
Teluguspeakers.png
Distribution of native Telugu speakers in India
Indic script
This page contains Indic text. Without rendering support you may see irregular vowel positioning and a lack of conjuncts. More...

Telugu (natively తెలుగు telugu, sometimes also anglicized as Telegu) is a Dravidian language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is the official language of Andhra Pradesh, one of the largest states of India. It is also one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India[2] and was conferred the status of a Classical language by the Government of India.[3][4] The mother tongue of the majority of people of Andhra Pradesh, it is also spoken in neighbouring states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Maharashtra and Chattisgarh.

Telugu is the third most-spoken language in India (74 million native speakers according to the 2001 census) and is 15th in the Ethnologue list of most-spoken languages worldwide.[5]

Contents

Etymology

The etymology of Telugu is not known for certain. It is thought to have been derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Trilinga Desa is the land in between three Shiva temples namely Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharamam. Trilinga Desa forms the traditional boundaries of the Telugu region.

According to K.L. Ranjanam, the word is derived from talaing, who were chiefs who conquered the Andhra region.[citation needed] M.R. Shastri is of the opinion that it is from telunga, an amalgamation of the Gondi words telu, meaning "white", and the pluralization -unga.[citation needed] According to G.J. Somayaji, ten- refers to "south" in Proto-Dravidian, and the word could be derived from tenungu meaning "people of the South".[citation needed]

The dravidian root telu means clearness of intellect in Tamil. [6]

History

Lexical traces in Prakrit epigraphy

The first Telugu inscriptions were found on coins in Kotilingala, Andhra Pradesh. Inscriptions containing Telugu words dated back to 400 BC were discovered in Bhattiprolu in Guntur district. The English translation of one inscription reads: "Gift of the slab by venerable Midikilayakha".[7] A Brahmi label inscription reading Thambhaya Dhaanam is engraved on a soapstone reliquary datable to the 2nd century AD.[citation needed]

Primary sources are Prakrit/Sanskrit inscriptions found in the region where Telugu places and personal names are found. From this it is known that the language of the people was Telugu, while the rulers, who were of the Satavahana dynasty, spoke Prakrit.[8][citation needed] Telugu words appear in the Maharashtri Prakrit anthology of poems (the Gathasaptashathi) collected by the first century BC Satavahana King Hāla.

Telugu epigraphy

The first inscription that is entirely in Telugu corresponds to the second phase of Telugu history. This inscription, dated 575 AD, was found in the Kadapa and Kurnool district region and is attributed to the Renati Cholas, who broke with the prevailing custom of using Sanskrit and began writing royal proclamations in the local language. During the next fifty years, Telugu inscriptions appeared in Anantapuram and other neighboring regions. The first available Telugu inscription in the coastal Andhra Pradesh comes from about 633 CE.

Around the same time, the Chalukya kings of Telangana also began using Telugu for inscriptions.[citation needed] Telugu was more influenced by Sanskrit than Prakrit during this period, which corresponded to the advent of Telugu literature. This literature was initially found in inscriptions and poetry in the courts of the rulers, and later in written works such as Nannayya's Mahabharatam (1022 AD).[8] During the time of Nannayya, the literary language diverged from the popular language. This was also a period of phonetic changes in the spoken language.

Middle Ages

The third phase is marked by further stylization and sophistication of the literary language. Ketana (thirteenth century) in fact prohibited the use of spoken words in poetic works.[8] During this period the separation of Telugu script from the common Telugu-Kannada script took place.[9] Tikkana wrote his works in this script.[citation needed]

Muslim rule

Telugu language has gone through a great deal of change (as did other Indian languages), progressing from medieval to modern. The language of the Telangana region started to split into a distinct dialect due to Muslim influence: Sultanate rule under the Tughlaq dynasty had been established earlier in the northern Deccan during the fourteenth century. South of the Krishna River (Rayalaseema region), however, the Vijayanagara empire gained dominance from 1336 till the late 1600s, reaching its peak during the rule of Krishnadevaraya in the sixteenth century, when Telugu literature experienced what is considered to be its golden age.[8] Padakavithapithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many atcha (pristine) Telugu Padaalu to this great language. In the latter half of the seventeenth century, Muslim rule extended further south, culminating in the establishment of the princely state of Hyderabad by the Asaf Jah dynasty in 1724. This heralded an era of Persian/Arabic influence on the Telugu language, especially among the people of Hyderabad. The effect is also felt in the prose of the early 19th century, as in the Kaifiyats.[8]

Colonial period

The period of the late nineteenth and the early twentieth centuries saw the influence of the English language and modern communication/printing press as an effect of the British rule, especially in the areas that were part of the Madras Presidency. Literature from this time had a mix of classical and modern traditions and included works by scholars like Kandukuri Viresalingam and Panuganti Lakshminarasimha Rao.[8]

Since the 1930s, what was considered an elite literary form of the Telugu language has now spread to the common people with the introduction of mass media like movies, television, radio and newspapers. This form of the language is also taught in schools as a standard.

Recent history

In the current decade the Telugu language, like other Indian languages, has undergone globalization due to the increasing settlement of Telugu-speaking people abroad. Modern Telugu movies, although still retaining their dramatic quality, are linguistically separate from post-Independence films.

At present, a committee of scholars has approved a classical language tag for Telugu based on its antiquity. The Indian government has also officially designated it as a classical language.[4]

Geographic distribution

Telugu is mainly spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh and Yanam district of Pondicherry as well as in the neighboring states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa,Chhattisgarh, some parts of Jharkhand and the Kharagpur region of West Bengal in India. It is also spoken in the United States, where the Telegu diaspora numbers more than 200,000; as well as in Australia, New Zealand, Bahrain, Canada, Fiji, Malaysia, Singapore, Mauritius, Ireland, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, and the United Kingdom, where there is also a considerable Telugu diaspora. Telugu is the third most spoken language in the Indian subcontinent after Hindi and Bengali.[5]

Official status

Telugu is one of the 22 official languages of India. It was declared the official language of Andhra Pradesh when the state was formed on 1st Nov 1956 on linguistic basis.[10]

Telugu also has official language status in the Yanam District of the Union Territory of Pondicherry.

Dialects

Waddar,[11] Chenchu,[12] Savara,[13] and Manna-Dora[14] are all closely related to Telugu.[15] Dialects of Telugu are Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Warangal, Mahaboob Nagar (Palamuru), Gadwal (Rayalaseema mix), Narayana peta (Kannada and Marathi influence), Vijayawada, Vadaga, Srikakula, Visakhapatnam, Toorpu (East) Godavari, Paschima (West) Godavari, Kandula, Rayalaseema, Nellooru, Prakasam, Guntooru, Tirupati, Vadari and Yanadi (Yenadi).[16].

In Tamil Nadu the Telugu dialect is classified into Salem, Coimbatore, and Chennai Telugu dialects. It is also widely spoken in Virudhunagar, Tuticorin, Madurai and Thanjavur districts. Along with the most standard forms of Indian languages like Tamil, Kannada, Hindi, Bangla, Gujarati, Oriya and Marathi, Nellore, Dondolu, Dondavolu, thadi, kolli, Standard Telugu is often called a Shuddha Bhaasha ("pure language").

Phonology

Though the Telugu consonant set lists aspirated consonants (both voiced and unvoiced), they're reserved mostly for transcribing Sanskrit borrowings. To most native speakers, the aspirated and unaspirated consonants are practically allophonic (like in Tamil). The distinction is made however, rather strictly, in written or literary Telugu.

British authors in the 19th century called Telugu the Italian of the East as all native words in Telugu end with a vowel sound, but it is believed that Italian explorer Niccolò Da Conti coined the phrase in the fifteenth century. Conti visited Vijayanagara empire during the reign of Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya in 1520s.

As in Turkish, Hungarian and Finnish, Telugu words have vowels in inflectional suffixes harmonised with the vowels of the preceding syllable.

Achchulu అచ్చులు (vowels)

Like other major Dravidian languages, the Telugu vowel set adds short /e/ and /o/ in addition to the long /eː/ and /oː/ of the Indo-Aryan languages.

అం అః
/a/ /ɑː/ /ɪ/ /iː/ /u/ /uː/ /ru/ /ruː/ /e/ /eː/ /ai/ /o/ /oː/ /au/ /um/ /aha/

Hallulu హల్లులు (consonants)

క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ
చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ
ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ
త థ ద ధ న
ప ఫ బ భ మ
య ర ల వ శ ష స హ ళ క్ష ఱ
There are two more alphabets, that are generally not used -
-> chha - (between చ ఛ and we write ౘ చ and give a "త" oththu on top)
-> zha - (between జ ఝ, written ౙ జ with a "త" oththu on top)
The letters for the consonants correspond almost one-to-one to the set in Sanskrit. However, the pronunciation of these letters diverges from that of Sanskrit with respect to the aspirated series: in most varieties of spoken Telugu, aspiration is not phonemic. That is, the presence or absence of aspiration in spoken Telugu, does not generally distinguish one word from another. There are two exceptions to the general correspondence of Sanskrit and Telugu consonants in their written form. One is the historical form of /r/ఱ. The other is the retroflex lateral ళ /ɭ/.

The table below indicates the articulation of consonants in Telugu.

Telugu Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika[17]
Prayatna Niyamāvali Kanthyamu
(jihvā Mūlam)
Kanthatālavyam
Tālavyamu
(jihvā Madhyam)
Mūrdhanyamu
(jihvāgramu)
Dantyamu
(jihvāgramu)
Dantōshtyam Ōshtyamu
(adhōstamu)
Kanthōshtyam
a aa e ai i ii aru aruu alu aluu - u uu o au
Sparśam, Śvāsam, Alpaprānam ka - cha Ta ta - pa -
Sparśam, Śvāsam, Mahāprānam kha - chha Tha tha - pha -
Sparśam, Nādam, Alpaprānam ga - ja Da da - ba -
Sparśam, Nādam, Mahāprānam gha - jha Dha dha - bha -
Sparśam, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Anunāsikam, Dravam, Avyāhatam
nga - nja Na na - ma -
Antastham, Nādam, Alpaprānam,
Dravam, Avyāhatam
- - ya ra (Lunthitam)
La (Pārśvikam)
la (Pārśvikam)
Ra(Kampitam)
va - -
Ūshmamu, Śvāsam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam Visarga - śa sha sa - - -
Ūshmamu, Nādam,Mahāprānam, Avyāhatam ha - - - - - - -

Grammar

In Telugu, Karta కర్త (nominative case or the doer), Karma కర్మ (object of the verb) and Kriya క్రియ (action or the verb) follow a sequence (Subject Object Verb). Telugu also has the Vibhakthi విభక్తి (preposition) tradition.

Telugu రాముడు (Ramudu) బంతిని (bantini) కొట్టాడు (kottaadu)
Literal translation   Rama ball hit
Reformatted "Rama has hit the ball"

Inflection

Telugu has its own grammar which mainly dictates how any two words or two letters or a word and a letter should be united to form a single word. These rules are defined under various types of సంధి (sandhi) and సమాసము (samasamu). According to these rules any two words or two letters or a word and a letter to be united to form a single word should be satisfying certain criteria. Hence, Telugu words can often be broken down into words or letters which carry a complete meaning themselves. Vice-versa, many words and letters can be combined to make a complex word that can carry more complex meaning which can be equated to a complete phrase or even a sentence when translated to English.

Ex: Nuvvostanante is formed from individual words Nuvvu,Vastanu,Ante which can be loosely translated into English as "if you want to come".

Reduplication, the repetition of words or syllables is done to create new or emphatic meanings (e.g., pakapaka ‘suddenly bursting out laughing,’ garagara ‘clean, neat, nice’).

Telugu is often considered an agglutinative language, where certain syllables are added to the end of a noun in order to denote its case:

Ablative Ramudinunchi రాముడినుంచి రాముడు(Ramudu) + నుంచి(from) "from" Rama
Genitive Ramuni రాముని రాము(Ramu) + ని(ni) "generic reference to" Rama)
Dative Ramuniki రామునికి రాము(Ramu) + ని(ni) + కి(ki) specifically referring something "about" referring to Rama)
Instrumental   Ramunitho రామునితో రాము(Ramu) + ని(ni) + తో(tho) specifically referring something "with" Rama

These agglutinations apply to all nouns generally in the singular and plural.

Here is how other cases are manifested in Telugu:

Location

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Adessive case adjacent location near/at/by the house ఇంటి/పక్క /ɪɳʈɪprakːa/
Inessive case inside something inside the house ఇంట్లో /ɪɳʈloː/
Locative case location at/on/in the house ఇంటిదగ్గర /ɪɳʈɪd̪aɡːara/
Superessive case on the surface on (top of) the house ఇంటిపై /ɪɳʈɪpaj/

Motion

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Allative case movement to (the adjacency of) something to the house ఇంటికి /ɪɳʈɪkɪ/, ఇంటివైపు /ɪɳʈɪvajpu/
Delative case movement from the surface from (the top of) the house ఇంటిపైనుంచి /ɪɳʈɪpajnɪɲcɪ/
Egressive case marking the beginning of a movement or time beginning from the house ఇంటినుంచి /ɪɳʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (ఇంటికెల్లి /ɪɳʈɪkelːɪ/ in some dialects)
Elative case out of something out of the house ఇంటిలోనుంచి /ɪɳʈɪnɪɲcɪ/ (ఇంట్లకెల్లి /ɪɳʈlakelːɪ/ in some dialects)
Illative case movement into something into the house ఇంటిలోనికి /ɪɳʈɪloːnɪkɪ/ (ఇంట్లోకి /ɪɳʈloːkɪ/)
Sublative case movement onto the surface on(to) the house ఇంటిపైకి /ɪɳʈɪpajkɪ/
Terminative case marking the end of a movement or time as far as the house ఇంటివరకు /ɪɳʈɪvaraku/

Morphosyntactic alignment

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Oblique case all-round case; any situation except nominative concerning the house ఇంటిగురించి /ɪɳʈɪɡurɪɲcɪ/

Relation

Case Usage English example Telugu example
Benefactive case for, for the benefit of, intended for for the house ఇంటికోసం /ɪɳʈɪkoːsam/ (ఇంటికొరకు /ɪɳʈɪkoraku/)
Causal case because, because of because of the house ఇంటివలన /ɪɳʈɪvalana/
Comitative case in company of something with the house ఇంటితో /ɪɳʈɪt̪oː/
Possessive case direct possession of something owned by the house ఇంటియొక్క /ɪɳʈɪjokːa/

Polyagglutination

While the examples given above are single agglutinations, Telugu allows for polyagglutination, a feature of being able to add multiple suffixes to words to denote more complex features:

For example, one can affix both "నుంచి; nunchi - from" and "లో; lo - in" to a noun to denote from within. An example of this: "రాములోనుంచి; ramuloninchi - from within Ramu".

Here is an example of a triple agglutination: "వాటిమధ్యలోనుంచి; vāṭimadʰyalōninchi - from in between them".

Inclusive and exclusive pronouns

Telugu, in common with other Dravidian languages, distinguishes between inclusive and exclusive we. The bifurcation of the First Person Plural pronoun (we in English) into inclusive (మనము; manamu) and exclusive (మేము; mēmu) versions can also be found in Tamil and Malayalam, although it is not used in modern Kannada.

Gender

Telugu pronouns follow the systems for gender and respect (T-V distinction) also found in other Indian languages. The second person plural మీరు /miːru/ is used in addressing someone with respect, and there are also respectful third personal pronouns (ఆయన /ɑːjana/ m. and ఆవిడ /ɑːvɪɽa/ f.) pertaining to both genders. Telugu uses the same forms for singular feminine and neuter genders — the third person pronoun (అది /ad̪ɪ/) is used to refer to animals and objects.[18][19]

Vocabulary

Some words that describe objects/actions associated with common or everyday life: like తల tala (head), పులి puli (tiger), ఊరు ūru (town/city), have cognates in other Dravidian languages and are indigenous to the Dravidian language family. Though Telugu uses a high degree of Sanskrit words; it also contains lesser extent of Arabic and Persian words such as maidanam (maydan in Arabic), kalam (qalam in Arabic), Bazaar (originally Persian word) etc. Today, Telugu is generally considered as a Dravidian language with the most Sanskrit loan words.

The vocabulary of Telugu especially in the Hyderabad region has a trove of Persian-Arabic borrowings, which have been modified to fit Telugu phonology. This was due to centuries of Muslim rule in these regions: the erstwhile kingdoms of Golkonda and Hyderabad. (e.g. కబురు, /kaburu/ for Urdu /xabar/, خبر or జవాబు, /ɟavɑːbu/ for Urdu /ɟawɑːb/, جواب)

Modern Telugu vocabulary can be said to constitute a diglossia, because the formal, standardized version of the language, heavily influenced by Sanskrit, is taught in schools and used by the government and Hindu religious institutions. However, everyday Telugu varies depending upon region and social status. There is a large and growing middle class whose Telugu is substantially interspersed with English. Popular Telugu, especially in urban Hyderabad, spoken by the masses and seen in movies that are directed towards the masses, includes both English and Hindi/Urdu influences.

Writing system

The name Telugu written in the Telugu script

The earliest evidence for Brahmi script in South India comes from Bhattiprolu in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh.[20] Bhattiprolu was a great centre of Buddhism since 4th century BC(Pre-Mauryan time) from where Buddhism spread to east Asia. A variant of Asokan Brahmi script, called Bhattiprolu Script, the progenitor of Old Telugu script, was found on the Buddha’s relic casket.[21]

The famous Muslim historian and scholar of 10th century, Al-Biruni referred to Telugu language and script as "Andhri".[22]

Telugu script is written from left to right and consists of sequences of simple and/or complex characters. The script is syllabic in nature - the basic units of writing are syllables. Since the number of possible syllables is very large, syllables are composed of more basic units such as vowels (“achchu” or “swar”) and consonants (“hallu” or “vyanjan”). Consonants in consonant clusters take shapes which are very different from the shapes they take elsewhere. Consonants are presumed to be pure consonants, that is, without any vowel sound in them. However, it is traditional to write and read consonants with an implied 'a' vowel sound. When consonants combine with other vowel signs, the vowel part is indicated orthographically using signs known as vowel “maatras”. The shapes of vowel “maatras” are also very different from the shapes of the corresponding vowels.

The overall pattern consists of sixty symbols, of which 16 are vowels, three vowel modifiers, and forty-one consonants. Spaces are used between words as word separators.

The sentence ends with either a single bar | (“purna virama”) or a double bar || (“deergha virama”). Traditionally, in handwriting, Telugu words were not separated by spaces. Modern punctuation (commas, semicolon, etc.) were introduced with the advent of print.[23]

There is a set of symbols for numerals, though Arabic numbers are typically used.

Telugu is assigned Unicode codepoints: 0C00-0C7F (3072-3199).[24]

Carnatic music

Thanjavur was the heart of the Tamil Chola dynasty (from the 9th century to the 13th), but in the second quarter of the sixteenth century a Telugu Nayak viceroy (Raghunatha Nayaka) was appointed by the emperor of Vijayanagara, thus establishing a court whose language was Telugu. Telugu Nayaka rulers acted as the governors in the present day Tamil Nadu area with headquarters at Thanjavur (1530-1674 CE) and Madurai (1530-1781 CE). After the collapse of Vijayanagar, Thanjavur and Madurai Nayaks became independent and ruled for the next 150 years until they were replaced by Marathas. This was the period when several Telugu families migrated from Andhra and settled down in Thanjavur and Madurai in Tamilnadu. Most of the great composers of Carnatic music belonged to these families. Telugu, a language ending with vowels, giving it a mellifluous quality, was also considered suitable for musical expression. Of the trinity of Carnatic music composers, Tyagaraja's and Syama Sastri's compositions were largely in Telugu, while Muthuswami Dikshitar a Tamil composer is noted for his Sanskrit texts. Tyagaraja is remembered both for his devotion and the bhava of his krithi, a song form consisting of pallavi, (the first section of a song) anupallavi (a rhyming section that follows the pallavi) and charanam (a sung stanza which serves as a refrain for several passages in the composition). The texts of his kritis are almost all in Sanskrit, in Telugu (the contemporary language of the court). This use of a living language, as opposed to Sanskrit, the language of ritual, is in keeping with the bhakti ideal of the immediacy of devotion. Sri Syama Sastri, the oldest of the trinity, was taught Telugu and Sanskrit by his father, who was the pujari (Hindu priest) at the Meenakshi temple in Madurai of Tamilnadu. Syama Sastri's texts were largely composed in Telugu, widening their popular appeal. Some of his most famous compositions include the nine krithis, Navaratnamaalikā, in praise of the goddess Meenakshi at Madurai, and his eighteen krithi in praise of Kamakshi. As well as composing krithi, he is credited with turning the svarajati, originally used for dance, into a purely musical form.

Literature

Telugu literature is generally divided into six periods:

pre-1020 CE pre-Nannayya period
1020–1400 Age of the Puranas
1400–1510 Age of Srinatha
1510–1600 Age of the Prabandhas
1600–1820 Southern period
1820 to date   Modern period

In the telugu literature Tikkana was given agraasana(top position) by meny famous critics. In the earliest period there were only inscriptions from 575 AD onwards. Nannaya's (1022-1063) translation of the Sanskrit Mahabharata into Telugu is the piece of Telugu literature as yet discovered. After the death of Nannaya, there was a kind of social and religious revolution in the Telugu country.[25]

Tikkana (thirteenth century) and Yerrapregada (fourteenth century) continued the translation of the Mahabharata started by Nannaya. Telugu poetry also flourished in this period, especially in the time of Srinatha.

During this period, some Telugu poets translated Sanskrit poems and dramas, while others attempted original narrative poems. The popular Telugu literary form called the Prabandha evolved during this period. Srinatha (1365-1441) was the foremost poet, who popularised this style of composition (a story in verse having a tight metrical scheme). Srinatha's Sringara Naishadham is particularly well-known.

The Ramayana poets may also be referred in this context. The earliest Ramayana in Telugu is generally known as the Ranganatha Ramayana, authored by the chief Gona budhdha Reddy. The works of Pothana (1450-1510), Jakkana (second half of the fourteenth century) and Gaurana (first half of the fifteenth century) formed a canon of religious poetry during this period. Padakavitha Pithamaha, Annamayya, contributed many original Telugu Paatalu (Songs) to the language.

The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries CE is regarded as the "golden age" of Telugu literature. Krishnadevaraya's Amukthamalayadha, and Pedhdhana's Manucharithra are regarded as Mahaakaavyaas. Telugu literature flourished in the south in the traditional "samsthanas" (centres) of Southern literature, such as Madurai and Tanjore. This age is often referred to as the Southern Period. There were also an increasing number of poets in this period among the ruling class, women and non-Brahmins who popularised indigenous (desi) meters.

With the conquest of the Deccan by the Mughals in 1687, Telugu literature entered a lull. Tyagaraja's compositions are some of the known works from this period. Then emerged a period of transition (1850-1910), followed by a long period of Renaissance. Europeans like C.P. Brown played an important role in the development of Telugu language and literature. In common with the rest of India, Telugu literature of this period was increasingly influenced by European literary forms like the novel, short story, prose and drama.

Paravastu Chinnayya Soori (1807-1861) is a well-known Telugu writer who dedicated his entire life to the progress and promotion of Telugu language and literature. Sri Chinnayasoori wrote the Bala Vyakaranam in a new style after doing extensive research on Andhra grammar. Other well-known writings by Chinnayasoori are Neethichandrika, Sootandhra Vyaakaranamu, Andhra Dhatumoola, and Neeti Sangrahamu.

Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) is generally considered to be the father of modern Telugu literature.[26] His novel Rajasekhara Charitamu was inspired by the Vicar of Wakefield. His work marked the beginning of a dynamic of socially conscious Telugu literature and its transition to the modern period, which is also part of the wider literary renaissance that took place in Indian culture during this period. Other prominent literary figures from this period are Gurajada Appa Rao, Viswanatha Satyanarayana, Gurram Jashuva, Rayaprolu Subba Rao, Devulapalli Krishnasastri and Srirangam Srinivasa Rao, popularly known as Mahakavi Sri Sri. Sri Sri was instrumental in popularising free verse in spoken Telugu (vaaduka bhasha), as opposed to the pure form of written Telugu used by several poets in his time. Devulapalli Krishnasastri is often referred to as the Shelley of Telugu literature because of his pioneering works in Telugu Romantic poetry.

Viswanatha Satyanarayana won India's national literary honour, the Jnanpith Award for his magnum opus Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu.[27] C. Narayana Reddy also received the award for his contributions to Telugu literature.[28] Kanyasulkam, the first social play in Telugu by Gurajada Appa Rao, was followed by the progressive movement, the free verse movement and the Digambara style of Telugu verse. Other modern Telugu novelists include Unnava Lakshminarayana (Maalapalli), Bulusu Venkateswarulu (Bharatiya Tatva Sastram), Kodavatiganti Kutumba Rao and Buchi Babu.[8] Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, a well known Telugu poet, has been a recipient of the Sahitya Akademi Award. He is best known for his work, Na Desham, Na Prajalu (My country, My people) which was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature 2004. His works have been translated into many languages. He wrote under the pen name "Seshen".

Quotes on Telugu

  • "...Among these five languages, the Telinga appears to be most polished, and though confessedly a difficult language, it must be numbered among those which are the most worthy of cultivation; its varierty of inflection being such as to give it a capacity of expressing ideas with high degree of facilty, justness and elegance..." — by Rev. W.Carey (April 9, 1814).[29]
  • "...But those who may at first question the utility of so many letters in the Teloogoo, will perhaps relinquish most of their objections, when they find that the variety of sound in this language is greater, and better represented than English..." — A.D Campbell (1949)[30].
  • "...In respect of antiquity of culture and glossorial copiousness, Telugu is generally considered as ranking next to Tamil in the list of Dravidian idioms, whilst in the point of euphonic sweetness it justly claims to occupy the first place..." — Bishop Robert Caldwell (1856) [31]
  • "...Tamil is considered to be the Dravidian language which has preserved the most traces of the original form of speech from which all other Dravidian dialects are derived. Some points will be drawn to attention to in the ensuing pages where this does not appear to be the case, and in many peculiarities the other Dravidian languages such as Telugu also have preserved older forms and represent an ancient state of development." - George Abraham Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India [33][34]

See also

Telugu language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

References

  1. ^ "Languages Spoken by More Than 10 Million People". Encarta. MSN.com. http://encarta.msn.com/media_701500404/Languages_Spoken_by_More_Than_10_Million_People.html. Retrieved 17 October 2009. 
  2. ^ "Image of Indian languages and total speakers". http://www.ciil.org/Main/Languages/indian.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-13. 
  3. ^ "Declaration of Telugu and Kannada as classical languages". Press Information Bureau. Ministry of Tourism and Culture, Government of India. http://pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=44340. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  4. ^ a b "Telugu gets classical status". Times of India. 2008-10-01. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Hyderabad/Telugu_gets_classical_status/articleshow/3660521.cms. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  5. ^ a b "Scheduled Languages in Descending Order of Speakers' Strength". 2001 Census. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. http://web.archive.org/web/20071130133941/http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement4.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  6. ^ http://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/philologic/getobject.pl?c.1:1:848.burrow
  7. ^ The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh News : Telugu is 1,500 years old, says ASI
  8. ^ a b c d e f g APonline - History and Culture-Languages
  9. ^ Krishnamurti, Bhadriraju (2003). The Dravidian Languages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 78–79. ISBN 0521771110. 
  10. ^ APonline — History and Culture — History-Post-Independence Era
  11. ^ 1.9 million speakers as of 2001. "Waddar". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=wbq. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  12. ^ 29,000 speakers as of 1981. "Chenchu". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cde. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  13. ^ 20,000 speakers as of 2000. "Savara". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=svr. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  14. ^ 19,000 speakers as of 1981. "Manna-Dora". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=mju. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  15. ^ "Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_family.asp?subid=91839. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  16. ^ "Telugu". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=tel. Retrieved 2007-12-06. 
  17. ^ Telugulo Chandovisheshaalu, Page 127.
  18. ^ Albert Henry Arden (1873), A progressive grammar of the Telugu language, Society for promoting Christian knowledge, p. 57, http://books.google.com/books?id=tW8IAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA57&dq=neuter+feminine 
  19. ^ Charles Philip Brown (1857), A grammar of the Telugu language (2 ed.), Christian Knowledge Society's Press, p. 39, http://books.google.com/books?id=pnAIAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA39&dq=feminine 
  20. ^ Ananda Buddha Vihara
  21. ^ The Hindu : Andhra Pradesh / Hyderabad News : Epigraphist extraordinaire
  22. ^ Ancient India: English translation of Kitab-ul Hind by Al-Biruni, National Book Trust, New Delhi
  23. ^ Brown, Charles Philip (1857). A Grammar of the Telugu Language. London: W. H. Allen & Co.. pp. 5. ISBN 812060041X. 
  24. ^ United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names; United Nations Statistical Division (2007). Technical Reference Manual for the Standardization of Geographical Names. United Nations Publications. pp. 110. ISBN 9211615003. 
  25. ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120603133. 
  26. ^ Sarma, Challa Radhakrishna (1975). Landmarks in Telugu Literature. Lakshminarayana Granthamala. pp. 30. 
  27. ^ Datta, Amaresh; Lal, Mohan (1991). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 3294. 
  28. ^ George, K.M. (1992). Modern Indian Literature, an Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 1121. ISBN 8172013248. 
  29. ^ Carey, William (1914). A Grammar of the Telinga Language. Serampore: Mission-Press. 
  30. ^ Campbell, A.D. (1849). A Grammar of the Teloogoo Language (3rd edition ed.). Madras, India: College of Fort St. George. 
  31. ^ >Caldwell, Robert (1856). A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Or South-Indian Family of Languages. Edinburgh and London: Ballantyne and Company. ISBN 81-206-0117-3. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=tIORxC68BH0C&pg=RA1-PA146&lpg=RA1-PA146&dq=Robert+Caldwell+on+telugu&source=bl&ots=MF6HChQY7o&sig=_r7w-_1og51Y-qhZ5Irn5H8_fpg&hl=en&ei=fQo-S-b7JoGTkAW1yIC0CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=telugu&f=false. 
  32. ^ India Times
  33. ^ Linguistic Survey of India, Vol IV, Page.283
  34. ^ [1]

Bibliography

  • Albert Henry Arden, A progressive grammar of the Telugu language‎ (1873).
  • Charles Philip Brown, English-Telugu dictionary (1852; revised ed. 1903; online edition)
  • Charles Philip Brown, A grammar of the Telugu language‎ (1857)
  • P. Percival , Telugu-English dictionary: with the Telugu words printed in the Roman as well as in the Telugu Character‎ (1862, google books edition)
  • Gwynn, J. P. L. (John Peter Lucius). A Telugu-English Dictionary Delhi; New York: Oxford University Press (1991; online edition).
  • Uwe Gustafsson, An Adiwasi Oriya-Telugu-English dictionary, Central Institute of Indian Languages Dictionary Series, 6. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Language (1989).
  • Vēlcēru Nārāyaṇarāvu, David Dean Shulman, Velcheru Narayana Rao, Classical Telugu poetry: an anthology‎ (2002).
  • Callā Rādhākr̥ṣṇaśarma, Landmarks in Telugu literature: a short survey of Telugu literature‎ (1975).

External links

Telugu language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Telugu phrasebook article)

From Wikitravel

Telugu is a language spoken by some 88 million speakers, primarily in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

like 'a' in "apple", 'a' in "cake", "a" in "amen"
like 'i' in "magazine", 'e' in "bed" (often silent at the end of a word)
like 'i' in "pine", 'i' in "fin"
like 'ow' in "low", like 'o' in "top"
like 'oo' in "hoop", like 'u' in "cup"
like 'b' in "bed"
like 's' in "supper", 'k' in "kid"
like 'd' in "dog"
like 'ph' in "phone"
like 'g' in "go", 'j' in "jello"
like 'h' in "help" (often silent in the UK and other Commonwealth countries)
like 'dg' in "edge"
like 'c' in "cat"
like 'l' in "love"
like 'm' in "mother"
like 'n' in "nice"
like 'p' in "pig"
like 'q' in "quest" (with "u", almost always)
like 'r' in "row", like 'r' in "feather" (often silent in the UK and other Commonwealth countries at end of word)
like 'ss' in "hiss", like 'z' in "haze"
like 't' in "top"
like 'v' in "victory"
like 'w' in "weight"
like 'cks' in "kicks", like 'z' in "haze" (at beginning of a word)
like 'y' in "yes", like 'ie' in "pie", like 'ee' in "flee"
like 'z' in "haze"
ay 
like 'ay' in "say"
ai 
like 'ay' in "say"
au 
like 'awe'
ee 
like 'ee' in "see"
ei 
like 'ay' in "say"
ey 
like 'ay' in "say", like 'ee' in "see"
ie 
like 'ee' in "see"
oi 
like 'oy' in "boy"
oo 
like 'oo' in "food", like 'oo' in "good"
ou 
like 'ow' in "cow", like 'oo' in "food", like 'o' in "cot"
ow 
like 'ow' in "cow"
oy 
like 'oy' in "boy"
ch 
like 'ch' in "touch"
sh 
like 'sh' in "sheep"
th 
like 'th' in "this", like 'th' in "those"
gh 
like 'f' in "fish"
ph 
like 'f' in "fish"
Hello. 
Namaskaram. (Nam-as-kaar-am)
Thank you 
Dhanyavadhamulu (Dhan-ya-vada-mulu)
Fine, thank you. 
Bagane vunnanu, Dhanyavadhamulu (Baa-gaa-ne-un-naa-nu, FIGHN, Dhan-ya-vada-mulu)
What is your name? 
Me Peru Yemity? (Mee PAEru YEAHMETI)
My name is ______ . 
Na Peru ______ . (Nah PAEru _____ .)
Nice to meet you. 
mimmalni kalisi nanduku santhosam ga unnadi. (NIGHSS t' meet YOO)
Please. 
Dayachesi. (pleez)
Thanks 
Krithagnathalu. (THANKS)
You're welcome. 
meeku shubham kalugu gaaka. (yuhr WEL-kuhm)
Come
Randi. (Ran-di)
Come here
Itu randi. (Itu-ran-di)
Yes. 
Avunu. (AuNu)
No. 
Ledu (or) Kadu. (Lehdhu, KahDhu)
Excuse me. (getting attention
konchem itu choodandi (respectful). (Yehvandi)
Excuse me. (begging pardon
idi naa porapaatu. (ehkz-KYOOZ mee)
I'm sorry/Forgive me
Nannu kshaminchandi. (Nan-nu-ksha-min-chan-di)
Goodbye 
Selavu (GUHD-bigh.)
Goodbye (informal
untanu(singular) untamu(pl);Bye; taataa (BIGH; taa-taa)
I can't speak name of language [well]. 
Nenu name of language baga matladalenu. (IGH cant speek ING-lush [wehl])
Do you speak English? 
meeru aanglamu matladuthara ? (ING-lish? Ma tla da tha ra)
Is there someone here who speaks English? 
Ikkada aanglamu maatlade vaaru evaraina unnara? (Ik-kada English maat-laadae vaaru eva-raaina un-naa-raa?)
Help! 
Rakshinchandi! (Rak-shin-chan-di!)
Look out! 
Atu choodu! (Atu-choo-du!)
Good morning. 
Shubhodayam. (')
Good evening. 
. (')
Good night. 
Shubharathri. (')
Good night (to sleep
. (')
I don't understand. 
Naku ardham kaledu. (')
Where is the toilet? 
Marugu dhoddi ekkadandi? (')
Question Words
What
enti
How
ela
Where
ekkada
When
eppudu
Who
evaru
How much?
Enta /enta/ ( ఎంత )
Which
edi
yes
Avunu /avunu/ ( అవును )
true
nijame
Negative Words
Don't want
Vaddu
don't have
Ledu
no,not that
Kaadu /kaːdu/ ( కాదు )
Don't know to do something
Raadu /raːdu/
Not look/feel good
Baale
No idea
Teliyadu
I don’t understand
Naaku artham kaledu ( నాకు అర్ధం కాలేదు )
Leave me alone. 
Nannu vantariga vodileyyandi
Don't touch me! 
Nannu muttaku / Nannu tAka voddu
I'll call the police. 
Nenu rakshaka batulani pilustanu
Police! 
rakshaka batulu
Stop! Thief! 
Aagu! Donga
I need your help. 
Mee sahayam kavali.
It's an emergency. 
Idi atyavasarmu (...)
I'm lost. 
Nenu daari tappanu
I lost my bag. 
Naa sanchi poyindhi
I lost my wallet. 
Naa wallet (purse) poyindi
I'm sick. 
Naaku vollo baaga ledu
I've been injured. 
Naaku debba tagilindi
I need a doctor. 
Doctor Kavalenu. (...)
Can I use your phone? 
mee phone nenu vadokovacha?
one (OkaTi)
two (renDu)
three (mooDu)
four (naalugu)
five (aidu)
six (aru)
seven (ehDu)
eight (enimidi)
nine (tommidi)
10 
ten (padhi)
11 
eleven (padakondu)
12 
twelve (panendu)
13 
thirteen (padamudu)
14 
fourteen (padnalugu)
15 
fifteen (padihenu)
16 
sixteen (padaharu)
17 
seventeen (padihedu)
18 
eighteen (paddenimidi)
19 
nineteen (panthommidi)
20 
twenty (eruvadi)
20(informal) 
twenty (eravai)
21 
twenty one (eruvadi okati)
22 
twenty two (eruvadi rendu)
23 
twenty three (eruvadi moodu)
24 
twenty four (eruvadi naalugu)
25 
twenty five (eruvadi aidu)
30 
thirty (muppai)
40 
forty (nalabai)
50 
fifty (Yabhai)
60 
sixty (aaravi)
70 
seventy (dabbai)
80 
eighty (enabai)
90 
ninety (thombai)
100 
one hundred (vanda)
200 
two hundred (rendu vandalu)
300 
three hundred (moodu vandalu)
1000 
one thousand (veyyi)
2000 
two thousand (rendu velu)
100,000 
hundred thousands (laksha)
1,000,000 
one million (padi lakshalu)
10,000,000 
ten millions (koti)
1,000,000,000 
one thousand million in UK, one billion in USA (vanda kotlu)
1,000,000,000,000 
one billion in UK, one trillion in USA (Laksha kotlu)
number _____ (train, bus, etc.
number _____ (...)
half 
half (Sagam)
less 
less (Takkuva)
more 
more (Ekkuva)
now 
now (Ippudu)
later 
later (Taruvata)
before 
before (Mundu)
morning 
morning (Udayam)
afternoon 
afternoon (Madyanam)
evening 
evening (Sayantram)
night 
night (Ratri)

Clock time

one o'clock AM 
one o'clock AM (tellavaru jaamu ontiganta)
two o'clock AM 
two o'clock AM (tellavaru jamu rendu)
noon 
noon (madhyannam pannendu)
one o'clock PM 
one o'clock PM (madhyannam ontiganta)
two o'clock PM 
two o'clock PM (madhyannam rendu)
midnight 
midnight (ardharathri pannendu)

Duration

1 second 
1 second (Oka Kshanam)
10 minute(s) 
10 minute(s) (Padi Nimishalu)
10 hour(s) 
10 hour(s) (Padi gantalu)
_1____ day(s) 
__1___ day(s) (Oka Roju)
__1___ week(s) 
__1___ week(s) (Oka Vaaram)
___1__ month(s) 
__1___ month(s) (Oka Nela)
___1__ year(s) 
___1__ year(s) (Oka Samvatsaram)
1 Decade 
1 Decade (Oka Yugam)

Days

today 
today (Eenadu)
yesterday 
yesterday (Ninna)
tomorrow 
tomorrow (Repu)
this week 
this week (ee vaaram)
last week 
last week (poyina vaaram)
next week 
next week (Vache vaaram)
Sunday 
Sunday (aadi vaaram)
Monday 
Monday (Soma Vaaram)
Tuesday 
Tuesday (Mangala Vaaram)
Wednesday 
Wednesday (Budha Vaaram)
Thursday 
Thursday (Guru Vaaram)
Friday 
Friday (shukhra Vaaram)
Saturday 
Saturday (Shani vaaram)

Months

January 
January (...)
February 
February (...)
March 
March (...)
April 
April (...)
May 
May (...)
June 
June (...)
July 
July (...)
August 
August (...)
September 
September (...)
October 
October (...)
November 
November (...)
December 
December (...)

Writing time and date

The time is written the same in Telugu. However, contrary to how they write the dates in North America, as in all places in India, the format is Month/Day/Year.

Example: September 12, 2007

        USA: 09/12/2007
        Telugu: 12/09/2007
black 
black (nalupu)
white 
white (thelupu)
gray 
gray (boodida)
red 
red (erupu')
blue 
blue (neelam)
yellow 
yellow (pasupu...)
green 
green (Aaku Pachha)
orange 
orange (kamala rangu)
purple 
purple (bachala pandu rangu)
brown 
brown (godhuma rangu)

Transportation

Bus and train

How much is a ticket to _____? 
How much is a ticket to _____? (-- ku ticket entha?)
One ticket to _____, please. 
One ticket to _____, please. (-- ku oka ticket ivvandi)
Where does this train/bus go? 
Where does this train/bus go? (ee bus/train ekkadiki veltundi?)
Where is the train/bus to _____? 
Where is the train/bus to _____? (-- ku vellalsina bus/trian ekkada?)
Does this train/bus stop in _____? 
Does this train/bus stop in _____? (ee bus/train -- lo aagutunda?)
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? 
When does the train/bus for _____ leave? (-- ku bus/train eppudu bayaluderutundi?)
When will this train/bus arrive in _____? 
When will this bus arrive in _____? (-- ku bus/trian eppudu cherutundi?)

Directions

How do I get to _____ ? 
How do I get to _____ ? (Nenu _____ ki yela vellali?)
...the train station? 
...the train station? (railu bandi niluchu sthalamu)
...the bus station? 
...the bus station? (bassu niluchu sthalamu)
...the airport? 
...the airport? (vimanasrayamu)
...downtown? 
...downtown? (bazaru veedhulu)
...the youth hostel? 
...the youth hostel? (vidyardulu nivasinchu vasati gruham)
...the _____ hotel? 
...the _____ hotel? (vasati gruhamu)
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? 
...the American/Canadian/Australian/British consulate? (...)
Where are there a lot of... 
Where are there a lot of... (...)
...hotels? 
...hotels? (vasati gruhamulu)
...restaurants? 
...restaurants? (bhojana sala / palahara sala)
...bars? 
...bars? (madya sala)
...sites to see? 
...sites to see? (...)
Can you show me on the map? 
Can you show me on the map? (...)
street 
street (veedhi)
Turn left. 
Turn left. (yedama vypu ki tirugu)
Turn right. 
Turn right. (kudi vypu ki tirugu)
left 
left (yedama)
right 
right (kudi)
straight ahead 
straight ahead (seeda ga munduku)
towards the _____ 
towards the _____ (vypu)
past the _____ 
past the _____ (taruvata)
before the _____ 
before the _____ (mundu)
Watch for the _____. 
Watch for the _____. (-- kosam chudandi)
intersection 
intersection (koodali)
north 
north (uttaram)
south 
south (dakshinam)
east 
east (toorpu)
west 
west (padamara)
uphill 
uphill (yettugadda)
downhill 
downhill (...)

Taxi

Taxi! 
Taxi! (...)
Take me to _____, please. 
Take me to _____, please. (nannu -- ki teesukuvellandi)
How much does it cost to get to _____? 
How much does it cost to

get to _____? (-- ku velladaniki entha avutundi?)

Take me there, please. 
Take me there, please. (nannu akkadiki teesukuvellandi)
Do you have any rooms available? 
Do you have any rooms available? (Gadulu khaaliga unnaya?)
How much is a room for one person/two people? 
How much is a room for one person/two people? (okkariki/iddariki gadi entha avutundi?)
Does the room come with... 
Does the room come with... (gadi -- tho vastunda?)
...bedsheets? 
...bedsheets? (Cheddara)
...a bathroom? 
...a bathroom? (snanala gadi)
...a telephone? 
...a telephone? (doorashravani / dooravani)
...a TV? 
...a TV? (dooradharshani)
May I see the room first? 
May I see the room first? (Nenu gadi mundhara chudavacha?)
Do you have anything quieter? 
Do you have anything quieter? (Koncham nishabdam ga unnavi yehmaina unnaya?)
...bigger? 
...bigger? (Peddavi?)
...cleaner? 
...cleaner? (shubramga unnavi)
...cheaper? 
...cheaper? (takkuva dhara vi)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (Sare Teeskuntanu)
I will stay for _____ night(s). 
I will stay for _____ night(s). (Ikkada nenu -- raatrulu unta)
Can you suggest another hotel? 
Can you suggest another hotel? (Inka edina hotel cheppagalara?)
Do you have a safe? 
Do you have a safe? (Beeruwa unda?)
...lockers? 
...lockers? (Saamanula Peattea)
Is breakfast/supper included? 
Is breakfast/supper included? (Alpaaharam/Bojhanam kalipi isthara?)
What time is breakfast/supper? 
What time is breakfast/supper? (Alpaaharam/bojanam ennintiki pedtaru?)
Please clean my room. 
Please clean my room. (Naa room subra parachandi)
Can you wake me at _____? | Can you wake me at _____? (Nannu -- intiki leputara?)
I want to check out. 
I want to check out. (Nenu gadi khaali cheyyali)
Do you accept American/Australian/Canadian dollars? 
(American/Australian/Canadian dollars teesukuntara?)
Do you accept British pounds? 
(British pounds teesukuntara)
Do you accept credit cards? 
(credit cards teesukuntara?)
Can you change money for me? 
(Dabbulu marchagalara?)
Where can I get money changed? 
(Dabbulu ekkada maarchuko galanu?)
Can you change a traveler's check for me? 
(traveler's check maarchagalara?)
Where can I get a traveler's check changed? 
(traveler's check ekkada maarchukogalanu?)
What is the exchange rate? 
(exchange rate entha?)
Where is an automatic teller machine (ATM)? 
(ATM ekkada undi?)
A table for one person/two people, please. 
A table for one person/two people, please. (okallaki/iddariki oka table)
Can I look at the menu, please? 
Can I look at the menu, please? (Daicheesi, nenu menu choodachaa?)
Can I look in the kitchen? 
Can I look in the kitchen? (wontagadi choodavacha?)
Is there a house specialty? 
Is there a house specialty? (...)
Is there a local specialty? 
Is there a local specialty? (...)
I'm a vegetarian. 
I'm a vegetarian. (nenu Saakaaharini)
I don't eat pork. 
I don't eat pork. (Nenu Pandi Mamsam Tinanu)
I don't eat beef. 
I don't eat beef. (Nenu Goddu Mamsam Tinanu)
I only eat kosher food. 
I only eat kosher food. (...)
Can you make it "lite", please? (less oil/butter/lard
Can you make it "lite", please? (dayachesi Ghee/Noona thakkuva chayyagalara?)
fixed-price meal 
fixed-price meal (...)
à la carte 
à la carte (...)
breakfast 
breakfast (palahaaram)
brunch 
brunch ("Tiffin")
lunch 
lunch (bhojanam)
tea (meal
tea (...)
super 
super (chala bagundi)
I want _____. 
I want _____. (Naku kavali...)
I want a dish containing _____. 
I want a dish containing _____. (...)
chicken 
chicken (kodi mamsam)
beef 
beef (goddu mamsam)
fish 
fish (cheapa )
ham 
ham (...)
sausage 
sausage (...)
cheese 
cheese (...)
eggs 
eggs (guddu(singular),gudlu(plural))
salad 
salad (...)
(fresh) vegetables 
(fresh) vegetables (Taaja Kooragayalu)
(fresh) fruit 
(fresh) fruit ('Taaja Pandlu)
bread 
bread (Rottea)
toast 
toast (...)
noodles 
noodles (...)
rice 
rice (Annam)
beans 
beans (Chikkudu)
May I have a glass of _____? 
May I have a glass of _____? (naaku oka lota ___ ivvagalara?)
May I have a cup of _____? 
May I have a cup of _____? (...)
May I have a bottle of _____? 
May I have a bottle of _____? (...)
coffee 
coffee (...)
tea (drink
tea (teaneeru)
juice 
juice (rasam)
(bubbly) water 
water (neellu / neeru)
water 
water (neellu)
beer 
beer (...)
red/white wine 
red/white wine (...)
May I have some _____? 
May I have some _____? (naaku koncham ____ ivvagalara?)
salt 
salt (uppu)
black pepper 
black pepper (Miriyalu)
butter 
butter (venna)
Excuse me, waiter? (getting attention of server)
Excuse me, waiter? (...)
I'm finished. 
I'm finished. (Naa pani ayipoyindi)
It was delicious. 
It was delicious. (adi chaalaa kamma gaa vundi)
Please clear the plates. 
Please clear the plates. (dayachesi plates theeseyandi)
The check, please. 
The check, please. (dayachesi cheque ivvandi)
Do you serve alcohol? 
Do you serve alcohol? (Mandhu unda?)
Is there table service? 
Is there table service? (Table service unda)
A beer/two beers, please. 
A beer/two beers, please. (...)
A glass of red/white wine, please. 
A glass of red/white wine, please. (...)
A pint, please. 
A pint, please. (...)
A bottle, please. 
A bottle, please. (...)
_____ (hard liquor) and _____ (mixer), please. 
_____ and _____, please. (...)
whiskey 
whiskey (...)
vodka 
vodka (...)
rum 
rum (...)
water 
water (neeru / neellu)
club soda 
club soda (...)
tonic water 
tonic water (...)
orange juice 
orange juice (...)
Coke (soda
Coke (...)
Do you have any bar snacks? 
Do you have any bar snacks? (Thinadaaniki emaina unnaya)
One more, please. 
One more, please. (Inkokati)
Another round, please. 
Another round, please. (Inka okati)
When is closing time? 
When is closing time? (Closing time enti?)
Do you have this in my size? 
Do you have this in my size? (Iddi naa size lo wunda?)
How much is this? 
How much is this? (Idi enta outhundee)
That's too expensive. 
That's too expensive. (adi chaala ekkuva khareedainadi)
Would you take _____? 
Would you take _____? (___ni theesukuntara?)
expensive 
expensive (khareedainadi)
cheap 
cheap (chavaka)
I can't afford it. 
I can't afford it. (...)
I don't want it. 
I don't want it. (Naku adi wodoo)
You're cheating me. 
You're cheating me. (nuvvu nannu mosam chesthunnaavu)
I'm not interested. 
I'm not interested. (..)
OK, I'll take it. 
OK, I'll take it. (sare Theesukunta)
Can I have a bag? 
Can I have a bag? (naku oka sanchi evagalara...)
Do you ship (overseas)? 
Do you ship (overseas)? (...)
I need... 
I need... (naku kavali...)
...toothpaste. 
...toothpaste. (...)
...a toothbrush. 
...a toothbrush. (...)
...tampons. 
...tampons. (...)
...soap. 
...soap. (sabbu)
...shampoo. 
...shampoo. (...)
...pain reliever. (e.g., aspirin or ibuprofen
...pain reliever. (...)
...cold medicine. 
...cold medicine. (jalubu mandu)
...stomach medicine. 
...stomach medicine. (kadupu noppi mandu/ potta noppi mandu)
...a razor. 
...a razor. (...)
...an umbrella. 
...an umbrella. (godugu)
...sunblock lotion. 
...sunblock lotion. (...)
...a postcard. 
...a postcard. (...)
...postage stamps. 
...postage stamps. (...)
...batteries. 
...batteries. (...)
...writing paper. 
...writing paper. (...)
...a pen. 
...a pen. (kalamu)
...English-language books. 
...English-language books. (aangla pustakamulu)
...English-language magazines. 
...English-language magazines. (...)
...an English-language newspaper. 
...an English-language newspaper. (aangla dinapatrika)
...an English-English dictionary. 
...an English-English dictionary. (...)
I want to rent a car. 
I want to rent a car. (...)
Can I get insurance? 
Can I get insurance? (Naaku bhima vastunda?)
stop (on a street sign
stop (aagumu)
one way 
one way (...)
yield 
yield (...)
no parking 
no parking (Ichchata vaahanamulu niluparaadu)
speed limit 
speed limit (...)
gas (petrol) station 
gas station (...)
petrol 
petrol (...)
diesel 
diesel (...)
I haven't done anything wrong. 
I haven't done anything wrong. (nenu ye tappu cheyyaledu)
It was a misunderstanding. 
It was a misunderstanding. (nannu apardam chesukunnaru)
Where are you taking me? 
Where are you taking me? (nannu ekkadiki teesuku veltunnaru)
Am I under arrest? 
Am I under arrest? (...)
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. 
I am an American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen. (nenu oka American/Australian/British/Canadian citizen )
I want to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. 
I need to talk to the American/Australian/British/Canadian embassy/consulate. ( nenu maa embassy tho maatlaadaali)
I want to talk to a lawyer. 
I want to talk to a lawyer. (nenu oka lawyer tho maatlaadaali)
Can I just pay a fine now? 
Can I just pay a fine now? (nenu jarimaana kattavaccha?)

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Telugu

Plural
-

Telugu

  1. A Dravidian language of India.
  2. A member of the people who speak the Telugu language.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

See also

External links


Dutch

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Telugu n.

  1. Telugu; a Dravidian language of India.

Noun

Telugu m. (plural Telugu’s, diminutive Teluguutje)

  1. A Telugu; a member of the people who speak the Telugu language.

Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Welcome to the Telugu wikibook, a free Telugu textbook on the Telugu language.

Note: To use this book, your web browser must first be configured to display Telugu characters. If the characters in the grey box below appear as blank boxes or garbage such as �?�?􏿾, it is not properly configured.

II This is a Category II Language.
మీకు తెలుగు చదవటం వ్రాయటం వస్తే, సహాయపడండి.

Introduction  —  History  —  Dialects  —  Literature

Transliteration  —  Alphabet  —  Grammar  —  Common Phrases



Simple English

[[File:|300px|right|The area where Telugu is spoken is shown in red]]

Contents

History

Telugu is an Indian language spoken in the southern part of India. It is the official language of Andhra Pradesh. It is one of the twenty-two scheduled languages of the Republic of India. Telugu is second most poular language spoken in India and 15th largest spoken language in the world. As it is one of the oldest languages in the world the Government of India gave it the status of a Classical language.

Aitereya Brahmanyam which is a part of Rigveda ( literature dates to 7000 years before CE ) written thousands years before CE has mentioned Telugu. Telugu also founds mention in Rajatarangini, written by Bilhana Kavi. As per Hindu Mythology, one of the sons of Bali Chakravarthy ( the one who was sent to Pathaala by Vamana ) is Andhra or Andhrudu. Telugu region i.e. Andhra or AP was ruled by him, long before the times of Ramayana and Mahabharata ( literature is proven to be of the period 3000 years before CE. ).


Telugu is the only language other than Sanskrit which has the linguistic prakriya (literature game) called Avadhana, which disappeared in other languages with the passage of time. Languages also have became more and more simpler and adopted simple pronunciations, the reason for some typical sounds of Telugu being missing in many other languages.

Sri Krishnadeva Raya has said "Desa bhashalandu Telugu Lessa" which means "Among the nation's languages, Telugu is the best". Rabindranath Tagore is said to have stated that Telugu is the sweetest language. The famous Tamil poet Subramania Bharati also has sung thus "Sundara Telunginil Pattisaithu" which literally means "Sing in beautiful Telugu".

Being a mellifluous language, British authors in the 19th century called Telugu, Italian of the East. It is believed that Italian explorer Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Vijayanagara empire during the reign of Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya in fifteenth century coined the phrase.

According to linguists, Proto-Dravidian gave rise to 21 Dravidian Languages. They can be broadly classified into three groups: Northern group, Central group, and Southern group of Dravidian languages. The central group consists of ten languages, out of which only telugu became a civilized language and the rest of the nine languages remained tribal languages. Telugu is the most widely spoken language of the Dravidian family which consists of 24 languages spanning the entire South-Asia, from Baluchistan to Sri Lanka.

In India the history of scripts has been almost independent of the history of languages, the current similarity in scripts between Telugu and Kannada which falls under southern group of Proto-Dravidian languages along with Tamil, Malayalam, Tulu and others ] has a lot more to do with Chalukyas rule than the similarity between the languages.

Phonology

With 56 letters [ 16 vowels and 36 consonants ], Telugu has more alphabets than any other language known to mankind.

Achchulu అచ్చులు (vowels)

అ ఆ ఇ ఈ ఉ ఊ ఋ ౠ ఎ ఏ ఐ ఒ ఓ ఔ అం అఃas

Hallulu హల్లులు (consonants)

క ఖ గ ఘ ఙ
చ ఛ జ ఝ ఞ
ట ఠ డ ఢ ణ
త థ ద ధ న
ప ఫ బ భ మ
య ర ల వ శ ష స హ ళ క్ష ఱ

Ankelu అంకెలు (Numbers)

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