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Telugu literature flowered in the early 16th century under the Vijayanagar empire, of which Telugu was the court language.

Telugu is the language of the Telugu people, an ethnic group based in southern India.

Telugu is Vikriti, that is a language formed my modification of sanskrit and prakrit. It would appear that Andhras adopted a form of Prakrit which, in course of development, became the immediate ancestor of Telugu.[1]

"Every Sanskrit word is potentially a Telugu word as well, and literary texts in Telugu may be lexically Sanskrit or Sanskritized to an enormous extent, perhaps sixty percent or more".[2]

Every Telugu grammatical rule is laboriously deduced from a Sanskrit canon. [3]

Contents

History

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Early history

Nannaya Bhattarakudu’s Andhra Mahabharatamu produced around the 11th century is commonly referred to as the first Telugu literary composition (Aadi kaavyam). Although there is evidence of Telugu literature before Nannaya, he is still referred to as Aadi Kavi (the first poet) because he was the first poet to establish a formal grammar for written Telugu. Nannaya meticulously laid down the ground rules and semantics of writing in Telugu by borrowing from Sanskrit grammar and inventing original rules. Telugu literature until then was Prakrit based and devoid of a grammar. Nannaya was only able to finish the first two chapters and a part of the third chapter of the Mahabharata.

It is also believed that the pre-Nannaya Literature probably Jain was destroyed by the Kakateeya rulers who were primarily Kapu and Kamma rulers and fanatically anti-Sanskrit.[4] While some believe Nanne Choadudu's famous work Kumara Sambhavam was composed in 10th century before Nannaya's Mahabaratha, others place Nanne Choadudu between the period of Nannaya and Tikkana.[5]

Andhra Mahabharatamu was later furthered by Tikanna Somayaji (1205–1288) who wrote all the remaining chapters (4 - 18). Yerrapragada (fourteenth century) finished the epic by completing the remaining part of third chapter. He masterfully mimics Nannaya's style in the beginning, slowly changes tempo and finishes the chapter in the writing style of Tikkana. Nannaya, Tikanna and Yerrapragada are known as the Kavitraya or the three great poets of Telugu for this mammoth effort. Other such translations like Marana’s Markandeya Puranam, Ketana’s Dasakumara Charita, Yerrapragada’s Harivamsam followed. Many scientific works like Ganitasarasangrahamu by Pavuluri Mallana and Prakirnaganitamu by Eluganti Peddana are written in 12th century in Telugu.[6]

Some of the early landmarks are Srinathudu’s Sringara Naishadham, Potana’s Dasamaskandham, Jakkana’s Vikramarka Charitra and Talapaka Timmakka’s Subhadra Kalyanam. Literary activities flourished, during the rule of Vijayanagara dynasty. Krishnadevaraya’ s time (sixteenth century) is considered the golden age in the history of Telugu literature. The king, a poet himself, introduced the Prabandha (a kind of love poetry) in Telugu literature with his Amukta Malyada. His court had the Ashtadiggajas (literally "eight elephants") who were the known to be the greatest of poets of that time.

Some critics dismiss the following period, dominated by prabandhas, as a decadent age. Of the dozens of works of the eighteenth to mid nineteenth century, Kankanti Paparaju’s Uttara Ramayana in campu style and the play Vishnumayavilasa stand out. Other genres bloomed at the same time. Innumerable Yakshaganas or indigenous dramas of song and prose works were also produced. Tyagaraja (1767–1847) of Tanjore composed devotional songs in Telugu, which form a big part of the repertoire of Carnatic music.

Modern history

Charles Philip Brown (1798-1884), was an employee of East India Company whose quest to understand the basic structure of Telugu language made him embark upon an exploration of Telugu literature. His pursuit is said to be the only present day source of the many classics in Telugu literature.

Although the first printed Telugu book was out in 1796, it was a while before the modern period in Telugu literature set in. Young men acquainted with English literature were influenced by Shelley, Keats and Wordsworth, and a new type of romantic poetry called the Bhavakavithwam was born.

Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848-1919) wrote the first novel in Telugu, Rajashekharacharitramu. Next came the vyavaharika bhasha vadam or using colloquial language in script. Gurajada Apparao with his close associates such as Gidugu Rammurty were primarily responsible for the beginnings of this. His 1910 work Mutyala saralu along with Cattamanchi Ramalinga Reddy's musalamma maranam (1898), and Rayaprolu Subbarao’s Trunakankatam (1913) form the earliest works heralding a break with traditional poetry.

Various forms

  • Prabandham
  • Kavyam
    • Padya kāvyam
    • Gadya kāvyam
    • Kanda Kavyam (short poems)
  • Kavitha
  • Śatakam (Anthology)
  • Avadhanam
  • Navala
  • Katha
  • Nātakam

Popular authors and works

  • Arudra (ఆరుద్ర) - Samagraandhra Saahithyamu (సమగ్రాంధ్ర సాహిత్యము) (The Complete Telugu Literature)
  • Abburi Varada Rajeswara Rao (1923-1993) - Varadakaalam
  • Adavi Baapiraju - Gona Gannareddy, Naarayanarao, Thuphaanu (The storm), Amshumathi
  • Alakki Bhaskarudu - " Bhaskara Satakamu"
  • Ajanta - Penumarti Viswanatha Sastry (born 1922)
  • Allasani Peddana - Manu charithra (The History of Swarochisha Manu)
  • Aathreya - NGO, Kappalu
  • Adrusta Deepak - agni, adavi
  • Bhimasankaram, V.L.S - "Rasasruvu" (Chando Vividhya Padya Kaavyam); "Sivaananda Mandahaasam" (about 4000 Dwipadas- all with 'la'kara Praasa, Anthya Praasa for each Dwipada and Seesa bandham in all the Dwipadas); "Dakshaaraama Bhimeswara Sathakamu" (138 Matthebha/Saardoola Vrittamulu); Sri Raama Nee Naama memi Ruchira!" (A social Padya Kaavya with a fictitious theme)(born 1931)
  • Atukuri Molla - Molla Ramayanam
  • Bammera Pothana - Bhagavatha Purana
  • Buchchibabu - Chivaraku migiledi (What is Left at the End)
  • Balivada Kantha Rao (1927-2000) - Balivada Kantha Rao Kathalu (Winner of the Kendriya Sahitya Academy Award)
  • Bhagyalakshmi. J - Work and Contribution of Dr. J. Bhagyalakshmi
  • Boyi Bhimanna - Gudiselu Kaalipothunnaayi
  • C. Narayanareddy - Vishwambhara
  • Bhamidipati RamaGopalam - Aarama Gopalam
  • BHAVASHRI(W.RAMA RAO)
  • Cha So (1915-1993)
  • Chemakura Venkata Kavi Vijaya Vilaasamu
  • Duggirala Balarama Krishnayya - Buddha Puranam, Manava Jivitam, and many others.
  • Chalam - Chithraangi, Maidhaanam, Saavithri, Janaki, Ameena, Brahmaneekam, Musings
  • Chilakamarti Lakshmi Narasimham - Gayopaakhyaanam, Prahasanamulu
  • Daasaradhi Krishnamacharyulu - Timiramutho samaramu (Fighting against the darkness)
  • Daasaradhi Rangacharyulu - Chillara Devullu, Tirumalakonda Pada Chitralu
  • Devarakonda Balagangadhara Tilak - Tilak Kathalu, Amrutam Kurisina Raatri
  • Dhurjati - Srikaalahasteesvara Satakam
  • Duvvoori Ramireddy - Paanasaala, Krusheevaludu
  • Devulapalli Krishnasastri - Krishna pakshamu (The Brightening Fortnight)
  • Gadiyaaram Venkataseshasastri - Sivabhaaratham
  • Gona Buddhareddy - Ranganaatha Raamaayanamu
  • Gurajada Apparao - Kanyaasulkamu
  • Gurram Jashuva - Gabbilamu (The bat), Phiradousi
  • J Bhagyalakshmi - Work and Contribution of Dr. J. Bhagyalakshmi
  • Kaethana - Dasakumaara charithra
  • Kaloji- "Naa Godava", "Idee Naa Godava"-autobiography
  • Kandukuri Veeresalingam - Andhrakavula Charithra (The history of Andhra Poets), Raajasekhara Charithra (The history of Rajasekhara), Prahasanamulu
  • Kasula Purushottama Kavi - Andhranayaka Satakamu
  • Kavitrayam (Nannayya, Tikkana, Yerrapragada) - Andhra Mahaabhaarathamu (The great Mahabharatha in Telugu)
  • Kethu Viswanathareddy - Kethu Viswanathareddy Kathalu
  • Ko Ku - Chaduvu
  • Kotha Satyanarayana Chowdary - Dharma Saastram, Vaidika Vaagmaya Charitra, Maaswami, Kalpavruksha khandanam, kulapati, Kaviraju, Chinnaya, Kalipuranam, Maayaabhikshuvu, Manjari, Saahiti, Kaamasaastram, Vasantasena
  • Kondaviti Venkata Kavi - Nehru Charitra
  • Kotikalapudi Seetamma - Ahalyabai, Sadhuraksha Satakamu, Bhaktimargamu, Satidharmamu
  • Koochimanchi Timmana - Rukmini parinayamu (Rukmini's wedding)
  • Korlapati Sriraamamurthy - Sreenaadhudu (The poet Srinadha)
  • Leelavati - Leelavati Ganithamu
  • Maarana - Maarkandaeya puraanamu
  • Madhurantakam Rajaram - Halikulu Kushalama
  • Mohammad Khadeer Babu - Dargamitta Kathalu, Zameen
  • Mokkapati Narasimha Sastry - Barrister Parvateesam
  • Muddupalani - Radhika Santvanamu
  • Mullapudi Venkata Ramana - Budugu, Girisam malli puttadu
  • Muppala Ranganayakamma - Raamayana vishavŕksham, Krishnaveni, sweet home, Janaki Vimukthi, Ammaki Adivaram Leda
  • Nandoori Subbarao - Yenki paatalu
  • Nanne Choadudu - Kumaara Sambhavamu
  • Nidumolu Prasuna - SAketa SAvabhouma (Telugu translation of Tulasidasa Ramayana); "Andina Chivullu", "Tyaganirathi" (philosophical essays & short stories)
  • Nayani Krishnakumari - Telugu geya vanjmayam, Agniputri, Kashmira deepakalika
  • Palagummi Padmaraju - Bathikina collegee
  • Palkuriki Somanaathudu - Basava puraanamu
  • Panuganti Lakshmi Narasimham - Saakshi (The witness)
  • Paravasthu Chinnayasuri - Baalavyaakaranamu, neethi chandrika
  • Pingali Soorana - Kalaa poornodhayamu
  • Patanjali K.N.Y - Kakhivanam, Gopathrudu, Oka dayyam aathma katha, Patanjali Bhashyam, Veerabobbili, Rajula Logillu, Pilakatirugudu Puvvu, Appanna Sardar, Nuvve Kadhu, Choopunna Pata, Veta Kathalu, Adarra Banti, Raju Goru, Dikkumalina College, Gelupu Sare Batakadam Ela?, Impish Chronicles and Doggish Dabbler (www.knypatanjali.com)
  • Rachakonda Viswanathasastri - Alpajeevi (The miserable)
  • Ramaraaja Bhooshanudu - Vasu charithra
  • Sudheer Vemuru - The Greatest Man on the Planet
  • Rallapalli Anantha Krishna Sharma
  • Rangajamma - Mannaru Dasavilasamau
  • Ravuri Bharadwaja - Paakudu raallu
  • Raayaprolu Subbarao - Jada kuchchulu, Ramyaaloakam
  • Sankaramanchi Satyam - Amaravati Kathalu (The stories from Amaravati)
  • Sri Krishna Deva Raya - Aamukta Maalyadha
  • Sri Siddappa Varakavi
  • Sripaada Subrahmanyasastri - Anubhavaalu J~naapakaalu
  • Sri Sri - Mahaaprasthaanamu
  • Sri K Sabha - "Vishwarupa Sandarsanam, Vedabhoomi, Mogili, Pathalaganga"
  • Srinatha - Haravilaasamu, Kaasikhandamu, Bhimakhandamu, Palnaati veeracharithra, Sŕngaara naishadhamu
  • Suravaram Pratapareddy - Aandhrula Saanghika Charithra
  • Tallapaka Annamacharya (1424?-1503) - Annamacharya keertanalu
  • Tallapaka Timmakka - Subhadrakalyanam
  • Tarigonda Venkamamba - Venkatachala Mahatmyamu, Vasista Ramamyanamu, Rajayogasaramu, Bhagavatamu, Krishnamanjari
  • Tenali Ramakrishna - Paanduranga maahaatmyamu
  • Tenneti Hemalata = Raktapankam, 'Mohanavamsi, Omar Khayyam
  • Thummala Seetaraamamoorthy - Baapu aathmakadha, Rashtra gaanamu
  • Tikkana - Nirvachanoththara Raamayanamu -
  • Timmana - Paarijaathaapaharanamu
  • Tirumala Ramachandra - Hampi nunchi Harrapa dhaka
  • Tirupati Venkata Kavulu - Paandavodyoga vijayamulu, Devi bhaagavatham
  • Tirumalamba - Varadambica parinayamu
  • Tripuranaeni Gopichand - Merupula Marakalu
  • Tripuraneni Ramaswamy Choudhury - Suthapuranamu, Karempudi kadanam, Kurukshetra sangramam, Kuppuswamy satakam, Sambhukavadha, Suthashrama geethalu', Dhoorta manava, Khooni, Bhagavadgita, Rana Pratap, Kondaveeti pathanam
  • Turaga Krishna Mohan Rao - Pendli Pareeksha, Maata Kacheri
  • Turaga Janaki Rani - Erragulabeelu, Janki Rani Kathalu, Maa Taatayya Chalam, Navvani Puvvu, Ee Desam Oka Himalayam, Veyabovani Talupu, Snagharshana, Cheta Kaani Nati, Nee Jeevitam Naaku Kaavali
  • Ushasri - Sundarakanda
  • Unnava Lakshminaarayana - Maala pilla
  • Vattikota Alwaru Swami - Prajala Manishi, Gangu
  • Viswanatha Satyanarayana - Cheliyalikatta, Kalpavrukshamu, Kinnerasaani Paatalu, Srimadraamaayana kalpavŕkshamu, Swargaaniki Nichchenalu, Vaeyipadagalu, Ekaveera, naa ramudu, nepala rajavamsa kadhalu
  • Vemana - Vemana Satakam
  • Yandamuri Veerendranath - Vennello aadapilla, Marana Mrudangam, Aanando Brahma, Tulasi dalam, Ashta Vakra, Prarthana , Swara Bethalam, Prema, Rendu gundela chappudu, graphlogy, popular rachanalu cheyadam ela?,Mimmalni mee pillalu preminchalante?
  • Yerrapragada - Harivansamu, Nrusimhapuranam, half of the Aranya Parva of Maha Bharat
  • Yetukuri Venkata Narasayya - Maguva Maanchaala

References

  1. ^ Chenchiah, P.; Rao, Raja Bhujanga (1988). A History of Telugu Literature. Asian Educational Services. p. 16. ISBN 8120603133.  
  2. ^ Velcheru Narayana Rao; David Shulman, Classical Telugu Poetry (2 ed.), The Regents of the University of California, p. 3  
  3. ^ Charles Philip Brown, A Grammar of the Telugu language, Kessinger Publishing, p. 266  
  4. ^ P, Chenchiah; Raja Bhujanga Rao. A History of Telugu Literature. India: Oxford University press.  
  5. ^ P.T, Raju. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book House.  
  6. ^ P.T, Raju. A Telugu Literature. India: Onal Book House.  
  • P, Chenchiah; Raja Bhujanga Rao. A History of Telugu Literature. India: Oxford University press.  

External links


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