Tempo: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Bars per minute article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

.Bars per Minute, also known as Measures per Minute (MPM), is another way to measure the speed of music.^ These boxes focus on rotational speed, number of revolutions per minute, turning direction of the rotor, and the time interval of function of the rotor in a day.
  • Finest Watches - Scatola Del Tempo 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.finestwatches.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With that done, it's a simple matter of sorting your music library by the beats-per-minute field.

^ The tempo of a piece will typically be written at the start of a piece of music, and in modern music is usually indicated in beats per minute (BPM).
  • The Classical Tempo Dictonary Page on Classic Cat 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.classiccat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a similar system to measuring the Beats per Minute (BPM) of a song.^ Beats per minute (bpm) .
  • Dolmetsch Online - Music Theory Online - Tempo 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.dolmetsch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beats per minute .
  • Dolmetsch Online - Music Theory Online - Tempo 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.dolmetsch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With that done, it's a simple matter of sorting your music library by the beats-per-minute field.

.However, measuring BPM does not take into account the time signature of a particular song.^ Time is a measure of motion and of being moved, and it measures the motion by determining a motion which will measure exactly the whole motion, as the cubit does the length by determining an amount which will measure out the whole.

^ When I say bpm I meand 4/4 time, 8th note (2 mandolin notes per beat) or however I sohould say it meaning 4 beats per measure.
  • What tempo are you shooting for? - Mandolin Cafe Message Board 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.mandolincafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since tempo is the measure of a motion between two instances of stillnessone before, one after it--any time you move and then you are still again you have made a tempo, and the opponent can therefore take it.

.When measuring BPM one usually takes for granted that a song will be in 4/4 time.^ When I say bpm I meand 4/4 time, 8th note (2 mandolin notes per beat) or however I sohould say it meaning 4 beats per measure.
  • What tempo are you shooting for? - Mandolin Cafe Message Board 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.mandolincafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since tempo is the measure of a motion between two instances of stillnessone before, one after it--any time you move and then you are still again you have made a tempo, and the opponent can therefore take it.

^ The question, I think, is this - In 4/4 time how many beats do you count in one measure when you state your beats per minute number.
  • What tempo are you shooting for? - Mandolin Cafe Message Board 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.mandolincafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In ballroom dancing most songs are measured in Measures per Minute (MPM).^ It makes sense - but, I think the contra dance crowd I'm hanging around with is only counting 2 beats per measure, not 4, in 4/4 time.
  • What tempo are you shooting for? - Mandolin Cafe Message Board 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.mandolincafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About this album This dance movement is set in triple meter, with three beats per measure, alternating one strong and two weak beats ( 1 - 2 - 3 .

^ It automatically detects the beats per minute of songs in your music library, and makes playlists of songs at the pace you want.

.This is because not all songs have the same time signature.^ Because the same part of the body that is moving one way cannot simultaneously make a contrary motion in the same space of time.

^ All else being equal, the set with the slower eccentric is more hypertrophy-stimulating because it eliminates momentum and increases time under tension.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Tempo & Tension Maximization For Advanced Bodybuilders! - Tom Venuto 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ It is great that it is an all girls camp, because it is so easy to fit in and have a good time with the other players."

For example Waltzes are in 3/4 time and pasodobles are written in 2/2 time. .Therefore, counting BPM does not give one an accurate speed of the song in comparison to other songs with different time signatures.^ You are right in thinking if it is 2/4 it is counted one way and if it is 4/4, another (twice the speed).
  • What tempo are you shooting for? - Mandolin Cafe Message Board 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.mandolincafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is also a useful technique for bodybuilders at times, but bodybuilders are different from Olympic lifters, powerlifters and other athletes in that size is the goal - not speed or explosive power.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Tempo & Tension Maximization For Advanced Bodybuilders! - Tom Venuto 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ Dance Tempi If one wants to rely on a dance name to indicate tempo, you must remember that the same dance could have have been danced at different tempi at different times in history.
  • Dolmetsch Online - Music Theory Online - Tempo 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.dolmetsch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Counting the speed of a song in MPM takes into account the time signatures of a song.^ It does not predetermine a metrical structure but allows for virtual meter changes into 2/2 and 4/8 within its frame – as they were indicated explicitly in time signatures in French récitatifs.
  • Mozart's Tempo Indications, Mozarts Tempobezeichnungen 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC tempo-indications.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For Haydn and Mozart the speed was defined by the combination of time signature , smallest note values and tempo word , they did not regard it as an independent paradigma like we do.
  • Mozart's Tempo Indications, Mozarts Tempobezeichnungen 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC tempo-indications.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Naturally, since time is dependent on motion and the speed of an attack is dependent on measure, it is easier to take smaller tempi while in misura stretta than in misura larga.

The more MPM a song has the faster the song will tend to be. The fewer MPM a song has the slower the song will tend to be.

DVIDA standards for ballroom dances

The DVIDA style of ballroom dancing states an ideal speed, in MPM, for each particular dance that is taught under that style.
Ideal MPM for American Style dances according to the DVIDA curriculum:

's Sonata K. 331, which indicates the tempo as "Andante grazioso" and a modern editor's metronome marking: " = 120".]]

In musical terminology, tempo (Italian for time, movement) is the speed or pace of a given piece. It is a crucial element of composition, as it can affect the mood and difficulty of a piece. The plural of tempo is tempi.

Contents

Measuring tempo

The tempo of a piece will typically be written at the start of a piece of music, and in modern music is usually indicated in beats per minute (BPM). This means that a particular note value (for example, a quarter note or crotchet) is specified as the beat, and the marking indicates that a certain number of these beats must be played per minute. The greater the tempo, the larger the number of beats that must be played in a minute is, and, therefore, the faster a piece must be played. Mathematical tempo markings of this kind became increasingly popular during the first half of the 19th century, after the metronome had been invented by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel, although early metronomes were somewhat inconsistent. Beethoven was the first composer to use the metronome, and in 1817 he published metronomic indications for his (then) eight symphonies. Unfortunately, the metronome markings on his "Hammerklavier" Sonata and Ninth Symphony are almost impossibly fast, as is also the case for many of the works of Schumann.[1]

With the advent of modern electronics, BPM became an extremely precise measure. MIDI files and other types of sequencing software use the BPM system to denote tempo.

As an alternative to metronome markings, some 20th century composers (such as Béla Bartók and John Cage) would give the total execution time of a piece, from which the proper tempo can be roughly derived.

Tempo is as crucial in contemporary music as it is in classical. In electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's BPM is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching.

Musical vocabulary for tempo

Whether a music piece has a mathematical time indication or not, in classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words. Most of these words are Italian, because many of the most important composers of the 17th century were Italian, and this period was when tempo indications were first used extensively.

Before the metronome, words were the only way to describe the tempo of a composition. Yet after the metronome's invention, these words continued to be used, often additionally indicating the mood of the piece, thus blurring the traditional distinction between tempo and mood indicators. For example, presto and allegro both indicate a speedy execution (presto being faster), but allegro also connotes joy (from its original meaning in Italian). Presto, on the other hand, indicates speed as such (while possibly connoting virtuosity, a connotation it did not acquire until the late 18th century).

Additional Italian words also indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication (undoubtedly faster than a usual Allegro) and a mood indication ("agitated").

Understood tempi

In some cases (quite often up to the end of the Baroque period), conventions governing musical composition were so strong that no tempo had to be indicated. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. To provide movement names, publishers of recordings resort to ad hoc measures, for instance marking the Brandenburg movement "Allegro", "(Allegro)", "(Without indication)", and so on.

In Renaissance music most music was understood to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus, roughly the rate of the human heartbeat. Which note value corresponded to the tactus was indicated by the mensural time signature.

Often a particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so no further explanation is placed in the score. Thus musicians expect a minuet to be performed at a fairly stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz; a Perpetuum Mobile to be quite fast, and so on. Genres can be used to imply tempos; thus Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, although that movement is not a minuet. Popular music charts use terms such as "bossa nova", "ballad", and "Latin rock" in much the same way.

It is important to remember when interpreting these words that not only have tempos changed over historical time, and even in different places, but sometimes even the ordering of terms has changed. Thus a modern largo is slower than an adagio, but in the Baroque period it was faster[2].

Italian tempo markings

The definitions of the Italian tempo markings mentioned in this section can be found in the Harvard Dictionary of Music and/or the online Italian-English dictionary, both of which are listed in Sources.

Basic tempo markings

The common tempo markings are:

  • Prestissimo — extremely fast (more than 200bpm)
  • Vivacissimamente — adverb of vivacissimo, "very quickly and lively"
  • Vivacissimo — very fast and lively
  • Presto — very fast (168–200 bpm)
  • Allegrissimo — very fast
  • Vivo — lively and fast
  • Vivace — lively and fast (≈140 bpm)
  • Allegro — fast and bright or "march tempo" (120–168 bpm)
  • Allegro moderato — moderately quick (112–124 bpm)
  • Allegretto — moderately fast (but less so than allegro)
  • Allegretto grazioso — moderately fast and gracefully
  • Moderato — moderately (108–120 bpm)
  • Moderato espressivo — moderately with expression
  • Andantino — alternatively faster or slower than andante
  • Andante Moderato — a bit faster than andante
  • Andante — at a walking pace (76–108 bpm)
  • Tranquillamente — adverb of tranquillo, "tranquilly"
  • Tranquillo — tranquil
  • Adagietto — rather slow (70–80 bpm)
  • Adagio — slow and stately (literally, "at ease") (66–76 bpm)
  • Larghetto — rather broadly (60–66 bpm)
  • Grave — slow and solemn
  • Lento — very slow (40–60 bpm)
  • Lento Moderato - moderately slow
  • Largo — very slow (40–60 bpm), like lento
  • Larghissimo — very, very slow (20 bpm and below)
  • Largamente - very, very, very slow 10bpm

Additional Terms:

  • Marcato — marching tempo, marked with emphasis
  • Misterioso — mysterious
  • Tempo comodo — at a comfortable (normal) speed
  • Tempo giusto — at a consistent speed, at the 'right' speed
  • Tempo semplice — simple, regular speed, plainly
  • L'istesso tempo — at the same speed
  • Non troppo — not too much (such as Allegro ma non troppo, "fast but not too much")
  • Assai — very (e.g. Adagio assai)
  • Con — with (e.g. Andante con moto, "at a walking pace with motion")
  • Molto — much, very (such as Molto allegro)
  • Poco — a little (such as Poco allegro)
  • Quasi — as if (such as Più allegro quasi presto, "faster, as if presto")
  • tempo di... — the speed of a ... (such as Tempo di valse (speed of a waltz), Tempo di marcia (speed of a march))
  • Con brio — lively, literally, "with brilliance"

All of these markings are based on a few root words such as 'allegro', 'largo', 'adagio', 'vivace', 'presto' 'andante' and 'lento'. By adding the -issimo ending the word is amplified, by adding the -ino ending the word is diminished, and by adding the -etto ending the word is endeared. Many tempos also can be translated with the same meaning, however, it is not up to the player to interpret the speed that best suits the period, composer, and individual work; these markings are absolute, rather than relative.

Note: Metronome markings are a guide only and depending on the time signature and the piece itself, these figures may not be appropriate in every circumstance.

Common qualifiers

  • assai — very, very much, as in allegro assai (but also understood by some as, "as if")
  • con brio — with vigour or spirit
  • con fuoco — with fire
  • con moto — with motion
  • non troppo — not too much, e.g. allegro non troppo (or allegro ma non troppo) means "fast, but not too much"
  • non tanto — not so much
  • molto — much, very, as in molto allegro (very fast and bright) or adagio molto
  • poco — slightly, little, as in Poco adagio
  • più — more, as in più allegro; used as a relative indication when the tempo changes
  • meno — less, as in meno presto
  • poco a poco — little by little

Note: In addition to the common allegretto, composers freely apply Italian diminutive and superlative suffixes to various tempo indications: andantino, larghetto, adagietto, and larghissimo.

Mood markings with a tempo connotation

Some markings that primarily mark a mood (or character) also have a tempo connotation:

  • Affettuoso — with feeling/emotion
  • Agitato — agitated, with implied quickness
  • Appassionata — to play passionately
  • Dolce — sweetly
  • Espressivo — expressively
  • Furioso — to play in an angry or furious manner
  • Giocoso — merrily, funny
  • Lacrimoso — tearfully, sadly
  • Leggiero — to play lightly, or with light touch
  • Maestoso — majestic or stately (which generally indicates a solemn, slow movement)
  • Morendo — dying
  • Pesante — heavily
  • Sautillé/ Saltando — jumpy, fast, and short
  • Sostenuto — sustained, sometimes with a slackening of tempo
  • Spiccato — slow sautillé, with a bouncy manner
  • Vivace — lively and fast, over 140 bpm (which generally indicates a fast movement)

Terms for change in tempo

Composers may use expressive marks to adjust the tempo:

  • Accelerando — speeding up (abbreviation: accel.)
  • Allargando — growing broader; decreasing tempo, usually near the end of a piece
  • Calando - going slower (and usually also softer)
  • Cantabile - in singing style (lyrical and flowing)
  • Meno mosso — less movement or slower
  • Mosso — movement, more lively, or quicker, much like più mosso, but not as extreme
  • Più mosso — more movement or faster
  • Precipitando - hurrying, going faster/forward
  • Rallentando — gradual slowing down (abbreviation: rall.)
  • Ritardando — immediate slowing down (abbreviation: rit. or more specifically, ritard.)
  • Ritenuto — slightly slower; temporarily holding back. (Note that the abbreviation for ritardando can also be rit. Thus a more specific abbreviation is riten. Also sometimes ritenuto does not reflect a tempo change but a character change instead.)
  • Rubato — free adjustment of tempo for expressive purposes
  • Stretto — rushing ahead; temporarily speeding up
  • Stringendo — pressing on faster

While the base tempo indication (such as allegro) appears in large type above the staff, these adjustments typically appear below the staff or (in the case of keyboard instruments) in the middle of the grand staff.

They generally designate a gradual change in tempo; for immediate tempo shifts, composers normally just provide the designation for the new tempo. (Note, however, that when Più Mosso or Meno Mosso appears in large type above the staff, it functions as a new tempo, and thus implies an immediate change.) Several terms control how large and how gradual this change is:

  • poco a poco — bit by bit, gradually
  • subito — suddenly
  • poco — a little
  • molto — a lot
  • assai — quite a lot, very

After a tempo change, a composer may return to a previous tempo in two different ways:

  • a tempo - returns to the base tempo after an adjustment (e.g. "ritardando ... a tempo" undoes the effect of the ritardando).
  • Tempo primo or Tempo I - denotes an immediate return to the piece's original base tempo after a section in a different tempo (e.g. "Allegro ... Lento ... Moderato .... Tempo I" indicates a return to the Allegro). This indication often functions as a structural marker in pieces in binary form.

These terms also indicate an immediate, not a gradual, tempo change. Although they are Italian, composers typically use them even if they have written their initial tempo marking in some other language.

Tempo markings in other languages

Although Italian has been the prevalent language for tempo markings throughout most of classical music history, many composers have written tempo indications in their own language. The definitions of the tempo markings mentioned in this section can be found in the Harvard Dictionary of Music and/or the online foreign language dictionaries which are listed in Sources.

French tempo markings

Several composers have written markings in French, among them baroque composers François Couperin and Jean-Philippe Rameau as well as Claude Debussy, Olivier Messiaen, Maurice Ravel and Alexander Scriabin. Common tempo markings in French are:

  • Grave — slowly and solemnly
  • Lent — slowly
  • Modéré — at a moderate tempo
  • Vif — lively
  • Vite — fast
  • Rapide — fast
  • Très — very, as in Très vif (very lively)
  • Moins — less, as in Moins vite (less fast)
  • Au mouvement — play the (first or main) tempo.

German tempo markings

Many composers have used German tempo markings. Typical German tempo markings are:

  • Langsam — slowly
  • Mäßig — moderately
  • Lebhaft — lively (mood)
  • Rasch — quickly
  • Schnell — fast

One of the first German composers to use tempo markings in his native language was Ludwig van Beethoven. The one using the most elaborate combined tempo and mood markings was probably Gustav Mahler. For example, the second movement of his Symphony No. 9 is marked Im tempo eines gemächlichen Ländlers, etwas täppisch und sehr derb, indicating a slowish folk-dance–like movement, with some awkwardness and vulgarity in the execution. Mahler would also sometimes combine German tempo markings with traditional Italian markings, as in the first movement of his sixth symphony, marked Allegro energico, ma non troppo. Heftig, aber markig (Energetically quick, but not too much. Violent, but vigorous[3]).

Tempo markings in English

English indications, for example quickly, have also been used, by Benjamin Britten and Percy Grainger, among many others. In jazz and popular music charts, terms like "fast", "laid back", "steady rock", "medium", "medium-up", "ballad", and similar style indications may appear.

Tempo markings as movement names and compositions with a tempo indicator name

Generally, composers (or music publishers) will name movements of compositions after their tempo (and/or mood) marking. For instance the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an "Adagio".

Some such movements may start to lead a life of their own, and become known with the tempo/mood marker name, for instance the string orchestra version of the second movement of Barber's first string quartet became known as Adagio for Strings. A similar example is Mahler's most famous work - the Adagietto from his Symphony No. 5. Another is Mozart's Alla Turca (here indicating the Janissary music type of mood of the final movement of Mozart's 11th Piano Sonata, K. 331)

Sometimes the link between a musical composition with a "tempo" name and a separate movement of a composition is less clear. For instance Albinoni's Adagio, a 20th century creative "reconstruction" based on an incomplete manuscript.

Some composers chose to include tempo indicators in the name of a separate composition, for instance Bartók in Allegro barbaro ("barbaric Allegro"), a single movement composition.

Rushing and dragging

When performers unintentionally speed up, they are said to rush. The similar term for unintentionally slowing down is drag.

Unless practiced by an experienced performer to achieve a particular musical effect, these actions are undesirable; dragging can often indicate a hesitance in the performer due to lack of practice; rushing can likewise destroy the pulse of the music.

Because of their negative connotation, neither rush nor drag (nor their equivalents in other languages) are often used as tempo indications in scores, Mahler being a notable exception: as part of a tempo indication he used schleppend (dragging) in the first movement of his Symphony No. 1, for example.

By practising with a metronome a musician can try to gain control over rushing or dragging.

References

  1. ^ See "metronome" entry in Apel (1969), p. 523.
  2. ^ music theory online: tempo, Dolmetsch.com
  3. ^ Italian translation, WordReferece.com; German, Apel (1969).

Sources

Books on tempo in music:

  • Epstein, David. Shaping Time: Music, the Brain, and Performance, Schirmer Books, New York, 1995. ISBN 0028733207
  • Marty, Jean-Pierre. The Tempo Indications of Mozart, Yale University Press, New Haven, 1988. ISBN 0300038526
  • Sachs, Curt. Rhythm and Tempo: A Study in Music History, Norton, New York, 1953.

Music Dictionary:

  • Apel, Willi, ed., Harvard Dictionary of Music, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1969. SBN 674375017

General Language Dictionaries:

External links


Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

tempo
the "speed" of the music. The tempo determines how many notes of a given value can be played in a given amount of time. Musical scores may include a tempo recommendation (usually in Italian), i.e.,
  • Allegro
  • Largo
or a more precise instruction, in the form of a particular note-value, i.e.
  • minim/half-note = 120 (this would typically be interpreted as 120 half-notes in one minute)

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also tempo

Contents

German

Noun

Tempo n. (genitive Tempos, plural Tempi or Tempos)
  1. (pace, rate, speed) tempo (plural: Tempi)
  2. (Registered trademark for a paper handkerchief brand, but used as a generic term) tissue (plural: Tempos)

Synonyms

Derived terms

See also


Gaming

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

.From Wikia Gaming, your source for walkthroughs, games, guides, and more!^ Three footers for par will find the back of the hole more consistently, and solid chip shots will take strokes off your game.
  • Golf Instruction: Golf Training Aids: Golf SwingTrainer: Swing Tempo 24 January 2010 10:27 UTC www.practicerange.com [Source type: General]

Tempo

Developer(s) Sega
Publisher(s) Sega
Release date Sega 32X:
1995 (NA)
Genre 2D platformer
Mode(s) Single player
Age rating(s) ESRB: K-A
Sega 32X
Platform(s) Sega 32X
Input Sega Genesis Controller
Credits | Soundtrack | Codes | Walkthrough


Stub
This article is a stub. You can help by adding to it.
Stubs are articles that writers have begun work on, but are not yet complete enough to be considered finished articles.

This article uses material from the "Tempo" article on the Gaming wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

's Sonata XI, which indicates the tempo as "Andante grazioso" and a modern editor's metronome marking: " = 120".]]

In music, tempo (Italian for 'time, movement') is the speed of a song or piece.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 29, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tempo, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message