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State of Tennessee
Flag of Tennessee State seal of Tennessee
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Volunteer State
Motto(s): Agriculture and Commerce
before statehood, known as
the Southwest Territory
Map of the United States with Tennessee highlighted
Official language(s) English
Demonym Tennessean
Capital Nashville
Largest city Memphis
Largest metro area Nashville Metropolitan Area
Area  Ranked 36th in the US
 - Total 42,169 sq mi
(109,247 km2)
 - Width 120 miles (195 km)
 - Length 440 miles (710 km)
 - % water 2.2
 - Latitude 34° 59′ N to 36° 41′ N
 - Longitude 81° 39′ W to 90° 19′ W
Population  Ranked 17th in the US
 - Total 6,214,888 (2008 est.)[1]
 - Density 138.0/sq mi  (53.29/km2)
Ranked 19th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Clingmans Dome[2]
6,643 ft. ft  (2,025 m)
 - Mean 900 ft  (280 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[2]
178 ft  (54 m)
Admission to Union  June 1, 1796 (16th)
Governor Phil Bredesen (D)
Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey (R)
U.S. Senators Lamar Alexander (R)
Bob Corker (R)
U.S. House delegation 5 Democrats, 4 Republicans (list)
Time zones  
 - East Tennessee Eastern: UTC-5/-4
 - Middle and West Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations TN Tenn. US-TN
Website http://www.tennessee.gov

Tennessee (Listeni /tɛnɪˈs/) is a state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,214,888, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers 42,169 square miles (109,220 km2), making it the 36th-largest by total land area.[3] Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia to the north, North Carolina to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi to the south, and Arkansas and Missouri to the west. The Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Tennessee's capital and second largest city is Nashville, which has a population of 626,144.[4] Memphis is the state's largest city, with a population of 670,902.[5] Nashville has the state's largest metropolitan area, at 1,521,437 people.[6]

The State of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians.[7] What is now Tennessee was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. In the early 19th-century, Tennessee was home to some of American history's most colorful political figures, among them Davy Crockett, Andrew Jackson, and Sam Houston. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War in 1861, and the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.[8] Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state, and more soldiers for the Union Army than any other Southern state.[8] Tennessee has seen some of the nation's worst racial strife, from the formation of the Ku Klux Klan in Pulaski in 1866 to the assassination of Martin Luther King in Memphis in 1968. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided at times by federal entities such as the Tennessee Valley Authority. In the early 1940s, Oak Ridge, Tennessee was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bomb.

Tennessee is the birthplace of country music, and has played a critical role in the development of rock and roll and early blues music. Beale Street in Memphis is considered by many to be the birthplace of the blues, with musicians such as W.C. Handy performing in its clubs as early as 1909.[9] Memphis was also home to Sun Records, where musicians such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, and Charlie Rich began their recording careers, and where rock and roll took shape in the 1950s.[10] The 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol generally mark the beginning of the country music genre,[11] and the rise of the Grand Ole Opry in the 1930s helped make Nashville the center of the country music recording industry.[12]

Tennessee's major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Tobacco, cotton, and soybeans are the state's primary agricultural crops,[13] and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment.[14] The Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park,[15] is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, and a section of the Appalachian Trail roughly follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include Elvis Presley's Graceland in Memphis and the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga.

Contents

Geography

Map of Tennessee - PDF

Tennessee borders eight other states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west. Tennessee ties Missouri as the state bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m).[2] Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail. The state line between Tennessee and North Carolina crosses the summit. The lowest point is the Mississippi River at the Mississippi state line. The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro.

The state of Tennessee is geographically and constitutionally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. Tennessee features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Tennessee is home to the most caves in the United States, with over 8,350 caves registered to date.

East Tennessee

Map of Tennessee highlighting East Tennessee

The Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, bordering North Carolina. This region of Tennessee is characterized by the high mountains and rugged terrain of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into several subranges, namely the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands, and the Iron Mountains. The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. Clingmans Dome, the state's highest point, is located in this region. The Blue Ridge area was never more than sparsely populated, and today much of it is protected by the Cherokee National Forest, the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, and several federal wilderness areas and state parks.

Stretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately 55 miles (88 km) is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley. This area of Tennessee is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain. The western section of the Tennessee valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley. In this valley are numerous towns and two of the region's three urban areas, Knoxville, the 3rd largest city in the state, and Chattanooga, the 4th largest city in the state.

Middle Tennessee

Map of Tennessee highlighting Middle Tennessee

To the west of East Tennessee lies the Cumberland Plateau; this area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau ranges from 1,500 to 1,800 feet (450 to 550 m) above sea level. West of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin. The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau and is located in primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and high natural wildlife diversity.

Middle Tennessee was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians in the late 1700s and early 1800s. An important trading route called the Natchez Trace, first used by Native Americans, connected Middle Tennessee to the lower Mississippi River town of Natchez. Today the route of the Natchez Trace is a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace Parkway.

Some of the last remaining large American Chestnut trees still grow in this region and are being used to help breed blight resistant trees.

West Tennessee

Map of Tennessee highlighting West Tennessee

West of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi embayment. The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois. In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River in the east to the Mississippi River in the west. The easternmost section, about 10 miles (16 km) in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee River. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to Memphis; this area is called the Tennessee Bottoms or bottom land. In Memphis, the Tennessee Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River. To the west of the Tennessee Bottoms is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, less than 300 feet (90 m) above sea level. This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as the Delta region.

Most of West Tennessee remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818, when the Chickasaw ceded their land between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River. The portion of the Chickasaw Cession that lies in Kentucky is known today as the Jackson Purchase.

Public lands

Areas under the control and management of the National Park Service include:

Fifty-four state parks, covering some 132,000 acres (534 km²) as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are in Tennessee. Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake, originally formed by an earthquake; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty.

See also: List of Tennessee state parks

Climate

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as having a mountain temperate climate or a humid continental climate due to cooler temperatures[16]. The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year. On average the state receives 50 inches (130 cm) of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in West Tennessee to over 16 inches (41 cm) in the higher mountains in East Tennessee.[17]

Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state averaging a high of around 90 °F (32 °C) during the summer months. Summer nights tend to be cooler in East Tennessee. Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state.

While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane, the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall. The state averages around 50 days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be quite severe. Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West and Middle Tennessee the most vulnerable.[18] On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year.[19] Tornadoes in Tennessee can be severe, and Tennessee leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities.[20] Winter storms are an occasional problem, although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Fog is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in much of the Smoky Mountains.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee Cities (F)[21]
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Chattanooga 49/30 54/33 63/40 72/47 79/56 86/65 90/69 89/68 82/62 72/48 61/40 52/33
Knoxville 47/30 52/33 61/40 71/48 78/57 85/65 88/69 87/68 81/62 71/50 60/41 50/34
Memphis 49/31 55/36 63/44 72/52 80/61 89/69 92/73 91/71 85/64 75/52 62/43 52/34
Nashville 46/28 52/31 61/39 70/47 78/57 85/65 89/70 88/68 82/61 71/49 59/40 49/32
Oak Ridge 46/27 52/30 61/37 71/44 78/53 85/62 88/66 87/65 81/59 71/46 59/36 49/30

History

Early history

Mississippian-period art, carved from seashell, unearthed in Middle Tennessee.

The area now known as Tennessee was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12,000 years ago.[22] The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 B.C.), Woodland (1000 B.C.–1000 A.D.), and Mississippian (1000–1600 A.D.), whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters.

The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which may have evolved to the state's current name. At that time, Tennessee was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee was Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. The fort was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. After its completion, Captain Raymond Demeré relinquished command on 14 August 1757 to his brother, Captain Paul Demeré. Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on 7 August 1760. The following morning, Captain Paul Demeré and a number of his men were killed in an ambush nearby, and the most of the rest of the garrison was taken prisoner.[23]

In the 1760s, long hunters from Virginia explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade. During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton) was attacked in 1776 by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee (also referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga) opposed to the Transylvania Purchase and aligned with the British Loyalists. The lives of many settlers were spared through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin Nancy Ward. The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina.

Eight counties of western North Carolina (and now part of Tennessee) broke off from that state in the late 1780s and formed the abortive State of Franklin. Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties had re-joined North Carolina by 1790. North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory. In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory of Tennessee, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). The Trace was called the “North Carolina Road” or “Avery’s Trace,” and sometimes “The Wilderness Road (although it should not be confused with Daniel Boone's "Wilderness Road" through Cumberland Gap).

Statehood

Tennessee was admitted to the Union in 1796 as the 16th state. It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States federal government. Apart from the former Thirteen Colonies only Vermont and Kentucky predate Tennessee's statehood, and neither were ever federal territories.[24] The state boundaries, according to the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, stated that the beginning point for identifying the boundary was the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically ran the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi River.

During the administration of U.S. President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees—were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee (such as Fort Cass) toward the more distant Indian Territory west of Arkansas.[25] During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west.[26] In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other Native American peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes." The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation.

Civil War, Reconstruction and Jim Crow

In February 1861, secessionists in Tennessee's state government—led by Governor Isham Harris—sought voter approval for a convention to sever ties with the United States, but Tennessee voters rejected the referendum by a 54–46% margin. The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee (which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state). Following the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee and other states in response, Governor Isham Harris began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. On June 8, 1861, with people in Central Tennessee having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so.

Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February 1862. They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections; this control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863 and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign.

Confederates held East Tennessee despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, Kentucky to Confederate defeat at Chattanooga.

The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin, then totally destroyed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Meanwhile the civilian Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor of the state by President Abraham Lincoln.

When the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, Tennessee was mostly held by Union forces. Thus, Tennessee was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly 200,000 in total across the South, and some 30,000 blacks fought for the Confederates.

Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865.[27] Voters in the state approved the amendment in March.[28] It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7, 1865.

In 1864, Andrew Johnson (a War Democrat from Tennessee) was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.

After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, white Democrats regained political power in Tennessee and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Over the next decade, the white-dominated state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century.[29] Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. In 1900, African Americans made up nearly 24% of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state.[30]

In 1897, Tennessee celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. A full scale replica of the Parthenon was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park.

20th century

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote. Disfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls.

The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring flooding and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the Federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier.

During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the East Tennessee Technology Park.

Despite recognized effects of limiting voting by poor whites, successive legislatures expanded the reach of the disfranchising laws until they covered the state. In 1949 political scientist V. O. Key Jr. argued that "the size of the poll tax did not inhibit voting as much as the inconvenience of paying it. County officers regulated the vote by providing opportunities to pay the tax (as they did in Knoxville), or conversely by making payment as difficult as possible. Such manipulation of the tax, and therefore the vote, created an opportunity for the rise of urban bosses and political machines. Urban politicians bought large blocks of poll tax receipts and distributed them to blacks and whites, who then voted as instructed."[29]

In 1953 state legislators amended the state constitution, removing the poll tax. In many areas both blacks and poor whites still faced subjectively applied barriers to voter registration that did not end until after passage of national civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965.[29]

Tennessee celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled "Tennessee 200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 35,691
1800 105,602 195.9%
1810 261,727 147.8%
1820 422,823 61.6%
1830 681,904 61.3%
1840 829,210 21.6%
1850 1,002,717 20.9%
1860 1,109,801 10.7%
1870 1,258,520 13.4%
1880 1,542,359 22.6%
1890 1,767,518 14.6%
1900 2,020,616 14.3%
1910 2,184,789 8.1%
1920 2,337,885 7.0%
1930 2,616,556 11.9%
1940 2,915,841 11.4%
1950 3,291,718 12.9%
1960 3,567,089 8.4%
1970 3,923,687 10.0%
1980 4,591,120 17.0%
1990 4,877,185 6.2%
2000 5,689,283 16.7%
Est. 2008[1] 6,214,888 9.2%

The center of population of Tennessee is located in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro.[31]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2006, Tennessee has an estimated population of 6,038,803, which is an increase of 83,058, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 349,541, or 6.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 142,266 people (that is 493,881 births minus 351,615 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 219,551 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 59,385 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 160,166 people. 20% of Tennesseans were born outside the South, though such people had been only 13.5% of the total population in 1990.[32] In recent years, Tennessee has seen an explosion of people relocating from several northern states, California, and Florida, for the low cost of living, and the booming healthcare and automobile industries. Metropolitan Nashville is one of the fastest growing areas in the country due in part to these very factors.

Demographics of Tennessee (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 82.08% 16.81% 0.69% 1.22% 0.08%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.99% 0.14% 0.05% 0.03% 0.02%
2005 (total population) 81.53% 17.22% 0.69% 1.47% 0.09%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.81% 0.17% 0.06% 0.03% 0.02%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 4.11% 7.37% 3.86% 26.24% 12.40%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 3.02% 7.23% 2.41% 26.26% 12.66%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 48.16% 24.52% 22.34% 25.23% 11.23%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
Tennessee Population Density Map

In 2000, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (17.3%), African American (16.4%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%).[33]

6.6% of Tennessee's population were reported as under 5 years of age, 24.6% under 18, and 12.4% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee are: [34]

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 1,414,199; the United Methodist Church with 393,994; the Churches of Christ with 216,648; and the Roman Catholic Church with 183,161.[36]

Tennessee is home to several Protestant denominations, such as the Church of God in Christ, the Church of God and The Church of God of Prophecy, both located in (Cleveland, Tennessee), and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Free Will Baptist denomination is headquartered in Antioch, and its main Bible college is in Nashville. The Southern Baptist Convention maintains its general headquarters in Nashville. Publishing houses of several denominations are located in Nashville.

Economy

According to U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2005 Tennessee's gross state product was $226.502 billion, making Tennessee the 18th largest economy in the nation. In 2003, the per capita personal income was $28,641, 36th in the nation, and 91% of the national per capita personal income of $31,472. In 2004, the median household income was $38,550, 41st in the nation, and 87% of the national median of $44,472.

Major outputs for the state include textiles, cotton, cattle, and electrical power. As proof of interest in beef production, Tennessee has over 82,000 farms, and beef cattle are found in roughly 59 percent of the farms in the state.[37] Although cotton was an early crop in Tennessee, large-scale cultivation of the fiber did not begin until the 1820s with the opening of the land between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. The upper wedge of the Mississippi Delta extends into southwestern Tennessee, and it was in this fertile section that cotton took hold. Currently West Tennessee is also heavily planted in soybeans, focusing on the northwest corner of the state.[38]

Major corporations with headquarters in Tennessee include FedEx Corporation, AutoZone Incorporated and International Paper, all based in Memphis; Pilot Corporation and Regal Entertainment Group, based in Knoxville; Eastman Chemical Company, based in Kingsport, the North American headquarters of Nissan, based in Franklin; and the head-quarters of Caterpillar Financial (the finance division of the well known mining company Caterpillar) based in Nashville. Tennessee is well-known for the location of a large manufacturing facility owned by Nissan, and has been since 1982 in Smyrna.

The Tennessee income tax does not apply to salaries and wages, but most income from stocks, bonds and notes receivable is taxable. All taxable dividends and interest which exceed the $1,250 single exemption or the $2,500 joint exemption are taxable at the rate of 6%. The state's sales and use tax rate for most items is 7%. Food is taxed at a lower rate of 5.5%, but candy, dietary supplements and prepared food are taxed at the full 7% rate. Local sales taxes are collected in most jurisdictions, at rates varying from 1.5% to 2.75%, bringing the total sales tax to between 8.5% and 9.75%, one of the highest levels in the nation. Intangible property is assessed on the shares of stock of stockholders of any loan company, investment company, insurance company or for-profit cemetery companies. The assessment ratio is 40% of the value multiplied by the tax rate for the jurisdiction. Tennessee imposes an inheritance tax on decedents' estates that exceed maximum single exemption limits ($1,000,000 for deaths 2006 and after.)[39]

Tennessee is a right to work state, as are most of its Southern neighbors. Unionization has historically been low and continues to decline as in most of the U.S. generally.

Transportation

Interstate highways

Interstate 40 crosses the state in a west-east orientation. Its branch interstate highways include I-240 in Memphis; I-440 in Nashville; and I-140 and I-640 in Knoxville. I-26, although technically an east-west interstate, runs from the North Carolina border below Johnson City to its terminus at Kingsport. I-24 is an east-west interstate that runs cross-state from Chattanooga to Clarksville.

In a north-south orientation are highways I-55, I-65, I-75, and I-81. Interstate 65 crosses the state through Nashville, while Interstate 75 serves Chattanooga and Knoxville and Interstate 55 serves Memphis. Interstate 81 enters the state at Bristol and terminates at its junction with I-40 near Dandridge. I-155 is a branch highway from I-55. The only spur highway of I-75 in Tennessee is I-275, which is in Knoxville.

Airports

Major airports within the state include Nashville International Airport (BNA), Memphis International Airport (MEM), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI), and McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport (MKL), in Jackson. Because Memphis International Airport is the major hub for FedEx Corporation, it is the world's largest air cargo operation.

Railroads

Memphis and Newbern, Tennessee, are served by the Amtrak City of New Orleans line on its run between Chicago, Illinois and New Orleans, Louisiana.

Law and government

Welcome sign entering Memphis, Tennessee on the Hernando De Soto Bridge over the Mississippi River leaving from Arkansas.

Tennessee's governor holds office for a four-year term and may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. The governor is the only official who is elected statewide. Unlike most states, the state does not elect the lieutenant governor directly; the Tennessee Senate elects its Speaker, who serves as lieutenant governor.

The Tennessee General Assembly, the state legislature, consists of the 33-member Senate and the 99-member House of Representatives. Senators serve four-year terms, and House members serve two-year terms. Each chamber chooses its own speaker. The speaker of the state Senate also holds the title of lieutenant-governor. Most executive officials are elected by the legislature.

The highest court in Tennessee is the state Supreme Court. It has a chief justice and four associate justices. No more than two justices can be from the same Grand Division. The Supreme Court of Tennessee also appoints the Attorney General, a practice that is not found in any of the other 49 states in the Union. Both the Court of Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals have 12 judges.[40]

Tennessee's current state constitution was adopted in 1870. The state had two earlier constitutions. The first was adopted in 1796, the year Tennessee joined the union, and the second was adopted in 1834. The Tennessee Constitution outlaws martial law within its jurisdiction. This may be a result of the experience of Tennessee residents and other Southerners during the period of military control by Union (Northern) forces of the U.S. government after the American Civil War.

Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 56.85% 1,479,178 41.79% 1,087,437
2004 56.80% 1,384,375 42.53% 1,036,477
2000 51.15% 1,061,949 47.28% 981,720
1996 45.59% 863,530 48.00% 909,146
1992 42.43% 841,300 47.08% 933,521
1988 57.89% 947,233 41.55% 679,794
1984 57.84% 990,212 41.57% 711,714
1980 48.70% 787,761 48.41% 783,051
1976 42.94% 633,969 55.94% 825,879
1972 67.70% 813,147 29.75% 357,293
1968 37.85% 472,592 28.13% 351,233
1964 44.49% 508,965 55.50% 634,947
1960 52.92% 556,577 45.77% 481,453

Tennessee politics, like that of most U.S. states, is dominated by the Republican and the Democratic Parties. After going for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower twice in the 1950s, Tennessee currently tilts towards the Republican Party, but tends to be somewhat more moderately conservative than its staunchly conservative neighbors to the south.

While the Republicans control slightly more than half of the state, Democrats have moderate support in parts of rural Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee north and have strong support in the cities of Nashville and Memphis. The latter area includes a large African-American population.[41] Historically, Republicans had their greatest strength in East Tennessee prior to the 1960s. Tennessee's 1st / 2nd congressional districts based in East Tennessee are one of the few ancestrally Republican districts in the South; the 1st has been in Republican hands continuously since 1881, and the 2nd district has been held continuously by Republicans since 1873.

In contrast, long disfranchisement of African Americans and their proportion as a minority (16.45% in 1960) meant that white Democrats generally dominated politics in the rest of the state until the 1960s. The GOP in Tennessee was essentially a sectional party. Former Gov. Winfield Dunn and former U.S. Sen. Bill Brock wins in 1970 built the Republican Party into a competitive party for the statewide victory. Tennessee has selected governors from different parties since 1966.

In the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore, a former U.S. Senator from Tennessee, couldn't carry his home state. The majority of voters support for Republican George W. Bush increased in 2004, with his margin of victory in the state increasing from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004.[42] Southern Democratic nominees (e.g., Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton) usually fare better in Tennessee, especially among split-ticket voters outside the metropolitan areas. Unlike swing states, the 2008 presidential election in Tennessee was a similar result of 2004.

Tennessee sends nine members to the US House of Representatives, of whom there are five Democrats and four Republicans. Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey is the first Republican speaker of the state Senate in 140 years. In 2008 elections, the Republican party gained control of both houses of the Tennessee state legislature for the first time since Reconstruction. Now considered as 30% of the state's electorate are independents.[43]

The Baker v. Carr (1962) decision of the US Supreme Court, which established the principle of one man, one vote, was based on a lawsuit over rural-biased apportionment of seats in the Tennessee legislature.[44][45][46] This significant ruling led to an increased (and proportional) prominence in state politics by urban and, eventually, suburban, legislators and statewide officeholders in relation to their population within the state. The ruling also applied to numerous other states long controlled by rural minorities, such as Alabama.

Law enforcement

The State of Tennessee maintains four dedicated law enforcement entities: the Tennessee Highway Patrol, the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI), and the Tennessee State Parks Department.

The Highway Patrol is the primary law enforcement entity that concentrates on highway safety regulations and general non-game state law enforcement and is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Department of Safety. The TWRA is an independent agency tasked with enforcing all wild game, boating, and fisheries regulations outside of state parks. The TBI maintains state-of-the-art investigative facilities and is the primary state-level criminal investigative department. Tennessee State Park Rangers are responsible for all activities and law enforcement inside the Tennessee State Parks system.

Local law enforcement is divided between County Sheriff's Offices and Municipal Police Departments. Tennessee's Constitution requires that each County have an elected Sheriff. In 94 of the 95 Counties the Sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer in the County and has jurisdiction over the county as a whole. Each Sheriff's Office is responsible for warrant service, court security, jail operations and primary law enforcement in the unincorporated areas of a county as well as providing support to the Municipal Police Departments. Incorporated municipalities are required to maintain a Police Department to provide police services within their corporate limits. The three Counties in Tennessee to adopt Metropolitan governments have taken different approaches to resolving the conflict that a Metro government presents to the requirement to have an elected Sheriff. Nashville/Davidson County split law enforcement duties and authority between the Metro Sheriff and the Metro Police Chief. In this instance the Sheriff is no longer the chief law enforcement officer for Davidson County. The Davidson County Sheriff's duties focus on warrant service and jail operations. The Metropolitan Police Chief is the chief law enforcement officer and the Metropolitan Police Department provides primary law enforcement for the entire county. Lynchburg/Moore County took a much simpler approach and abolished the Lynchburg Police Department when it consolidated and placed all law enforcement responsibility under the Sheriff's Office. Trousdale County, although the smallest county in Tennessee, adopted a system similar to Nashville's that retains the Sheriff's Office but also has a Metropolitan Police Department.

Important cities and towns

The capital is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Memphis has the largest population of any city in the state, but Nashville has had the state's largest metropolitan area since circa 1990; Memphis formerly held that title. Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has approximately one-third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, some 45 miles (70 km) northwest of Nashville. Murfreesboro is the sixth-largest city in Tennessee, consisting of some 100,500 residents.

Major cities

Secondary cities

Education

Colleges and universities

Sports

Professional teams

Club Sport League
Memphis Redbirds Baseball Pacific Coast League (Triple-A)
Nashville Sounds Baseball Pacific Coast League (Triple-A)
Chattanooga Lookouts Baseball Southern League (Double-A)
Tennessee Smokies Baseball Southern League (Double-A)
West Tenn Diamond Jaxx Baseball Southern League (Double-A)
Elizabethton Twins Baseball Appalachian League (Rookie)
Greeneville Astros Baseball Appalachian League (Rookie)
Johnson City Cardinals Baseball Appalachian League (Rookie)
Kingsport Mets Baseball Appalachian League (Rookie)
Memphis Grizzlies Basketball National Basketball Association
Tennessee Titans Football National Football League
Nashville Predators Ice hockey National Hockey League
Knoxville Ice Bears Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League
Nashville Metros Soccer USL Premier Development League

Tennessee is also home to Bristol Motor Speedway which features NASCAR Sprint Cup racing two weekends a year, routinely selling out more than 160,000 seats on each date.

Name origin

Monument near the ancient site of Tanasi in Monroe County

The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through a Native American village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 1700s, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi (or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee. The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River), and appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.[47]

The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend".[48][49] According to James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost.[50]

The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. (Tennessee County was the predecessor to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County). When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state.

Nickname

Tennessee is known as the "Volunteer State", a nickname earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans.[51]

State symbols

State symbols include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  2. ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 April 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved December 16, 2008. 
  3. ^ . http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47000.html. 
  4. ^ U.S. Census Largest US Counties By Population
  5. ^ "Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2008 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-07-10. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2008-01.xls. Retrieved 2008-07-10. 
  6. ^ U.S. Census Population Estimates for 2008 - Metropolitan Areas
  7. ^ John Finger, Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press, 2001), pp. 46-47.
  8. ^ a b Tennessee's Civil War Heritage Trail. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  9. ^ Bobby Lovett, Beale Street. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  10. ^ Michael Bertrand, Sun Records. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  11. ^ Charles Wolfe, Music. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  12. ^ Ted Olson and Ajay Kalra, "Appalachian Music: Examining Popular Assumptions". A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 2006), pp. 163-170.
  13. ^ Donald Winters, Agriculture. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  14. ^ James Fickle, Industry. Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2002. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  15. ^ Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Official site. Retrieved: 25 November 2009.
  16. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF). http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pdf/kottek_et_al_2006_A1.pdf. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  17. ^ "A look at Tennessee Agriculture" (PDF). Agclassroom.org. http://www.agclassroom.org/kids/stats/tennessee.pdf. Retrieved November 1, 2006. 
  18. ^ "US Thunderstorm distribution". src.noaa.gov. http://www.srh.noaa.gov/key/HTML/tstmhazards.htm. Retrieved November 1, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Mean Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953-2004". ncdc.noaa.gov. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/img/climate/research/tornado/small/avgt5304.gif. Retrieved November 1, 2006. 
  20. ^ "Top ten list". tornadoproject.com. http://www.tornadoproject.com/toptens/topten1.htm. Retrieved November 1, 2006. 
  21. ^ http://www.weather.com/
  22. ^ "Archaeology and the Native Peoples of Tennessee". University of Tennessee, Frank H. McClung Museum. Retrieved on December 5, 2007.
  23. ^ Stanley Folmsbee, Robert Corlew, and Enoch Mitchell, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee Press, 1969), p. 45.
  24. ^ Hubbard, Bill, Jr. (2009). American Boundaries: the Nation, the States, the Rectangular Survey. University of Chicago Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7. 
  25. ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232.
  26. ^ Satz, Ronald. Tennessee's Indian Peoples. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee Press. ISBN 0-87049-285-3. 
  27. ^ "Chronology of Emancipation during the Civil War". University of Maryland: Department of History. http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/chronol.htm. 
  28. ^ "This Honorable Body: African American Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee". Tennessee State Library and Archives. http://www.state.tn.us/tsla/exhibits/blackhistory/timelines/timeline_1861-1865.htm. 
  29. ^ a b c Disfranchising Laws, The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture, Accessed 11 Mar 2008
  30. ^ [http;//fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/histcensus/php/state.php Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia], accessed 15 Mar 2008
  31. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  32. ^ DADE, COREY (November 22, 2008). "Tennessee Resists Obama Wave". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122731165800249331.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. Retrieved 2008-11-23. 
  33. ^ c2kbr01-2.qxd
  34. ^ American Religious Identification Survey (2001). Five percent of the people surveyed refused to answer.
  35. ^ The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life
  36. ^ The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports
  37. ^ http://animalscience.ag.utk.edu/beef/tnbeefind.htm
  38. ^ USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture, Maps and Cartographic Resources
  39. ^ http://www.state.tn.us/revenue/forms/inhgift/guideinhestate.pdf
  40. ^ Court of Criminal Appeals
  41. ^ Tennessee by County - GCT-PL. Race and Hispanic or Latino 2000 U.S. Census Bureau
  42. ^ Tennessee: McCain Leads Both Democrats by Double Digits Rasumussen Reports, April 6, 2008
  43. ^ DADE, COREY (November 22, 2008). "Tennessee Resists Obama Wave". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122731165800249331.html?mod=googlenews_wsj. 
  44. ^ Eisler, Kim Isaac (1993). A Justice for All: William J. Brennan, Jr., and the decisions that transformed America. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671767879. 
  45. ^ Peltason, Jack W. (1992). "Baker v. Carr". in Hall, Kermit L. (ed.). The Oxford companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–70. ISBN 0195058356. 
  46. ^ Tushnet, Mark (2008). I dissent: Great Opposing Opinions in Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 151–166. ISBN 9780807000366. 
  47. ^ Charles Hudson, The Juan Pardo Expeditions: Explorations of the Carolinas and Tennessee, 1566-1568 (Tuscaloosa, Ala.: University of Alabama Press, 2005), 36-40.
  48. ^ Tennessee State Library and Archives FAQ
  49. ^ Tennessee's Name Dates Back To 1567 Spanish Explorer Captain Juan Pardo
  50. ^ Mooney, pg. 534
  51. ^ "Brief History of Tennessee in the War of 1812". Tennessee State Library and Archives. http://www.state.tn.us/TSLA/history/military/tn1812.htm. Retrieved April 30, 2006.  Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican-American War.

Further reading

  • Bergeron, Paul H. (1982). Antebellum Politics in Tennessee. University of Kentucky Press. 
  • Bontemps, Arna (1941). William C. Handy: Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan Company. 
  • Brownlow, W. G. (1862). Sketches of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of Secession: With a Narrative of Personal Adventures among the Rebels. 
  • Cartwright, Joseph H. (1976). The Triumph of Jim Crow: Tennessee’s Race Relations in the 1880s. University of Tennessee Press. 
  • Cimprich, John (1985). Slavery's End in Tennessee, 1861-1865. University of Alabama. 
  • Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana University Press. 
  • Honey, Michael K. (1993). Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers. University of Illinois Press. 
  • Lamon, Lester C. (1980). Blacks in Tennessee, 1791-1970. University of Tennessee Press. 
  • Mooney, James (1900). Myths of the Cherokee. New York: reprinted Dover, 1995. 
  • Norton, Herman (1981). Religion in Tennessee, 1777-1945. University of Tennessee Press. 
  • Schaefer, Richard T. (2006). Sociology Matters. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-299775-3. 
  • Van West, Carroll (1998). Tennessee history: the land, the people, and the culture. University of Tennessee Press. 
  • Van West, Carroll, ed (1998). The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 

External links

Preceded by
Kentucky
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on June 1, 1796 (16th)
Succeeded by
Ohio

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Tennessee is a US state in the South.

Regions

Each region is known for its' distinctive musical heritage: Bluegrass (Eastern), Country-western (Central), and Blues (Western).

State of Tennessee Regions
Eastern Tennessee, home to Bristol, Chattanooga, Johnson City and Knoxville, is mountainous and reflects an Appalachian cultural influence.
Middle Tennessee is the state's most prosperous area, including cities such as Nashville, against a backdrop of rolling hills.
Western Tennessee is bordered by the Mississippi River and is generally considered the extreme northern boundary of Mississippi Delta cultural influence.
  • Bristol - the Birthplace of Country Music and site of the NASCAR Bristol International Raceway.
  • Chattanooga - home of the Chattanooga Choo Choo and the Tennessee Aquarium.
  • Cookeville - home of Tennessee Tech University.
  • Elizabethton- site of Sycamore Shoals and the Transylvania Purchase.
  • Gatlinburg - Gateway to the Great Smokey Mountains National Park
  • Greeneville - one of America’s Most Charming Towns & Villages
  • Hendersonville - City by The Lake, Nashville suburb
  • Johnson City - site of East Tennessee State University and the USVA Mountain Home.
  • Knoxville - Home of the University of Tennessee at Knoxville
  • Memphis - Home of the blues and the birthplace of rock 'n' roll.
  • Murfreesboro- Geographical center of the state and home of Middle Tennessee State University.
  • Nashville - Country music capital of the world and the Tennessee state capital.
  • Pigeon Forge - Home of Dollywood - Country Legend Dolly Parton's amusement park.

Tennessee State Flag

The three stars on the flag represent the state's three "Grand Divisions", legally defined social and cultural regions—East Tennessee, most noted for its mountains; Middle Tennessee, a region mostly of rolling hills; and West Tennessee, mostly lowlands. On the flag these regions are bound together in an unbroken circle. The field is crimson with a blue background for the stars. The final blue strip was added strictly as a design consideration, although some have later interpreted it to represent the Mississippi River that borders on Tennessee's western bank.

  • Statehood Granted: June 1, 1796
  • State Bird: Mockingbird
  • State Flower: Iris
  • State Tree: Yellow-poplar
  • State Nickname: The Volunteer State
  • 16th largest population in the United States

Talk

Native Tennesseans speak in the dialect of the American South. This dialect changes slightly as you cross through each region, and will be especially pronounced in rural areas. Also, be aware that there are noticeable differences in pronunciation according to the education and background of the speaker; College graduates and high school drop-outs will typically employ distinctive accents and vocabulary.

Generally speaking, it is accepted that people in the South speak more slowly and carefully than those from the North. In particular, visitors from larger cities will have to adjust to the different pace of speech if they visit Tennessee's smaller mountain towns; speaking quickly and bluntly can be perceived as inconsiderate and may gather a negative response.

Get in

Interstate 40 criss-crosses the state from west to east, connecting Memphis, Nashville, Knoxville and the Smoky Mountain Region. Interstate 55 is entirely situated in Memphis. Interstate 155 crosses from Missouri into northwest Tennessee, ending in Dyersburg. Interstate 24 enters from Kentucky near Clarksville, passes through Nashville and ends in Chattanooga (but not before briefly dipping into Georgia for about three miles). Interstate 65 runs through Nashville in its trek from Kentucky to Alabama. Interstate 75, coming from Kentucky, links Knoxville with Chattanooga before heading into Georgia. Interstate 81 starts at Interstate 40 just east of Knoxville and heads northeast to Bristol before moving into Virginia. In the Kingsport area, Interstate 26 runs south from Interstate 81 into North Carolina (towards Asheville), while Interstate 181 heads toward Kingsport and the Virginia state line.

There are several airports in the state. Memphis International Airport is a hub for Northwest Airlines and is served by several other airlines. Nashville International Airport is also served by many other airlines. There is air service at smaller airports at Maryville (Knoxville), Chattanooga and Bristol. Southern Tennessee is easily accessible to the Huntsville, AL, airport.

Get around

As in most American states, automobiles are the primary form of travel. In larger cities you will find public bus systems, and Greyhound buses are an option for travel in between cities. There are also major airports in all large cities (Nashville, Memphis, Knoxville, Chattanooga, and the Tri-Cities) and many smaller airports scattered across the state.

Unfortunately there is no option for rail travel to the central or eastern parts of the state. However, Amtrak runs the fabled "City of New Orleans" line through Memphis and Newbern. This is certainly worth considering if you are planning to visit those areas, especially if you are heading along the Mississippi River. Also, the city of Nashville operates a commuter rail from the suburbs to the downtown area.

Rock City, near Chattanooga. Famous for "See Rock City" signs all over the southeastern United States, especially on birdhouses.
Graceland, in Memphis.

Eat

It is becoming increasingly rare to locate truly authentic "Southern" cuisine in places other than a privately owned family kitchen table, but the state still offers some truly wonderful regional fare.

In Knoxville, try Litton's Restaurant in the Fountain City area. Truly some of the best burgers that can be found anywhere in the States, their patties have a robust and well balanced flavor that is almost sweet. All baked goods are prepared fresh daily in-store by a team of bakers who arrive to prepare the day's goodies before first light. The Tuesday lunch special is fried chicken, broccoli casserole, and banana pudding. Their red velvet cake is simply the best, and their "dinner plate" chocolate chip and sugar cookies (literally the size of small dinner plates) are not to be missed. 2803 Essary Drive NE

When in Memphis, missing Rendezvous [2], host to American Presidents and Prime Ministers (President Bush and Japanese PM Koizumi dined here after a tour of Graceland in 2006) would be a sin.

Do

The Great Smoky Mountains National Park is a World Heritage Biosphere Reserve and draws millions of visitors from around the region and the world annually. Covering nearly 1,000 square miles it is home to temperate rainforests and some of the rarest and most unique plant life in North America. The park currently suffers from high levels of air pollution due to surrounding cities such as Knoxville and Sevierville as well as the numerous coal-fired power plants of the Tennessee Valley Authority. Traffic congestion is fairly severe within the Park's Cades Cove "loop," as many people stop to take in the vistas of the sprawling valley and its many deer and bears that freely roam the area. If you plan to go, car pool if you can.

Get out

To the west is Arkansas, home of former President Bill Clinton (who chose Tennessee Senator Al Gore as his vice presidential running mate) and Hot Springs National Park. Across from northwest Tennessee is Missouri, where you'll find Branson, a music mecca similar to Nashville (but nowhere near as large).

To the north is the Bluegrass State of Kentucky. The Kentucky Derby, Mammoth Cave National Park and Corvette Museum are located here. Virginia is across Tennessee's northeast corner. Here you'll find the Blue Ridge Mountains and Shenandoah National Park.

To the east is North Carolina, where you'll find Chimney Rock, Biltmore Estate and Grandfather Mountain.

Three states border Tennessee to the south. Mississippi lies south of Memphis and boasts several riverboat casinos. Alabama has the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ava Maria Grotto in Cullman and Birmingham, home of American Idol winners Ruben Studdard and Taylor Hicks and finalist Bo Bice. Georgia is across the border from Chattanooga. Located here are Rock City, the historic village of Helen, and the vibrant city of Atlanta.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TENNESSEE, a South Central state of the United States of North America, lying between latitude 35° and latitude 36° 40' N. and between longitude 81° 37' and longitude 90° 28' W. It is bounded on the N. by Kentucky and Virginia along a line which, because of erroneous surveys, varies considerably, east of the Tennessee river, from the intended boundary - the line of latitude 36° 30' N. - the variations all being measured to the north of that parallel; on the E. by North Carolina along the line of the crest of the culminating ridge of the Unaka Mountains till within 26 m. of the Georgia frontier, where it turns due south, giving to Tennessee a triangular piece of territory which should have belonged to North Carolina; on the S. by Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi along the 35th parallel of N. lat.; on the W. by the Mississippi river which separates it from Arkansas and Missouri. The extreme length of the state from E. to W. is 432 m., and the extreme breadth is 109 m. its area being 42,022 sq. m., of which 335 sq. m. is water surface.

Physical Features. - Tennessee is traversed in the east by the Unaka Ridges of the Older Appalachian Mountains and by the Great Appalachian Valley; in the middle by the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim Plateau, and the Nashville Basin of the Appalachian Plateau; and in the west by the Gulf Coastal Plains and a narrow strip of the Mississippi Flood Plain. From a maximum elevation of 6636 ft. at Mount Guyot on the North Carolina border, in Sevier county, the surface descends to 117 ft. or less on the Mississippi Flood Plain in the S.W. corner of the state. The general slope, however, is west by north. About 1700 sq. m. are at least 2000 ft. above the sea, but 28,200 sq. m. are less than woo ft. above the sea, and the mean elevation of the state is approximately 900 ft. The Unaka Mountains, which occupy a belt 8 to 10 m. wide along its E. border, are a series of somewhat irregular ridges developed on complexly folded and faulted crystalline rocks. Sixteen peaks exceed 6000 ft. in height. They are Mount Guyot (6636 ft.), Clingman Dome (6619 ft.), Mount Le Conte (6612 ft.), Mount Curtis (6568 ft.), Mount Safford (6535 ft.), Mount Love (6443 ft.), Mount Henry (6373(6373 ft.), Roan Mountain (6313 ft.), Luftee Knob (6232 ft.), Peck Peak (6232 ft.), Raven Knob (6230 ft.), Mount Collins (6188 ft.), Tricorner Knob (6188 ft.), Thermometer Knob (6157 ft.), Oconee Mountain (6135 ft.), and Master Knob (6013 ft.). That part of the Great Appalachian Valley which traverses Tennessee is commonly known as the Valley of East Tennessee. It consists of parallel ridges and valleys developed by erosion on folded sandstones, shales and limestones, the valley quality predominating because the weak limestones were of great thickness. The valley areas vary in height from 600 ft. in the south-west to woo ft. in the north-east. In the northeast the ridges are more numerous and higher than in the southwest, where White Oak Ridge and Taylor's Mountain are among the highest, although Missionary and Chickamauga Ridges are better known, because of their association with battles of the Civil War. Along the north-west border of the valley a steep escarpment, known as the Cumberland Scarp, rises to the Cumberland Plateau. This plateau has a mean elevation of about 2000 ft., is only slightly rolling, and slopes gently toward the north-west. The W. edge of the plateau is much broken by deep indentations of stream valleys, and drops suddenly downward about moo ft. to the Highland Rim Plateau, so named from the scarp formed by its western rim about the Nashville and (farther north) Louisville basins. It is generally level except where it is cut by river valleys. The Nashville Basin, with a more rolling surface, lies for the most part 400 to 600 ft. below the Rim; a few hills or ridges, however, rise to the level of the Rim. The Basin is elliptical in form, extending nearly across the state from N.E. to S.W., with an extreme width of about 60 m.; near its centre is the city of Murfreesboro, and Nashville lies in the north-west. Westward from the Lower Tennessee river the surface of the East Gulf Coastal Plain rises rapidly to the summit of a broken cuesta or ridge and then descends gently and terminates abruptly in a bluff overlooking the Mississippi Flood Plain. The E. slope, about one-fourth the length of the W. slope, is steep and rocky, and the W. slope is broken by the valleys of numerous streams. The bluff, 150 to 200 ft. in height, traverses the state in a rather straight course and between it and the meandering Mississippi, except at a few points where the latter touches it, lie low bottom lands varying in width according to the bends of the river and containing numerous swamps and ponds. In the northern portion, principally in Lake county, is Reelfoot Lake, which occupies a depression formed during an earthquake in 1811. It is 18 m. long, has a maximum width of 3 m., and is the only large lake in the state.

The whole of the Appalachian Province of Tennessee and the southern portion of the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, and the Lowland Basin are drained southward and westward by the Tennessee river and its tributaries. The valley of the Lower Tennessee is drained northward by the same river. The northern portion of the Cumberland Plateau, Highland Rim, and Lowland Basin are drained northward and westward by the Cumberland river and its tributaries. The western slope of the East Gulf Plains is drained directly into the Mississippi by several small streams.

Table of contents

Fauna

A few black bears inhabit the Unaka Mountain region. Deer are quite numerous in the forests of the east half of the state. The wolf, fox, lynx (" wildcat "), otter, mink and beaver have become rare. Squirrels, rabbits, wood-chucks, skunks, muskrats and opossums are common. Among game-birds there are a few wild turkeys, wild geese and bob-white (locally " partridge "), and greater numbers of grouse and various ducks; among song-birds the robin, bluebird and mocking-bird are common; and there are also woodpeckers, whippoorwills, blackbirds, hawks, owls, crows and buzzards. There are a few speckled trout in the mountain streams, but the commoner fish are bass, perch, catfish, crappies, pike, drum buffalo, carp, suckers and eels. Rattlesnakes and moccasins, or cottonmouths, both venomous, are occasionally seen.

Flora

Originally the state was well covered with forests, and about one-half of it is st:l1 woodland containing a large variety of trees. On the mountains the trees are chiefly pines, firs, spruce and hemlock. In the swamps of the western part of the state, especially on the Mississippi Flood Plain, the cypress is dominant. In the Lowland Basin small groves of what was once an extensive forest of red cedar remain. Poplar and larch are much more abundant in the western than in the eastern half of the state, and pine is much more abundant in the eastern than in the western half. But in most parts of the state there are mixed forests of white oak, red oak, ash, red gum, black gum, maple, hickory, chestnut, sycamore, magnolia, tulip tree, cherry, pecan, walnut, elm, beech, locust and persimmon. Birch, mulberry, linden, willow, bass-wood, dogwood, the sorrel tree, pawpaw and wild plum are common. There are a few varieties of the rare shittimwood tree (Bumelia lanuginosa). Among indigenous shrubs and vines are the hazel, blackberry, gooseberry, whortleberry, huckleberry, grape and cranberry. Blue grass is indigenous in the Lowland Basin. Of numerous medicinal herbs ginseng is the most important.

Climate

Tennessee is noted for its delightful climate. The mean summer temperature ranges according to elevation from 62° F. on the Unaka Mountains to 72° on the Cumberland Plateau, to 75° in the Valley of East Tennessee and on the Highland Rim, to 77° in the Lowland Basin, and to about 78° on the East Gulf Plains. But the mean winter temperature for each of these divisions varies little from 38°, and the mean annual temperature ranges only from 57° in East Tennessee to 58° in Middle Tennessee and to 60° in West Tennessee. The altitude being the same, the mean annual temperature on the south border of the state is about 2° higher than that on the north border. Usually the highest temperatures of the year are in July and the lowest in January. In some regions there is no record of a temperature as high as 100°; in others there is none as low as - Io °; and the average absolute range is about 90°. However, during a period of fifty-four years (1854-1908) the records show a range of extremes from - 30° at Erasmus, Cumberland county, in February 1899, to 107° at several places in July 1901. Rarely there are killing frosts, especially in the southern and western parts of the state from the third week in April to the middle of October. An average annual precipitation of about 50 in, is quite equally distributed over the state and a little more than one-half of it is well distributed through the spring and summer months. The average annual snowfall is about 8 in., and the snowfalls are usually light and melt within a few days. The average number of clear, fair, or only partly cloudy days during a year in Tennessee is 260. The warm, moisture-bearing winds blow low from the south or south-west with a free sweep across the state in a direction nearly parallel with the trend of the mountains. Above these are upper currents from the north or north-west. The commingling of the two currents gives rise frequently to westerly and occasionally to easterly winds. The average velocity of the winds is comparatively low and violent storms are rare.

Soil

The Lowland Basin, the less elevated parts of the Valley of East Tennessee, and parts of the outer portion of the Highland Rim have a fertile limestone soil. The deep deposit of silt on the Mississippi Flood Plain is even more fertile. There are narrow strips of rich alluvium along many other rivers. The soils on the mountains, on the ridges of the Valley of East Tennessee, and on the E. slope of the East Gulf Plains vary greatly according to the rocks from which they are derived. In the Cumberland Plateau, in the inner portion of the Highland Rim, and in the W. slope of the East Gulf Plains there is for the most part a light sandy soil, much of it too poor for cultivation.

Agriculture

The total area of farms in the state in 1900 was 20,342,058 acres, of which about one-half was classed as " improved." The average size was 90.6 acres, and the average number of acres of improved land per farm was 45.6. Of the total farm acreage 68.8 per cent. was held or operated by owners or part owners, 9.4 per cent. by cash tenants, 17.4 per cent. by share tenants, and the remainder under miscellaneous tenure. Some 15.1 per cent. of all the farms were operated by coloured farmers, who in 1899 produced 22 2 per cent. of the agricultural products of the state, not fed to live stock. The total value of farms, including buildings, was $265,150,750 (the value of buildings being 23.8 per cent. of the total); in addition implements and machinery valued at $15,232,670 were employed. The principal products and their values in 1909 were: wheat, 8,320,000 bushels ($9,568,000); Indian corn, 78,650,000 bushels ($55, 0 55, 000); oats, 4,000,000 bushels ($2,120,000); cotton, 240,000240,000 bales; tobacco, 53,290,000 lb, ($4,156,620). The average yield per acre in 1909 was, of wheat 10.4 bushels, of Indian corn 22 bushels, of cotton (1908) 218 lb, of tobacco 730 lb. Cotton is not raised to any extent except in the rich alluvial land of the Mississippi Valley. Tennessee ranked fifth among the tobacco-growing states in 1899 and fourth in 1909. Considerable areas in the central part of the state are admirably adapted for grazing and the raising of fine horses and cattle. The value of live stock on farms and ranges on the 1st of January 1910 was as follows: horses, $36,288,000; mules, $35,670,000; milch cows, $8,828,000; other cattle, $7,797,000; swine, $8,216,000.

Mining

Previous to the close of the Civil War (1865) mining had been carried on upon a comparatively small scale, but immediately thereafter attention was attracted to the extensive and valuable deposits of coal and iron ore, and their development was begun on a large scale. The minerals of most commercial importance are coal, iron ores, copper ores, marble and phosphate rock.

About 5000 sq. m., or almost one-eighth of the area of the state, is underlaid by the coal measures, which occupy a belt in the Cumberland Plateau from 50 to 70 m. wide extending entirely across the easterly part of the state in a north-easterly, south-westerly direction. The coal is of the soft or " bituminous " kind, generally of excellent quality, and much of it suitable for conversion into gas and coke, of which latter 468,092 long tons were produced in 1905. The mining of coal in the state has developed rapidly in connexion with the notable expansion of the iron and steel industries of the South. In 1908 the product was 6,199,171 tons, valued at $7,118,499 Iron ore is found and has been mined in many places in the state. The deposits of most commercial importance are the limonites and brown hematites found west of the Cumberland Plateau, and the fossiliferous red hematite which crops out along the eastern base of that plateau. In the early history of Tennessee iron of superior quality was produced, in small charcoal furnaces, from the brown hematites of the central part of the state. A little later, considerable quantities of this iron were shipped and marketed at Pittsburg. After the close of the Civil War (1865) the iron resources of the state attracted renewed attention, particularly the brown and red hematites, and large and modern furnaces were erected in the Chattanooga district to reduce these ores. The output of iron ore was 874,542 tons (valued at $1,123,527) in 1902, when Tennessee ranked fifth among the iron ore producing states. Owing to the industrial depression following 1907 the output was only 635,343 tons, valued at $876,007, in 1908.

The only copper mines of industrial importance are the Ducktown mines in the extreme south-eastern corner of the state. Copper has been mined here since 1847, and notwithstanding the difficulties of transportation through a rough mountain region, mines were rapidly developed, and in 1855 over 14,000 tons of ore, worth more than a million dollars, were marketed. These mines were the principal source of the supply of copper for the Confederate States during the Civil War. The opening, in 1869, of a railway passing directly through the mining territory, made it possible to work the mines more profitably, and operations were developed on a large scale. In 1908, 618,806 short tons of ore were mined, producing, from the smelters on the ground, 19,710,103 lb of metallic copper. The ore is a sulphide, and in 1898 an extensive plant was erected to manufacture sulphuric acid as a by-product.

In1892-1893large deposits of phosphate rock of high quality were discovered in the central-southern part of the state about 60 m. south-west of Nashville, and the rapid development of quarries was begun. The output increased from 19,188 tons in 1894 to 638,612 tons (valued at $3,047,836) in 1907, when Tennessee ranked second among the states of the Union in the production of phosphaterock. The introduction of this new supply had a marked effect on the fertilizer business of the country.

Inexhaustible deposits of marble are found in Eastern Tennessee in an area about loo m. long by 20 m. wide, the centre of which is Knox county, the deposits extending southward into Georgia. These marbles are of a distinctive character, being usually mottled in bright shades of red, pink, chocolate and grey. They are employed principally for interior decoration, and were thus largely used in the capitol at Nashville and in the National Capitol at Washington. Systematic quarrying of these marbles was begun as early as 1838, and the output of the quarries has constantly increased since the Civil War.

In 1908 Tennessee produced 179 ozs. of fine gold and 57,696 ozs. of fine silver, a part of each coming, as a by-product, from the copper refineries. Zinc ore is mined on a small scale in the eastern part of the state, the product in 1908 being 341 short tons of metallic zinc valued at $32,054. Among the other minerals found and mined to a limited extent are lead, manganese, barytes, fluorspar, slate, granite and petroleum. The total value of all minerals was $19,277,031 in 1908.

Manufactures

To an unusual degree the natural resources of the state supply the raw material for its manufactures. The ownership of industrial establishments is largely in the hands of individuals, firms, and comparatively small corporations, rather than of large combinations, the average capital per establishment in 1905 being about $32,000. The amount of capital invested in manufacturing in 1880 was $20,092,845, and the value of the products was $37,074, 886. In 1905 capitalization (under the factory system) had increased to $102,439,481, and value of products to $137,960,476. This rapid industrial growth has been due in no small degree to the great natural resources of the state and its excellent transportation facilities. Judged by the value of products, regardless of cost of materials used, the flour and grist mill industry ranked first in 1905 ($ 2 5,35 0 ,75 8). Second in importance was the timber and lumber industry and lumber products ($21,580,120.) The state has always held an important place in the iron and steel industry. The capital invested in blast furnaces in 1905 was $5,939,7 8 3, they employed 1486 persons, and the value of their products was $3,428,049. The foundries and machine shops of the state had a capital of $5,516,453, they gave employment to over 4000 persons, and the value of their products was $6,946,567. These figures are exclusive of the numerous and large railway repair shops, the value of whose products was $5,839,445.

The manufacture of leather is another important industry. Large tanneries were attracted to the state, soon after the Civil War, by the abundance of tan bark in the forests, and the cheapness of labour. In 1905 $4,013,289 was invested in the manufacture of leather, and the products were valued at $3,583,871.

In 1905 the textile industry had an invested capital of $8,583,133, and a product valued at $6,895,203. The manufacture of cotton goods was the chief sub-division of the industry, employing 153,375 spindles, 3008 looms and 1787 knitting machines.

The printing and publishing industry of the state had an invested capital of $4,408,584 and products valued at $5,063,580. The manufacture of malt and distilled liquors employed (1905) a capital of $3,220,899, and the value of the product was $2,400,256. Among the other important manufacturing industries of the state and the value of their products in 1905 are: men's clothing, $2,961,581; patent medicines, $2,680,610; cotton-seed oil and oil cake, $3,743,927 tobacco, $404,241; artificial ice, $727,263; agricultural implements, $768,895; and coke, $809,801.

Transportation

The railway mileage of Tennessee increased from 1253 m. in 1860 to 3184 in 1900, and 3480 on the 1st of January 1909. The principal railways operating in the state in 1910 were the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, the Cincinnati Southern and the Southern. The navigable waterways include the Mississippi river (which forms the western boundary of the state); the Tennessee river, navigable throughout its length, from Knoxville; and the Cumberland river, navigable throughout its length in the state. Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis and Nashville are ports of entry.

Population

The total population in 1880 was 1,542,359; in 1890, 1,767,518; in 1900, 2,020,616; and in 1910, 2,184,789. Of the total population in 1900, 1,522,600 were native whites, 17,746 were foreign-born, 480,243 were negroes, 108 were Indians, 75 were Chinese and 4 were Japanese. Of the inhabitants born in the United States 38,561 were born in Georgia, 36,052 in Kentucky, 28,405 in North Carolina, 27,70 9 in Alabama, and 25,953 in Virginia. Of the foreign-born 4569 were Germans, 3372 were Irish and 2207 were English. Of the total population 59,032 were of foreign parentage - i.e. either one or both parents were foreign-born - and 11,164 were of German, 9268 of Irish and 3532 of English parentage on both the father's and the mother's side. Of the total population of the state in 1906, 697,570 were members of religious denominations. There 1 The populations in other census years were as follows: (1790), 35, 6 9 1; (1800), 105,602; (1810), 261,727; (1820), 422,823; (1830), 681,904; (1840), 829,210; (1850), 1,002,717; (1860), 1,109,801; (1870), 1,258,520.

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t *m,?= i 86 F' 85° G Longitude West 84° of Greenwich H 83 I 8z J McMin were 277,170 Baptists, 241,396 Methodists, 79,337 Presbyterians, 56,315 Disciples of Christ, 17,252 Roman Catholics, 7 8 74 Protestant Episcopalians, 3225 Lutherans, 2875 United Brethren and 2426 Congregationalists. From 1890 to 1900 the urban population (i.e. the population of places having 4000 inhabitants or more) increased from 219,792 to 285,886, or 30.1 per cent., the semi-urban population (i.e. the population of incorporated places, or the approximate equivalent, having less than 4000 inhabitants) increased from 87,351 to 114,837, Io 9 per cent. of the total increase in population; while the rural population (i.e. population outside of incorporated places) increased from 1,460,375 to 1,619,893, 63 per cent. of the total. The principal cities of the state, with population for 1910, are Memphis, 131,105; Nashville, 110,364; Chattanooga, 44,604 and Knoxville, 36,346. Government. - Tennessee has had three constitutions, but the present one, adopted in 1870, is a reproduction of the second (1834) with only a few changes. Amendments may be proposed not oftener than once in six years by a majority of the members elected to each house of the legislature, but before they can be adopted they must be agreed to first by two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the next succeeding legislature, and later by a majority of all the citizens of the state voting for representatives at the next regular election. The legislature may, also, submit to the people the question of calling a convention to amend or revise the constitution, and such a convention must be called whenever, upon the submission of this proposition, a majority of the votes are cast in favour of it. Every attempt to amend or revise the present constitution has, however, been unsuccessful. The right of suffrage is given to every male citizen of the United States who has attained the age of twenty-one years and has been a resident of the state for one year, provided he has paid his poll tax and has not been convicted of bribery, larceny or other infamous crime. The election of the governor, members of the General Assembly and congressmen is held biennially, in even numbered years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, but the election of judicial and county officers is held on the first Thursday in August.

The governor is the only state executive officer who is elected by the people. He is elected for a term of two years and is not eligible for more than three consecutive terms. He must be at least thirty years of age and have been a citizen of the state for the last seven years before election. Although commander-in-chief of the state forces, he may call the militia into service only when there is a rebellion or an invasion an;i the General Assembly declares that the public safety requires it. The officers of the penitentiary and of the reformatory for boys are authorized to advise the governor with respect to an application for the pardon of an inmate of their institution, but he is not bound by their advice and there is no real restriction on his power to pardon except that he is not permitted to pardon in cases of impeachment. Among the more important officers appointed by the governor are the superintendent of public instruction, the commissioner of agriculture, statistics and mines, an assayer, state entomologist, and officers of the penitentiary. The governor may veto bills passed by the General Assembly, but to override his veto the vote of only a bare majority of the members elected to each house is required. The governor's salary is $4000 a year. There is no lieutenant-governor; in case of a vacancy in the office of governor the speaker of the Senate becomes acting governor. The secretary of state, the comptroller, and the treasurer are elected by a joint ballot of the Senate and the House of Representatives each for a term of two years; the attorney-general is appointed by the judges of the supreme court for a term of eight years.

Both senators and representatives are elected for a term of two years by counties or by districts having approximately the same population. The number of representatives is limited by the constitution to 99, and the number of senators to one-third the number of representatives. The qualifications prescribed for senators and representatives are that they shall have been citizens of the state for three years and residents of the county or district they are to represent for one year immediately preceding the election, and that senators shall be at least thirty years of age. The legislature meets biennially, in odd numbered years, on the first Monday in January, and the length of the session is limited by a provision that the members shall be paid four dollars a day, besides an allowance for travelling expenses, not to exceed 75 days; whenever the governor calls an extra session they are not paid for more than 20 days. Bills of whatever character may originate in either house, but no bill can become a law until it has passed both houses by a majority of all the members to which the house is entitled under the constitution, and if the governor vetoes a bill it cannot become a law until it has again passed both houses by such a majority. Only the more customary restrictions are placed upon the legislature by the constitution; such, for example, as that it shall pass no laws impairing the obligation of contracts, no ex post facto laws, no law authorizing imprisonment for debt, no law restraining the freedom of the press or freedom of speech, and that it shall not lend the credit of the state or make the state " owner in whole or in part of any bank or a stockholder with others in any association, company, corporation or municipality." The administration of justice is vested in a supreme court, a court of civil appeals, chancery courts, circuit courts, county courts, j ustice of the peace courts, and, in certain cities and towns, a recorder's court. The supreme court consists of five judges elected by the state at large for a term of eight years, one for each of three grand divisions (eastern, middle and western) and two for the state at large. Each judge must be at least thirty-five years of age and have been a resident of the state for five years before his election. The judges designate one of their number to preside as chief justice. The court has appellate jurisdiction only. For the eastern district it sits at Knoxville; for the middle district at Nashville; and for the western district at Jackson. The concurrence of three judges is necessary to a decision. The court of civil appeals, which in 1907 was substituted for the court of chancery appeals, is also composed of five judges not more than two of whom shall reside in the same grand division. They are elected for a term of eight years, and each of them must be at least thirty years of age and have resided in the state for five years before election. This court has jurisdiction of appeals from equity courts in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $1000, except in cases involving the constitutionality of a Tennessee statute, contested election or state revenue, and ejectment suits; it has jurisdiction also of civil cases tried in the circuit and common law courts in which writs of error or appeals in the nature of writs of error are applied for. It may transfer any case to the supreme court or the supreme court may assume jurisdiction of any of its cases by issuing a writ of certiorari, but otherwise its decrees are final. The state is divided into twelve chancery districts in each of which a chancellor is elected for a term of eight years, and at every county-seat in each district a court of chancery is held. The court has exclusive original jurisdiction in equity cases in which the amount in controversy exceeds fifty dollars, concurrent jurisdiction with the county court in such matters as the administration of estates, the appointment and removal of guardians, and concurrent jurisdiction with the circuit courts in proceedings for divorce. The state is also divided into nineteen circuits, in each of which a circuit judge is elected for a term of eight years, and at every county-seat in each circuit a circuit court is held. The original jurisdiction of the circuit courts extends to all cases both civil and criminal not exclusively conferred upon some other court, and they have appellate jurisdiction in all suits and actions begun in the lower courts. In several of the counties the county court is composed of a county judge, elected for a term of eight years, together with the justices of the peace in the county, and in the other counties it consists of the justices of the peace alone. Its judicial business is principally the probate of wills and matters relating to the administration of estates. Each county is divided into civil districts varying in number according to population, and each district elects at least two justices of the peace for a term of six years; each county town or incorporated town also elects one justice of the peace. The jurisdiction of a justice of the peace, usually coextensive with the county, extends to the collection of notes of hand not exceeding $1000; to the settlement of accounts not exceeding $500; to suits for the recovery of property or suits demanding payment for damages, except for libel or slander, not exceeding $500; to equity cases in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $50; and to various other small cases. A recorder has concurrent jurisdiction with a justice of the peace.

Local Government

The government of each county is vested principally in the county court. This body represents and acts for the county as a corporation; has charge of the erection and repair of county buildings; levies the county taxes, which are limited by law, however, to three mills on the dollar exclusive of those for schools, public highways, interest on the county debt, and other special purposes; divides the county into highway districts, and chooses a highway commissioner for each district for a term of two years; and chooses a superintendent of schools, a surveyor, a public administrator and public guardian, a board for the equalization of taxes, a coroner, a ranger, and a jail physician or health officer each for a term of two years, three commissioners of the poor for a term of three years (one each year), and a keeper and sealer of weights and measures to serve during its pleasure. A county trustee, whose duty it is to collect state and county taxes, and a sheriff are elected by the county for a term of two years; a clerk of the county court and a register are also elected by the county for a term of four years; and the county judge or chairman of the county court, the clerk of the county court, and the county health officer constitute a county board of health. In each civil district of a county which contains the county seat there are two constables, and in other civil districts of the county one constable elected for a term of two years. The general law for the incorporation of cities and towns vests the government of each municipality accepting its provisions principally in a mayor and two aldermen from each ward. All are elected for a term of two years, but one-half of the aldermen retire annually. The mayor and aldermen may appoint such officers as they consider necessary. The mayor may veto any action of the aldermen, and to override his veto a two-thirds majority is required.

Miscellaneous Laws. - For the protection of the property rights of married women the code of Tennessee provides that the wife's real estate shall be exempt from her husband's debts; that the proceeds of her real or personal property shall not be paid to any other person except by her consent certified upon privy examination of her by the court or a commissioner appointed by the court; and that she may mortgage or convey her real estate without the concurrence of her husband provided she be privately examined regarding the matter by a chancellor, circuit judge, or the clerk of the county court. When a husband dies his widow is entitled to a dower in one-third of his real estate, and, if there be not more than two children, to one-third of his personal estate; if there are more than two children her share of the personal estate is the same as that of each child. If a husband die intestate and leave no other heirs the widow is entitled to all his real estate in fee simple. When a wife dies leaving a husband of whom there has been issue born alive, he has by the courtesy a life interest in all her real estate and all her personal estate; if the wife die intestate and leave no other heirs the husband is entitled to all her real estate in fee simple. The causes for divorce are impotency, bigamy, adultery, desertion for two years, conviction of an infamous crime, the attempt of one of the parties to take the life of the other, the husband's cruel and inhuman treatment of his wife, refusal of the wife to remove with her husband into the state without a reasonable cause, pregnancy of the wife at the time of the marriage by another person without the knowledge of the husband, and habitual drunkenness, provided the habit has been contracted subsequent to the marriage. The plaintiff must be a resident of the state for two years before filing a petition for a divorce. If the husband is the plaintiff his interest in his wife's property is not impaired by the dissolution of the marriage, but the defendant wife forfeits all her interest in his property. Either party may marry again, but a defendant who has been found guilty of adultery is not permitted to marry the co-respondent during the life of the plaintiff. A homestead of a head of a family to the value of $1000 is exempt from forced sale except for the collection of taxes, debts contracted for its purchase or in making improvements upon it, or fines for voting out of the election district, for carrying concealed weapons, or for giving away or selling intoxicating liquors on election days. If the owner is married the homestead cannot be sold without the joint consent of husband and wife, and the wife's consent, as in other conveyances by married women, must be certified before the court or a commissioner appointed by the court. The homestead inures for the benefit of the widow and minor children. Ninety per cent. of the salary, wages or income of each person eighteen years of age or over is also exempt from attachment provided such salary, wages or income does not exceed $40 per month, and in any case $36 per month of the salary, wages or income of a person eighteen years of age or over cannot be attached. The employment of children under 14 years of age in any workshop, factory or mine within the state is forbidden by a law of 1901, and the employment of women or of boys under 16 years of age in any manufacturing establishment is limited to 60 hours a week by a law of 1907. Both the sale and the manufacture of intoxicating drinks are prohibited by law.

Charities, &c. - The charitable and penal institutions of the state consist of the Central Hospital for the Insane near Nashville; the Eastern Hospital for the Insane near Knoxville; the Western Hospital for the Insane near Bolivar; the Tennessee School for the blind at Nashville; the Tennessee Deaf and Dumb School at Knoxville; the Confederate Soldiers' Home near Nashville, on the " Hermitage," the estate formerly belonging to Andrew Jackson; and the Penitentiary and the Tennessee Industrial School, both at Nashville; and in 1907 the legislature passed an Act for the establishment in Davidson county of the Tennessee Reformatory for boys. Each hospital for the insane is governed by a board of five trustees appointed by the governor, with the consent of the senate, for a term of six years, and for the immediate supervision of each the trustees appoint a superintendent for a term of eight years. The Schools for the Blind and the Deaf and Dumb are each managed by a board of trustees, vacancies in which are filled by the remaining trustees with the concurrence of the legislature. The Confederate Soldiers' Home is managed by a board of fifteen trustees, of whom six are women, each serving until death or resignation, when his or her successor is appointed by the governor upon the recommendation of the corporation known as the Association of Confederate Soldiers. The Penitentiary is governed by a board of three prison commissioners, a superintendent, a warden, an assistant or deputy warden, a matron, a physician, and a chaplain, all appointed `by the governor, the commissioners for a term of four years, the other officers for a term of two years. The prisoners are kept at labour principally in the state coal-mines, in manufacturing coke, on farms, or at contract labour within the prison walls; not more than 199 prisoners are to be leased to any one firm or corporation, or to be employed in any one business within the walls. The income to the state from the prison is greater than the disbursements for its maintenance. By good conduct a convict may shorten his term of service one month the first year, two months the second year, three months each year from the third to the tenth inclusive, and four months each subsequent year. The Industrial School, which is for orphan, helpless, wayward and abandoned children, is governed by a board of directors consisting of the governor, comptroller, secretary of state, and treasurer as ex officio members, and seven other members, a portion retiring every two years, and their successors being appointed by the remaining directors with the concurrence of the senate. The act for establishing the Tennessee Reformatory for Boys provides that the institution shall be governed by a board of trustees consisting of the governor and five other members, one retiring each year; that boys under eighteen years of age who are convicted of a penitentiary offence shall be sent to it; that the trustees may transfer incorrigible boys to the penitentiary, put others out in', the service of citizens on probation, or recommend them to the governor for pardon. A general control of all public charities and correctional institutions is exercised by an unsalaried Board of State Charities consisting of the governor and six members appointed by him for a term of three years, two retiring every two years. The principal duties of this board are to examine the condition and the management of such institutions and report to the governor; and county and city authorities must submit to it for criticism all plans for new jails, public infirmaries, and hospitals.

Education

For the administration of the common school system each county having five or more civil districts is divided into five school districts, and in counties having five or less than five civil districts each civil district constitutes a school district. Each school district elects one member of the county board of education, and in counties having less than five school districts one or more members of the county board, the number of which is always five, besides the county superintendent who is ex officio its secretary, are elected by the county at large, and to this county board of education together with district advisory boards is entrusted the management and control of the common schools. By the general education law enacted in 1909, 25 per cent. of the gross state revenue is paid into the general education fund, 61 per cent. of this fund is apportioned among the several counties according to their school population, and 10 per cent. of it constitutes a special fund to be apportioned among eligible counties in proportion to their school population but in inverse ratio to their taxable property; to have the use of any portion of this special fund a county must levy for the maintenance of common schools a tax not less than forty cents on each $loo of taxable property, a tax of $2 on each taxable poll, and such privilege taxes as the state permits it to levy for school purposes. Each county court may provide for one or more county high schools to be maintained in part by additional county taxes and miscellaneous funds, and 8 per cent. of the state schooI fund is set apart for the encouragement of counties in this matter. In 1908 there was a county high school in each of 23 counties, and in 1910 in each of 50 counties. The high schools are largely under the control of the state board of education, consisting of the governor (president), state superintendent of public instruction (secretary and treasurer), and six other members appointed by the governor. When the general education law was enacted in 1909 Tennessee had no state normal schools, but by the law 13 per cent. of the state educational fund is set apart for the establishment and maintenance of schools solely for the education and professional training of teachers for the elementary schools; one for white teachers in each of three grand divisions of the state, and one agricultural and industrial normal school for the industrial education of negroes and for preparing negro teachers for the common schools, and the management of these schools is vested in the state board of education. At the head of the state educational system is the University of Tennessee, which embraces a college of liberal arts, a graduate department, a college of engineering, a college of agriculture, a school of pharmacy, an industrial department, and a law department at Knoxville, and medical and dental departments at Nashville. The institution is governed by a board of trustees consisting of the governor, the state superintendent of public instruction, the commissioner of agriculture, the president of the university and twelve other members; two from the city of Knoxville and one from each congressional district, two elected each year. Seven per cent. of the general school fund is set apart for its maintenance; it was founded in 1794. For the higher education of teachers Tennessee has the Peabody College for Teachers, at Nashville, founded (1875) and maintained chiefly with proceeds from the George Peabody Fund for the improvement of education in the South. Other institutions of higher learning, not under the control of the state, are: the University of Nashville (non-sect., 1785); Washington and Tusculum College (non-sect., 1794), at Greenville; Maryville College (Presbyterian, 1819), at Maryville; Cumberland University (Presbyterian, 1842), at Lebanon; Burritt College (non-sect., 1848), at Spencer; Hiwassee College (non-sect., 1849), at Sweetwater; Bethel College (Presbyterian 1850), at McKenzie; Carson and Newman College (Baptist, 1851), at Jefferson City; Walden University (Methodist, 1866), at Nashville; Fisk University (Congregational, 1866), at Nashville; University of Chattanooga (Methodist, 1867), at Chattanooga; University of the South (Protestant Episcopal, 1868), at Sewanee; King College (Presbyterian, 1869), at Bristol; Christian Brothers College (Roman Catholic, 1871), at Memphis; Knoxville College (United Presbyterian, 1875), at Knoxville; Milligan College (Christian, 1882), at Milligan; South-western Presbyterian College (1885), at Clarkville; and Lincoln Memorial University (non-sect., 1895), at Cumberland Gap.

Finance

The state revenue is derived from a general property tax, a poll tax, an income tax, a tax on transfers of realty, an ad valorem tax on the average capital invested by merchants in their business, a privilege tax on merchants and many other occupations and businesses; a tax on litigation, levied on the unsuccessful party, a collateral inheritance tax, and fines and forfeitures. State, county and municipal taxes are assessed by a county assessor, who is elected for a term of four years, and one or more deputies whom the assessor is authorized to appoint. The law requires that all property shall be assessed at its full cash value, but personal property to the value of $1000 is exempt from taxation. Real estate is assessed biennially; personal property, privileges and polls annually. Assessments are examined and revised both by a county board of equalization and a state board of equalization. The county board consists of five members elected annually by the county court; justices of the peace are ineligible to election on this board, as are also all persons who have served on it within five years. The state board consists of the secretary of state, treasurer and comptroller. The clerk of the county court collects all taxes of persons, companies or corporations subject to a privilege tax; the county trustee the taxes of other persons. Three revenue commissioners, one of whom is an expert accountant, are elected biennially by each county court to examine the books and reports of the collectors, and three state revenue agents are appointed biennially by the comptroller to examine the records of all officials charged with the collection or disbursement of state or county revenue. The state revenue for the two years ending the 19th of December 1906 amounted to $3,804,740, and the cost of conducting the state government for these two years was $3,568,977. The bonded debt of the state grew from $16,643,666 on the 1st of October 1859 to $37,080,666 on the 1st of October 1869, but by the 19th of December 1906 it had been reduced to $14,236,766.

History

The present site of Memphis may be the point where the Spanish explorer, Hernando de Soto, reached the Mississippi river, but this cannot be determined with certainty. Father Marquette in his voyage down the Mississippi camped upon the western border, and La Salle built Fort Prud'homme upon the Chickasaw Bluffs, probably on the site of Memphis, in 1682, but it was abandoned, then rebuilt, and again abandoned. The territory was included in the English grant to Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584 and in the later Stuart grants, including that of Carolina, in 1663. No permanent settlement, however, was made until 1769, though wandering explorers and fur traders visited the eastern portion much earlier. A party of Virginians led by Dr Thomas Walker (1715-1794), in 1750 reached and named the Cumberland river and mountains in honour of the royal duke. In 1756 or 1757, Fort Loudon, named in honour of John Campbell, earl of Loudon, was built on the Little Tennessee river, about 30 m. N. of the present site of Knoxville, as an outpost against the French, who were now active in the whole Mississippi Valley, and was garrisoned by royal troops. The fort was captured, however, by the Cherokee Indians in 1760, and both the garrison and the neighbouring settlers were massacred.

Eastern Tennessee was recognized as a common hunting ground by the Cherokees, Creeks, Miamis and other Indian tribes, and the Iroquois of New York also claimed a considerable portion by right of conquest. In 1768 the Iroquois ceded whatever claim they had to the English, and in 1769 several cabins were built along the Watauga and Holston rivers upon what was thought to be Virginian soil. A settlement near the present Rogersville was made in 1771 and in the next year another sprang up on the Nollichucky. After the failure of the Regulator insurrection in North Carolina in 1771, hundreds of the Regulators made their way into the wilderness. When the settlements were found to be within the limits of North Carolina, that colony made no effort to assert jurisdiction or to protect the settlers from Indian depredations. Therefore in 1772 the residents of the first two settlements met in general convention to establish a form of government since known as the Watauga Association. A general committee of thirteen was elected to exercise legislative powers. This committee elected from its members a committee of five in whom executive and judicial powers were lodged. The smaller committee elected a chairman, who was also chairman of the committee of thirteen. A sheriff, an attorney and a clerk were elected, and regulations for recording deeds and wills were made. Courts were held, but any conflict of jurisdiction with Virginia or North Carolina was avoided. In 1775 the settlement on the Nollichucky was forced to join the association, and in the same year the land was bought from the Indians in the hope of averting war. With the approach of the War of Independence, the dream of becoming a separate colony with a royal governor was abandoned, and on petition of the inhabitants the territory was annexed to North Carolina in 1776 as the Washington District, which in 1777 became Washington county, with the Mississippi river as the western boundary. The population increased rapidly and soon several new counties were created.

During the War of Independence the hardy mountaineers under John Sevier and Evan Shelby did valiant service against both the royal troops and the Loyalists in South Carolina, chiefly as partisan rangers under Charles McDowell (1743-1815). Major Patrick Ferguson with several hundred Loyalists and a small body of regulars, made a demonstration against the western settlements, but at King's Mountain in South Carolina he was completely defeated by the Americans, among whom Colonel Sevier and the troops led by him were conspicuous (see King'S Mountain) .

After the War of Independence the legislature of North Carolina in 1784 offered to cede her western territory to the general government, provided the cession should be accepted within two years. The Watauga settlers, indignant at this transfer without their consent, and fearing to be left without any form of government whatever, called a convention which met at Jonesborough on the 23rd of August 1784, and by which delegates to another convention to form a new state were appointed. Meanwhile North Carolina repealed the act of cession and created the western counties into a new judicial district. A second convention, in November, broke up in confusion without accomplishing anything; but a third adopted a constitution, which was submitted to the people, and ordered the election of a legislature. This body met early in 1785, elected Sevier governor of the new state of Franklin (at first Frankland), filled a number of offices, and passed several other acts looking to separate existence. Four new counties were created, and taxes were levied.' Later in the year another convention, to which the proposed constitution had been referred, adopted instead the constitution of North Carolina with a few trifling changes, and William Cocke was chosen to present to Congress a memorial requesting recognition as a state. Congress, however, ignored the request, and the diplomacy of the North Carolina authorities caused a reaction. For a time two sets of officials claimed recognition, but when the North Carolina legislature a second time passed an act of oblivion and remitted the taxes unpaid since 1784, the tide was turned. No successor to Sevier was elected, and he was arrested on a charge of treason, but was allowed to escape, and soon afterwards was again appointed brigadier-general of militia.

Meanwhile, settlers had pushed on further into the wilderness. On the 17th of March 1775 Colonel Richard Henderson and his associates extinguished the Indian title to an immense tract of land in the valleys of the Cumberland, the Kentucky and the Ohio rivers (see Kentucky). In 1778, James Robertson (1742-1814), a native of Virginia, who had been prominent in the Watauga settlement, set out with a small party to prepare the way for permanent occupation. He arrived at French On account of the scarcity of a circulating medium more than twenty articles were valued and declared legal tender. Among them were fox skins, is. 6d.; beaver skins, 6s.; bacon, 6d. the pound;; rye whisky, 2s. 6d. the gallon.

Lick (so called from a French trading post established there) early in 1779, and in the same year a number of settlers from Virginia and South Carolina arrived. Another party led by John Donelson arrived in 1780, and after the close of the War of Independence, the immigrants came in a steady stream. A form of government similar to the Watauga Association was devised, and block-houses were built for defence against the Indians. Robertson was sent as a delegate to the North Carolina legislature in 1783 and through his instrumentality the settlements became Davidson county. Nashville, which had been founded as Nashborough in 1780, became the county seat. Finally, in 1843, it became the state capital. Robertson, the dominant figure in the early years, struggled to counteract the efforts of Spanish intriguers among the Indians, and when diplomacy failed led the settlers against the Indian towns.

On the 25th of February 1790 North Carolina again ceded the territory to the general government, stipulating that all the general provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 should apply except that forbidding slavery. Congress accepted the cession and, on the 26th of May 1790, passed an act for the government of the " Territory south of the River Ohio." William Blount was appointed the first governor, and in 1792 Knoxville became the seat of government. The chief events of Blount's administration were the contests with the Indians, the purchase of their lands, and the struggle against Spanish influence. A census ordered by the Territorial legislature in 1795 showed more than 60,000 free inhabitants (the number prescribed before the Territory could become a state), and accordingly a convention to draft a state constitution met in Knoxville on the 11th of January 1796. The instrument, which closely followed the constitution of North Carolina, was proclaimed without submission to popular vote. John Sevier was elected governor, and William Blount and William Cocke United States senators. In spite of the opposition of the Federalist party, whose leaders foresaw that Tennessee would be Republican, it was admitted to the Union as the sixteenth state on the 1st of June 1796.

With the rapid increase of population, the dread of Indian and Spaniard declined. Churches and schools were built, and soon many of the comforts and some of the luxuries of life made their appearance. The public school system was inaugurated in 1830, but not until 1845 was the principle of taxation for support fully recognized. As in all new states, the question of a circulating medium was acute during the first half of the '9th century, and state banks were organized, which suspended specie payments in times of financial stringency. The Bank of Tennessee, organized in 1838, had behind it the credit of the state, and it was hoped that money for education and for internal improvements might be secured from its profits. The management became a question of party politics, and during the Civil War its funds were used to advance the Confederate cause. The development of the western section along the Mississippi was rapid after the beginning of the century. Memphis, founded in 1819, was thought as late as 1832 to be in Mississippi, and not until 1837 was the southern boundary, which according to the North Carolina cession was 35°, finally established.' In common with other river towns, the disorderly element in Memphis was large, and the gamblers, robbers and horse thieves were only suppressed by local vigilance committees. The peculiar topographical conditions made the three sections of the state almost separate commonwealths, and demand for better means of communication was insistent.

The policy of state aid to internal improvements found advocates very early in spite of the Republican affiliations of the state, but a definite programme was not laid out until 1829, when commissioners for internal improvements were appointed and an expenditure of $150,000 was authorized. In 1835 the state agreed to subscribe one-third to the capital stock of companies organized to lay out turnpikes, railways, &c., and four years later the proportion became one-half. Though these 1 For account of the settlement of the dispute over the northern boundary, see Kentucky.

agreements were soon repealed, the general policy was continued, and in 1861 more than $17,000,000 of the state debt was due to these subscriptions, from which there was little return.

Though President Andrew Jackson was for many years practically a dictator in Tennessee politics, his arbitrary methods and his intolerance of any sort of independence on the part of his followers led to a revolt in 1836, when the electoral vote of the state was given to Hugh Lawson White, then United States senator from Tennessee, who had been one of Jackson's most devoted adherents. White's followers called themselves AntiVan Buren Democrats, but the proscription which they suffered drove most of them into the Whig party, which carried the state in presidential elections until 1856, when the vote was cast for James Buchanan, the Democratic candidate. The Whig party was so strong that James K. Polk (Democrat), a resident of the state, lost its electoral vote in 1844. With the disintegration of the Whig party, the state again became nominally Democratic, though Union sentiment was strong, particularly in East Tennessee. There were few large plantations and fewer slaves in that mountainous region, while the middle and western sections were more in harmony with the sentiment in Mississippi and Alabama. In 1850 representatives of nine Southern states met in a convention at Nashville (q.v.) to consider the questions at issue between the North and the South. The vote of the state was given for Bell and Everett in 1860, and the people as a whole were opposed to secession.

The proposition to call a convention to vote on the question of secession was voted down on the 9th of February 1861, but after President Lincoln's call for troops the legislature submitted the question of secession directly to the people, and meanwhile, on the 7th of May 1861, entered into a " Military League " with the Confederacy. An overwhelming vote was cast on the 8th of June in favour of secession, and on the 24th Governor I. G. Harris (1818-1897) issued a proclamation declaring Tennessee out of the Union. Andrew Johnson, then a United States senator from Tennessee, refused to resign his seat, and was supported by a large element in East Tennessee. A Union convention, including representatives from all the eastern and a few of the middle counties, met on the 17th of June 1861 and petitioned Congress to be admitted as a separate state. The request was ignored, but the section was strongly Unionist in sentiment during the war, and has since been strongly Republican.

The state was, next to Virginia, the chief battleground during the Civil War, and one historian has counted 454 battles and skirmishes which took place within its borders. In February 1862, General U.S. Grant and Commodore A. H. Foote captured Fort Henry on the Tennessee river, and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland. The Confederate line of defence was broken and General D. C. Buell occupied Nashville. Grant next ascended the Tennessee river to Pittsburg Landing with the intention of capturing the Memphis & Charleston railway, and on the 6th-7th of April defeated the Confederates in the battle of Shiloh. The capture of Island No. 10 in the Mississippi on the 7th of April opened the river as far south as Memphis, which was captured in June. On the 31st of December and the 2nd of January General William S. Rosecrans (Federal) fought with General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) the bloody but indecisive battle of Stone River (Murfreesboro). In June 1863 Rosecrans forced Bragg to evacuate Chattanooga. Bragg, however, turned upon his pursuer, and on the 19th and 10th of September one of the bloodiest battles of the war was fought at Chickamauga. General Grant now assumed command, and on the 24th and 25th of November defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, thus opening the way into East Tennessee. There General A. E. Burnside at first met with success, but was shut up in Knoxville by General James Longstreet, who was not able, however, to capture the city, and on the approach of General W. T. Sherman retired into Virginia. Almost the whole state was now held by Federal troops, and no considerable military movement occurred until after the fall of Atlanta in September 1864. Then General J. B. Hood moved into Tennessee, expecting Sherman to follow him. Sherman, however, sent reinforcements to Thomas and continued his march to the sea. Hood fought with General John M. Schofield at Franklin, and on the 15th-16th of December was utterly defeated by Thomas at Nashville, the Federals thus securing virtually undisputed control of the state.1 After the occupation of the state by the Federal armies in 1862 Andrew Johnson was appointed military governor by the president (confirmed March 3, 1862), and held the office until inaugurated vice-president on the 4th of March 1865. Republican electors attempted to cast the vote of the state in 1864, but were not recognized by Congress. Tennessee was the first of the Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union (July 24, 1866), after ratifying the Constitution of the United States with amendments, declaring the ordinance of secession void, voting to abolish slavery, and declaring the war debt void. The state escaped " carpet bag " government, but the native whites in control under the leadership of William G. Brownlow (1805-1877) confined the franchise to those who had always been uncompromisingly Union in sentiment and conferred suffrage upon the negroes (February 25, 1867). The Ku Klux Klan, originating in 1865 as a youthful prank at Pulaski, Tennessee, spread over the state and the entire South, and in 1860 nine counties in the middle and western sections were placed under martial law. At the elections in 1869 the Republican party split into two factions. The conservative candidate was elected by the aid of the Democrats, who also secured a majority of the legislature, which has never been lost since that time. The constitution was revised in 1870. For a considerable time after the war the state seemed to make little material progress, but since 1880 it has made rapid strides. The principal occurrences have been the final compounding of the old state debt at fifty cents on the dollar in 1882, the rapid growth of cities, and the increased importance' of mining and manufacturing.

John Sevier. .

Territory South of the Ohio

William Blount. .. .

State of Tennessee.'

1785-1788

1790-1796

John Sevier, Democratic-Republican

1796-1801

Archibald Roane, „ „

1801 -1803

John Sevier,

1803-1809

Willie Blount,

1809-1815

Joseph M`Minn,

1815-1821

William Carroll, „

1821-1827

Sam Houston, 3 „

1827-1829

William Hall (acting) .

1829

William Carroll, Democrat

1829-1835

Newton Cannon, Anti-Jackson Democrat

1835-1839

James K. Polk, Democrat .

1839-1841

James C. Jones, Whig .

1841-1845

Aaron V. Brown, Democrat

1845-1847

Neil S. Brown, Whig

1847-1849

William Trousdale, Democrat

1849-1851

William B. Campbell, Whig

1851-1853

Andrew Johnson, Democrat

1853-1857

Isham G. Harris, 4 „

1857-1862

Andrew Johnson, Military. .. .

1862-1865

Governors Of Tennessee State of Franklin. Interregnum, 5 4th March-5th April 1865.

William G. Brownlow, Republican .

186

-1869

De Witt C. Senter, Conservative Republican.

186

-1871

John C. Brown, Democrat. .

187

-1875

James D. Porter, „„ .

187

-1879

Albert S. Marks, „. .

187

-1881

Alvin Hawkins, Republican.

188

-1883

William B. Bate, Democrat .

188

-1887

1 The state furnished 115,000 soldiers to the Confederate and 31,000 to the Union Army.

' The Constitutions of 1796, 1834 and 1870 all provided that the governor shall not serve more than six years in succession. 3 Resigned.

' Forced to leave capital by invasion of Federal troops.

5 Andrew Johnson, the governor, was inaugurated as VicePresident, March 4, 1865, thereby vacating the office.

Robert L. Taylor,

John P. Buchanan,

Peter Turney,

Robert L. Taylor,

Benton McMillin,

James B. Frazier,6

John I. Cox,

Malcolm R. Patterson, „

B. W. Hooper, Republican

1887-1891

1891-1893

1893-1897

1897-1899

1899-1903

1903-1905

1905-1907

1907-1911

1911-

Bibliography. -FOr a general physical description of the state see the Reports of the Tennessee Geological Survey (Nashville, 1840) and E. C. Hewett, Geography of Tennessee (no place, 1878). On administration see L. S. Merriam, Higher Education in Tennessee, in Circulars of Information of the United States Bureau of Education, No. 5 (Washington, 1893), and J. W. Caldwell, Studies in the Constitutional History of Tennessee (Cincinnati, 1895; new ed., 1907).

There is no satisfactory complete history of the state. The best is James Phelan's History of Tennessee (Boston, 1888). For the early period see John Haywood, Civil and Political History (Knoxville, 1823, reprinted Nashville, 1891); J. G. M. Ramsey. Annals (Charleston, 1853); A. W. Putnam, History of Middle Tennessee, or Life and Times of General James Robertson (Nashville, 1859); Theodore Roosevelt, Winning of the West (New York, 1889-1896); John Carr, Early Times in Middle Tennessee (Nashville, 1857). For the more recent period see O. P. Temple, East Tennessee and the Civil War (Cincinnati, 1899); James W. Fertig, Secession and Reconstruction of Tennessee (Chicago, 1898); and the Report of JointCommittee on Reconstruction (U.S. Pub. Does., Wash., 1866).


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Tennessee

Etymology

From Cherokee ᏔᎾᏏ (tanisi), believed to mean “winding river”.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Tennessee

Plural
-

Tennessee

  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Nashville.
  2. A river flowing generally westward 652 miles from eastern Tennessee into the Ohio River in Kentucky.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Tennessee
Flag of Tennessee State seal of Tennessee
FlagImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Volunteer State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Agriculture and commerce
Map of the United States with Tennessee highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Nashville
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Memphis
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Nashville Metropolitan Area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 36thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 42,169 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(109,247 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 120 miles (195 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 440 miles (710 km)
 - % water 2.2
 - Latitude 34° 59′ N to 36° 41′ N
 - Longitude 81° 39′ W to 90° 19′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 17thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 5,689,283
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 138.0/sq mi 
53.29/km² (19th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Clingmans Dome[1]
6,643 ft  (2,026 m)
 - Mean 900 ft  (280 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[1]
178 ft  (54 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  June 1, 1796 (16th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Phil Bredesen (D)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Lamar Alexander (R)
Bob Corker (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - East Tennessee Eastern: UTC-5/-4
 - Middle and West Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations TNImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Tenn.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-TNImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.tennessee.gov

Tennessee (IPA: /ˌtɛnɨˈsiː/) is a state located in the Southern United States. In 1796, it became the sixteenth state to join the Union. Tennessee is known as the "Volunteer State", a nickname earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans.[2] The capital city is Nashville, and the largest city is Memphis.

Contents

Geography

File:National-atlas-tennessee.PNG
Map of Tennessee - PDF

Tennessee lies adjacent to eight other states: Kentucky and Virginia to the north; North Carolina to the east; Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi on the south; and Arkansas and Missouri on the Mississippi River to the west. Tennessee ties Missouri as the states bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is the peak of Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (2,025 m),[1] which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, and is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail. The lowest point is the Mississippi River at the Mississippi state line. The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro on Old Lascassas Pike (just down the road from Middle Tennessee State University). It is marked by a roadside monument.

The state of Tennessee is geographically and constitutionally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee.

Tennessee features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain.

See also: List of counties in Tennessee

East Tennessee

The Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, bordering North Carolina. This region of Tennessee is characterized by high mountains, including the Great Smoky Mountains, the Chilhowee Mountains, the Unicoi Range, and the Iron Mountains range. The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. Clingman's Dome is located in this region.

Stretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately 55 miles (88 km) is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River in the Tennessee Valley. This area of Tennessee is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain and Clinch Mountain. The western section of the Tennessee valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley. In this valley are numerous towns and the region's two urban areas, Knoxville, and Chattanooga.

Middle Tennessee

To the west of East Tennessee lies the Cumberland Plateau. This area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau ranges from 1,500 to 1,800 feet (450 to 550 m) above sea level.

West of the Cumberland Plateau is the Highland Rim, an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin. The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau and is located in primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and high natural wildlife diversity.

Middle Tennessee was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians in the late 1700s and early 1800s. An important trading route called the Natchez Trace, first used by Native Americans, connected Middle Tennessee to the lower Mississippi River town of Natchez. Today the route of the Natchez Trace is a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace Parkway.

Many biologists study the area's salamander species because the diversity is greater there than anywhere else in the U.S. This is thought to be because of the clean Appalachian foothill springs that abound in the area.

Some of the last remaining large American Chestnut trees still grow in this region and are being used to help breed blight resistant trees.

West Tennessee

West of the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi embayment. The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois. In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River in the east to the Mississippi River in the west. The easternmost section, about 10 miles (16 km) in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee River. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to Memphis; this area is called the Tennessee Bottoms or bottom land. In Memphis, the Tennessee Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the Mississippi River. To the west of the Tennessee Bottoms is the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, less than 300 feet (90 m) above sea level. This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as The Delta region.

Most of West Tennessee remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818, when the Chickasaw ceded their land between the Tennessee River and the Mississippi River. The portion of the Chickasaw Cession that lies in Kentucky is known today as the Jackson Purchase.

Public lands

Areas under the control and management of the National Park Service include:

Fifty-four state parks, covering some 132,000 acres (534 km²) as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park are in Tennessee. Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake, originally formed by an earthquake; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty.

See also: List of Tennessee state parks

Climate

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of the higher mountains, which have a humid continental climate. The Gulf of Mexico is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year. On average the state receives 50 inches (130 cm) of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in West Tennessee to over 16 inches (41 cm) in the higher mountains in East Tennessee.[3]

Summers in the state are generally hot, with most of the state averaging a high of around 90 °F (32 °C) during the summer months. Summer nights tend to be cooler in East Tennessee. Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations and in the east. Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state.

While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane, the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall. The state averages around 50 days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be quite severe. Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West Tennessee slightly more vulnerable.[4] On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year.[5] Tornadoes in Tennessee can be severe, and Tennessee leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities.[6] Winter storms are an occasional problem—made worse by a lack of snow removal equipment and a population which might not be accustomed or equipped to travel in snow—although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Fog is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in much of the Smoky Mountains.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Chattanooga 49/30 54/33 63/40 72/47 79/56 86/65 90/69 89/68 82/62 72/48 61/40 52/33
Knoxville 46/29 52/32 60/39 69/47 76/56 84/64 87/68 86/67 81/61 70/48 59/39 50/32
Memphis 49/31 54/36 63/44 72/52 80/61 88/69 92/73 91/71 85/64 75/52 62/43 52/34
Nashville 46/28 51/31 61/39 70/47 78/57 85/65 89/70 88/68 82/61 71/49 59/40 49/32
Oak Ridge 46/27 52/30 61/37 70/44 78/53 85/62 88/66 87/65 81/59 71/46 59/36 49/30
[2]

History

Main article: History of Tennessee

The area now known as Tennessee was first settled by Paleo-Indians nearly 11,000 years ago. The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic, Woodland, and Mississippian, whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River Valley prior to Cherokee migration into the river's headwaters.

When Spanish explorers first visited the area, led by Hernando de Soto in 1539–43, it was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Native tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the native populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi peoples, the Chickasaw, and Choctaw.

Early during the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present day Elizabethton) was attacked in 1776 by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee (also referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga) opposed to the Transylvania Purchase and aligned with the British Loyalists. The lives of many settlers were spared through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin Nancy Ward. The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Great Smoky Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in North Carolina.

Eight counties of western North Carolina (and now part of Tennessee) broke off from that state in the late 1780s and formed the abortive State of Franklin. Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties had re-joined North Carolina by 1790. North Carolina ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory. In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory of Tennessee, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain (in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). The Trace was called the “North Carolina Road” or “Avery’s Trace,” and sometimes “The Wilderness Road”. It should not be confused with Daniel Boone's road through Cumberland Gap.

Tennessee was admitted to the Union in 1796 as the 16th state. The state boundaries, according to the Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, stated that the beginning point for identifying the boundary was the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically ran the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains separating North Carolina from Tennessee past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi River.

The word Tennessee comes from the Cherokee town Tanasi, which along with its neighbor town Chota was one of the most important Cherokee towns and often referred to as the capital city of the Overhill Cherokee. The meaning of the word "tanasi" is lost (Mooney, 1900). Some believe that Tanasi may mean "River with a big bend," referring to the Tennessee River, or that the word Tanasi may have meant "gathering place", as a reference to government or worship for the Native American tribes pre-existent to the pioneer era.

During the administration of U.S. President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17,000 Cherokees were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee (such as Fort Cass) toward the more distant Indian Territory west of Arkansas. During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west.[7] In the Cherokee language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only Native Americans forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian Removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other Native American peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes." The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw nation.

Many major battles of the American Civil War were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. It was the last border state to secede from the Union when it joined the Confederate States of America on June 8, 1861. Ulysses S. Grant and the U.S. Navy captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee rivers in February 1862. They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River in front of the city. Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections; this control was confirmed at the battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863.

The Confederates held East Tennessee despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee from Perryville, KY to Confederate defeat at Chattanooga.

The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin, then totally destroyed by George Thomas at Nashville, in December. Meanwhile Andrew Johnson, a civilian, was appointed military governor by President Abraham Lincoln.

Tennessee was already mostly held by Union forces when the Emancipation Proclamation was announced, hence it was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865.[8] Voters in the state approved the amendment in March.[9] It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7 1865.

Andrew Johnson (a War Democrat from Tennessee) had been elected Vice President with Abraham Lincoln in 1864 and became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly seceded states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period.

In 1897, the state celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. A full scale replica of the Parthenon was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park.

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote.

The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring floodings and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the Federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1933. Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier.

During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the East Tennessee Technology Park.

Tennessee celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled "Tennessee 200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville.

Demographics

The center of population of Tennessee is located in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro [3].

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, as of 2006, Tennessee has an estimated population of 6,038,803, which is an increase of 83,058, or 1.4%, from the prior year and an increase of 349,541, or 6.1%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 142,266 people (that is 493,881 births minus 351,615 deaths) and an increase from net migration of 219,551 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 59,385 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 160,166 people. {{US DemogTable|Tennessee|03-47.csv|= | 82.08| 16.81| 0.69| 1.22| 0.08|= | 1.99| 0.14| 0.05| 0.03| 0.02|= | 81.53| 17.22| 0.69| 1.47| 0.09|= | 2.81| 0.17| 0.06| 0.03| 0.02|= | 4.11| 7.37| 3.86| 26.24| 12.40|= | 3.02| 7.23| 2.41| 26.26| 12.66|= | 48.16| 24.52| 22.34| 25.23| 11.23}}

Tennessee Population Density Map

In 2000, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (17.3%), African American (16.4%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%).[4]

The state's African-American population is concentrated mainly in rural West and Middle Tennessee and the cities of Memphis, Nashville, Clarksville, Chattanooga, and Knoxville. Memphis has the largest percentage of African-American residents for any metropolitan area in the U.S.

6.6% of Tennessee's population were reported as under 5 years of age, 24.6% under 18, and 12.4% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.

Religion

The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee are:

Source: American Religious Identification Survey (2001). 5% of the people surveyed refused to answer.

Tennessee is home to several Protestant denominations, such as the Church of God in Christ, the Church of God, and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church. The Southern Baptist Convention maintains its general headquarters in Nashville, where its Sunday School Board, along with publishing houses of several other denominations, is also located, along with publishing houses of several other denominations.

The state's small Roman Catholic and Jewish communities are mainly centered in the metropolitan areas of Memphis, Nashville, and Knoxville.

Economy

According to U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2005 Tennessee's gross state product was $226.502 billion, making Tennessee the 18th largest economy in the nation. In 2003, the per capita personal income was $28,641, 36th in the nation, and 91% of the national per capita personal income of $31,472. In 2004, the median household income was $38,550, 41st in the nation, and 87% of the national median of $44,472.

Major outputs for the state include textiles, cotton, cattle, and electrical power. As proof of interest in beef production, Tennessee has over 82,000 farms, and beef cattle are found in roughly 59 percent of the farms in the state. [5] Although cotton was an early crop in Tennessee, large-scale cultivation of the fiber did not begin until the 1820s with the opening of the land between the Tennessee and Mississippi Rivers. The upper wedge of the Mississippi Delta extends into southwestern Tennessee, and it was in this fertile section that cotton took hold. Currently West Tennessee is also heavily planted in soybeans, focusing on the northwest corner of the state.[10]

Major corporations with headquarters in Tennessee include FedEx Corporation, AutoZone Incorporated and International Paper, all based in Memphis.

The Tennessee income tax does not apply to salaries and wages, but most income from stocks, bonds and notes receivable is taxable. All taxable dividends and interest which exceed the $1,250 single exemption or the $2,500 joint exemption are taxable at the rate of 6%. The state's sales and use tax rate for most items is 7%. Food is taxed at a lower rate of 6%, but candy, dietary supplements and prepared food are taxed at the full 7% rate. Local sales taxes are collected in most jurisdictions, at rates varying from 1.5% to 2.75%, bringing the total sales tax to between 8.5% and 9.75%, one of the highest levels in the nation. Intangible property is assessed on the shares of stock of stockholders of any loan company, investment company, insurance company or for-profit cemetery companies. The assessment ratio is 40% of the value multiplied by the tax rate for the jurisdiction. Tennessee imposes an inheritance tax on decedents' estates that exceed maximum single exemption limits ($1,000,000 for deaths 2006 and after; [6]).

Tennessee is a right to work state, as are most of its Southern neighbors. Unionization has historically been low and continues to decline as in most of the U.S. generally.

Transportation

Interstate highways

Interstate 40 crosses the state in an east-west orientation. Its branch interstate highways include I-240 in Memphis; I-440 and I-840 in Nashville; and I-140 and I-640 in Knoxville. I-26, although technically an east-west interstate, runs from the North Carolina border below Johnson City to its terminus at Kingsport. I-24 is the other east-west interstate crossing Tennessee.

In a north-south orientation are highways I-55, I-65, I-75, and I-81. Interstate 65 crosses the state through Nashville, while Interstate 75 serves Knoxville and Interstate 55 serves Memphis. Interstate 81 enters the state at Bristol and terminates at its junction with I-40 near Jefferson City. I-155 is a branch highway from I-55.

Airports

Major airports within the state include Nashville International Airport (BNA), Memphis International Airport (MEM), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) in Knoxville, Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), and Tri-Cities Regional Airport (TRI). Because Memphis International Airport is the major hub for FedEx Corporation, it is the world's largest air cargo operation.

Railroads

Memphis is served by the famed Amtrak train, the City of New Orleans on its run between Chicago and New Orleans. The City of New Orleans also stops near Dyersburg.

Law and government

Welcome sign entering Memphis on the Hernando De Soto Bridge over the Mississippi River leaving from Arkansas.

Tennessee's governor holds office for a four-year term and may serve a maximum of two terms. The governor is the only official who is elected statewide, making him one of the more powerful chief executives in the nation. The state does not elect the lieutenant-governor directly, contrary to most other states; the Tennessee Senate elects its Speaker who serves as lieutenant governor.

The Tennessee General Assembly, the state legislature, consists of the 33-member Senate and the 99-member House of Representatives. Senators serve four-year terms, and House members serve two-year terms. Each chamber chooses its own speaker. The speaker of the state Senate also holds the title of lieutenant-governor. Most executive officials are elected by the legislature.

The highest court in Tennessee is the state Supreme Court. It has a chief justice and four associate justices. No more than two justices can be from the same Grand Division. The Court of Appeals has 12 judges. The Court of Criminal Appeals has nine judges.

Tennessee's current state constitution was adopted in 1870. The state had two earlier constitutions. The first was adopted in 1796, the year Tennessee joined the union, and the second was adopted in 1834. The Tennessee Constitution outlaws martial law within its jurisdiction. This may be a result of the experience of Tennessee residents and other Southerners during the period of military control by Union (Northern) forces of the U.S. government after the American Civil War.

Lethal injection ban

On September 20, 2007, United States District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee Judge Aleta Trauger ruled that prisoners were not properly anesthetized before lethal injection administration. She banned this execution as a form of cruel and unusual punishment. Tennessee is among 11 states which has delayed executions because of controversy over injections.[11]

Politics

Tennessee politics, like that of most U.S. states, is dominated by the Democratic and Republican Parties. Like practically all Southern states, Tennessee tends to be politically conservative and currently tilts towards the Republican Party. However, it has often prided itself on its more moderate attitudes about matters of economics and race than some states of the Deep South.

While the Republicans control slightly more than half of the state, Democrats have strong support in the cities of Memphis and Nashville and in parts of Middle Tennessee (although declining, due to the growth of suburban Nashville) and West Tennessee north of Memphis, where a large rural African-American population resides. The Republicans historically had their greatest strength in East Tennessee, one of the few areas of the South with a Republican voting history that predates the 1960s. Such voting habits were a legacy from the region's support for the Union during the Civil War; much of East Tennessee has not elected a Democrat to Congress since then. In contrast, the Democrats generally dominated politics in the rest of the state until the 1960s; the GOP was essentially a sectional party. In the decades following the Civil Rights Movement and a concomitant revulsion against cultural liberalism, the Republicans have gained strength in the conservative suburbs of Memphis and Nashville and increasing support among rural voters elsewhere in West and Middle Tennessee (especially the former Grand Division). These patterns are largely in keeping with the South generally and do not generally reflect local idiosyncrasies.

In the 2000 Presidential Election, the majority of Tennessee voters voted for Republican George W. Bush rather than Vice President Al Gore, a former U.S. Senator from Tennessee. Tennessee support for Bush increased in 2004, with his margin of victory in the state increasing from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004. This occurred quite possibly because the nominee, John Kerry, was a Northerner; Southern nominees (e.g., Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton) usually fare better for the Democrats in Tennessee, especially among split-ticket voters outside the metropolitan areas.

Tennessee sends nine members to the US House of Representatives, currently consisting of five Democrats and four Republicans. The Baker v. Carr decision of the US Supreme Court (1962), which established the principle of one man was based on a lawsuit over rural-biased malapportionment in the Tennessee legislature. The ruling led to an increased prominence in state politics by urban and, eventually, suburban, legislators and statewide officeholders.

See also: List of Tennessee Governors, U.S. Congressional Delegations from Tennessee

Law enforcement

The State of Tennessee maintains two dedicated law enforcement entities, the Tennessee Highway Patrol and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, as well as the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation and the Tennessee State Parks department.

The Highway Patrol is the primary law enforcement entity that concentrates on highway safety regulations and general non-game state law enforcement and is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Department of Safety. The TWRA is an independent agency tasked with enforcing all wild game and fisheries regulations outside of state parks. The TBI maintains state-of-the-art investigative facilities and is the primary state-level criminal investigative department. Tennessee State Park Rangers are responsible for all activities and law enforcement inside the Tennessee State Parks system.

Important cities and towns

See also: List of cities and towns in Tennessee
Nashville: 607,413 city boundaries area only (2005)
Memphis: 672,277 city boundaries area only (2005)
File:Chattanoogaskyline.jpg
Chattanooga: 155,572 city boundaries area only (2005)
File:Knoxvilleskyline.jpg
Chattanooga: 160,000 city boundaries area only (2005)

The capital is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Memphis has the largest population of any city in the state, but Nashville has had the state's largest metropolitan area since circa 1990; Memphis formerly held that title. Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has approximately a third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of Clarksville is the fifth significant population center, some 45 miles (70 km) northwest of Nashville.

Major cities

Secondary cities

Education

Colleges and universities

Sports

Professional teams

Club Sport League
Memphis Grizzlies Basketball National Basketball Association
Tennessee Titans Football National Football League
Nashville Predators Ice hockey National Hockey League
Nashville Kats Football Arena Football League
Knoxville Ice Bears Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League
Chattanooga Lookouts Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Elizabethton Twins Baseball Minor League Baseball (Rookie)
Greeneville Astros Baseball Minor League Baseball (Rookie)
Johnson City Cardinals Baseball Minor League Baseball (Rookie)
Kingsport Mets Baseball Minor League Baseball (Rookie)
Memphis Redbirds Baseball Minor League Baseball (AAA)
Nashville Sounds Baseball Minor League Baseball (AAA)
Tennessee Smokies Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
West Tenn Diamond Jaxx Baseball Minor League Baseball (AA)
Chattanooga Steamers Basketball American Basketball Association
Cleveland Majic Basketball World Basketball Association
Memphis Express Soccer USL Premier Development League
Nashville Metros Soccer USL Premier Development League
Tennessee River Sharks Football Indoor Football League

Tennessee is also home to Bristol Motor Speedway which features NASCAR Nextel Cup racing two weekends a year, routinely selling out more than 160,000 seats both times.

Name origin

The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through a Native American village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. European settlers later encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi (or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County. The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee River). It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo.

The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee modification of an earlier Yuchi word. It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend".[7][8] According to James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost (Mooney, pg. 534).

The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. (Tennessee County was the predecessor to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County). When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on November 7, 2006.
  2. ^ Brief History of Tennessee in the War of 1812 from the Tennessee State Library and Archives. Retrieved April 30, 2006. Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the [[Mexican-American War|]].
  3. ^ A look at Tennessee Agriculture. Agclassroom.org. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  4. ^ US Thunderstorm distribution. src.noaa.gov. Last accessed November 1, 2006.
  5. ^ Mean Annual Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953-2004. ncdc.noaa.gov. Accessed November 1, 2006.
  6. ^ Top ten list. tornadoproject.com. Accessed November 1, 2006.
  7. ^ Satz, Ronald. Tennessee's Indian Peoples. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee Press, 1979. ISBN 0-87049-285-3
  8. ^ http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/chronol.htm
  9. ^ http://www.state.tn.us/tsla/exhibits/blackhistory/timelines/timeline_1861-1865.htm
  10. ^ [1] USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture, Maps and Cartographic Resources.
  11. ^ BBC NEWS, Tennessee bans lethal injection

Further reading

  • Bergeron, Paul H. Antebellum Politics in Tennessee. University of Kentucky Press, 1982.
  • Bontemps, Arna. William C. Handy: Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. Macmillan Company: New York, 1941.
  • Brownlow, W. G. Sketches of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of Secession: With a Narrative of Personal Adventures among the Rebels (1862)
  • Cartwright, Joseph H. The Triumph of Jim Crow: Tennessee’s Race Relations in the 1880s. University of Tennessee Press, 1976.
  • Cimprich, John. Slavery's End in Tennessee, 1861-1865 University of Alabama, 1985.
  • Finger, John R. "Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition". Indiana University Press, 2001.
  • Honey, Michael K. Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
  • Lamon, Lester C. Blacks in Tennessee, 1791-1970. University of Tennessee Press, 1980.
  • Mooney, James. "Myths of the Cherokee". 1900, reprinted Dover: New York, 1995.
  • Norton, Herman. Religion in Tennessee, 1777-1945. University of Tennessee Press, 1981.
  • Schaefer, Richard T. "Sociology Matters". New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2006. ISBN 0-07-299775-3
  • Van West, Carroll. Tennessee history: the land, the people, and the culture University of Tennessee Press, 1998.
  • Van West, Carroll, ed. The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. 1998.

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Tennessee


Preceded by
Kentucky
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on June 1, 1796 (16th)
Succeeded by
Ohio


CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 36° N 86° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Tennessee. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about TennesseeRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Tennessee" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Tennessee
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Tennessee]]
Flag of Tennessee Seal of Tennessee
Also called: Volunteer State
Saying(s): Agriculture and commerce
Official language(s) English
Capital Nashville
Largest city Memphis
Largest metro area Nashville
Area  Ranked 36th
 - Total 42,169 sq mi
(109,247 km²)
 - Width 120 miles (195 km)
 - Length 440 miles (710 km)
 - % water 2.2
 - Latitude 35°N to 36°41'N
 - Longitude 81°37'W to 90°28'W
Number of people  Ranked 16th
 - Total (2010) {{{2010Pop}}}
 - Density {{{2010DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2010Density}}}/km² (19th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Clingmans Dome[1]
6,643 ft  (2,026 m)
 - Average 900 ft  (280 m)
 - Lowest point Mississippi River[1]
178 ft  (54 m)
Became part of the U.S.  June 1, 1796 (16th)
Governor Phil Bredesen (D)
U.S. Senators Lamar Alexander (R)
Bob Corker (R)
Time zones  
 - East Tennessee Eastern: UTC-5/-4
 - Middle and West Central: UTC-6/-5
Abbreviations TN US-TN
Web site www.tennessee.gov

Tennessee is a state in the United States. Its capital is Nashville, which is also the country music center of America.[2] It is the home of the Smoky Mountains which are a famous tourist attraction. Other well known cities and towns are Memphis (the biggest city), Knoxville, Chattanooga, Oak Ridge, Lynchburg, Carthage, Lawrenceburg, Clarksville, Lebanon, Pigeon Forge, Graceland, Murfreesboro, and Gatlinburg.

Tennessee was the 16th state to join the nation, on June 1, 1796.

Several professional sports teams play there, including the Tennessee Titans of the NFL, the Memphis Grizzlies of the NBA, and the Nashville Predators of the NHL.

References

frr:Tennessee








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