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Ternate
Ternate.JPG
A 1720 depiction of Ternate. The inset shows a Portuguese-built fort on the island.
Geography
ID Ternate.PNG
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 0°47′N 127°22′E / 0.783°N 127.367°E / 0.783; 127.367
Archipelago Maluku Islands
Area 76 km²
Highest point Gamalama ((1715m))
Country
Indonesia
Demographics
Population 145,143 (as of 2003)
Density 1,910 /km2 (4,900 /sq mi)

Ternate is an island and town in the Maluku Islands (Moluccas) of eastern Indonesia, located off the west coast of the larger island of Halmahera, the center of the powerful former Sultanate of Ternate. Like its neighbouring island, Tidore, Ternate is a visually dramatic cone-shaped island. The islands are ancient Islamic sultanates with a long history of bitter rivalry. The islands were the world's single major producer of cloves, upon which their sultans became among the wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. In the precolonial era, Ternate was the dominant political and economic power over most of the "Spice Islands" of Maluku. Today, Ternate is the largest town in the province of North Maluku, within which the island constitutes a municipality (kotamadya).

Contents

Ternate Island

Ternate (Indonesian: Pulau Ternate) is dominated by the volcanic Mount Gamalama (1715 m). The volcano erupts regularly, covering the island with volcanic dust. Major past eruptions of Gamalama include 1673, when a large, but undetermined number of people were killed, and 1772, when about twenty inhabitants died. The largest recent eruption of Gamalama was in September 1980, when 30,000 of the islands 56,000 residents were forced to temporarily flee to nearby Tidore. The island now has an area of 76 square kilometres (29 square miles) and held a population estimated at 145,143 in July 2003. The town is located at 0°47′N 127°22′E / 0.783°N 127.367°E / 0.783; 127.367.

Administration

Ternate is governed as Ternate City Kota Ternate within the North Maluku province. The City has 4 sub-districts (kecamatan), Moti, North Ternate, and South Ternate.

Transportation

Sultan Babullah Airport is located on the island and is served by Wings Air (Group Lion Air), Merpati Nusantara Airlines, Express Air of Trigana Air. Connections are via Makassar, Manado via Sorong. Pelni provides ship connections.

Ternate City

Greater Ternate City (Indonesian: Kota Ternate) spreads 10 kilometres from the airport to Bastiong port. The commercial centre stretches 2 kilometres from the bus terminal near Fort Oranye to Ahmad Yani Port where Pelni ships arrive.[1] The current Sultan's Palace, built in 1796, is now partly a museum. The large Fort Oranye, built by the Dutch in 1607 on top of an undated Malay version, was the home of the Dutch East Indies Company until it moved to Batavia (Jakarta) around 1619.

History

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Pre-colonial history

Ternate and neighbouring Tidore were the world's single major producer of cloves upon which their rulers became among the wealthiest and most powerful sultans in the Indonesian region. Much of their wealth, however, was wasted fighting each other. Up until the Dutch completed the colonization of Maluku in the 19th century, the sultans of Ternate ruled empires that claimed at least nominal influence as far as Ambon, Sulawesi and Papua.[2] The peak of its power came near the end of the sixteenth century, under Sultan Baabullah, when it had influence over most of the eastern part of Sulawesi, the Ambon and Seram area, and parts of Papua. It frequently engaged in fierce competition for control of its periphery with the nearby sultanate of Tidore. According to historian Leonard Andaya, Ternate's "dualistic" rivalry with Tidore is a dominant theme in the early history of the Maluku Islands.

In part as a result of its trade-dependent culture, Ternate was one of the earliest places in the region to which Islam spread, probably coming from Java in the late 15th century. Initially, the faith was restricted to Ternate's small ruling family, and spread only slowly to the rest of the population.

Europeans

The first Europeans to stay on Ternate were part of the Portuguese expedition of Francisco Serrão out of Malacca, which was shipwrecked near Seram and rescued by local residents. Sultan Abu Lais of Ternate heard of their stranding, and, seeing a chance to ally himself with a powerful foreign nation, he brought them to Ternate in 1512. The Portuguese were permitted to build a fort on the island, construction of which began in 1522, but relations between the Ternateans and Portuguese were strained from the start.

An outpost far from Europe generally only attracted the most desperate and avaricious, such that the generally poor behaviour of the Portuguese combined with feeble attempts at Christianisation, strained relations with Ternate's Muslim ruler.[3] In 1535 King Tabariji was deposed and sent to Goa by the Portuguese. He converted to Christianity and changed his name to Dom Manuel. After being declared innocent of the charges against him he was sent back to reassume his throne however he died en route in Malacca in 1545. He had though bequeathed the island of Ambon to his Portuguese godfather Jordão de Freitas. Following the murder of Sultan Hairun at the hands of the Portuguese, the Ternateans expelled the Portuguese in 1575 after a five-year siege. Ambon became the new centre for Portuguese activities in Maluku. European power in the region was weak and Ternate became an expanding, fiercely Islamic and anti-Portuguese state under the rule of Sultan Baab Ullah (r. 1570 - 1583) and his son Sultan Said.[4]

Spanish forces captured the former Portuguese fort from the Ternatese in 1606, deported the Ternate Sultan and his entourage to Manila. In 1607 the Dutch came back in Ternate where with the help of Ternateans built a fort in Malayo. The island was divided between the two powers: the Spaniards were allied with Tidore and the Dutch with their Ternaten allies. For the Ternaten rulers, the Dutch were a useful, if not particularly welcome, presence that gave them military advantages against Tidore and the Spanish. Particularly under Sultan Hamzah (r. 1627-1648), Ternate expanded its territory and strengthened its control over the periphery. Dutch influence over the kingdom was limited, though Hamzah and his son and successor, Sultan Mandar Syah (r. 1648-1675) did concede some regions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in exchange for help controlling rebellions there. The Spaniards abandoned Ternate and Tidore in 1663. In the 18th century Ternate was the site of a VOC governorship, which attempted to control all trade in the northern Moluccas.

By the 19th century, the spice trade had declined substantially. Hence the region was less central to the Netherlands colonial state, but the Dutch maintained a presence in the region in order to prevent another colonial power from occupying it. After the VOC was nationalised by the Dutch government in 1800, Ternate became part of the Government of the Moluccas (Gouvernement der Molukken). Ternate was occupied by British forces in 1810 before being returned to Dutch control in 1817. In 1824 became the capital of a residency (administrative region) covering Halmahera, the entire west coast of New Guinea, and the central east coast of Sulawesi. By 1867 all of Dutch-occupied New Guinea had been added to the residency, but then its region was gradually transferred to Ambon (Amboina) before being dissolved into that residency in 1922.

20th century

Like the rest of Indonesia, Ternate was occupied by Japanese forces during World War II; eastern Indonesia was governed by the Navy. After Japan surrendered in August 1945 and Indonesia declared independence, Ternate was reoccupied in early November 1945 by Allied forces intending to return Indonesia to Dutch control. It became part of Maluku province when Indonesia became independent.

In 1999 and 2000, Ternate suffered from the same religious violence between Muslims and Christians that wracked many parts of Maluku, particularly Ambon and Halmahera.

Geology

Ternate lies in a very active seismic region where active volcanic activity and large frequent earthquakes and tsunamis are common.

References

General

Notes

  1. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia (7th edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 166. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.  
  2. ^ Witton, Patrick (2003). Indonesia (7th edition). Melbourne: Lonely Planet. p. 821. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.  
  3. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 24. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.  
  4. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1993). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-57689-6.  

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

TERNATE, a small island in the Malay Archipelago, off the west coast of Halmahera, in o 48' N., 127° 19' E. It is nearly circular in form, with an area of about 25 sq. m., and consists almost entirely of a remarkable volcano (5400 ft.) formed of three superimposed cones. Frequent destructive eruptions have occurred. On the island is the small town of Ternate, which, in spite of its good harbour, carried on no considerable trade or shipping, and has only 3000 inhabitants. But it is the headquarters of the Dutch residency of Ternate, which exercises authority over the area of the ancient kingdoms of Ternate and Tidore. The residency consists of the following groups of islands: the Halmahera group, the Bachian and the Obi group, the Sula Islands, the islands near the western half of New Guinea (Gebeh, Vaigeu, Salawati, Misol, collectively called the Papuan Islands), the western half of New Guinea as far as 141° E., with the islands in Geelvink Gulf on the north coast of New Guinea (Schouten Islands, Yapen, &c.), along with others on the south coast. To this residency also belong the state of Banggai in East Celebes, and the Banggai Islands. The residency stretches from 2` 43' N. to 5° 45' S., and 121° to 141 0 E., with an area of 155,800 sq. m. The Dutch government exercises direct authority only over parts of Ternate, Halmahera, Bachian and Obi islands. Its rule over the other groups it carries on through the sultans of Ternate and Tidore (q.v.). Both the island and town of Ternate suffer from their isolation, and have never regained the importance they had in former centuries. Pop. of the whole residency (1905) 108,415. The inhabitants are of Malay race and Mahommedans in religion. The breaking up of the old government of the Moluccas tended to make Ternate perhaps the most important Dutch-Indian political centre of the archipelago east of Celebes. Nominally the sultan is still ruler, but virtually his powers were greatly curtailed by his conventions with the Dutch-Indian government, under which he surrendered, with the concurrence of his grandees, many of his former rights to the Dutch resident, who became the de facto governor of the easternmost colonial possessions of Holland, especially since the transfer of Dutch New Guinea in 1901. Among the rights surrendered by the sultan of Ternate to the Dutch were those of granting monopolies and mining concessions, now vested in the Dutch resident. The island of Bachian is worked by a kind of chartered company. For surrendered rights and privileges the sultan and his grandees received monetary compensations in the shape of annual subventions, and these also have been paid for the losses formerly incurred by the wilful destruction of the nutmeg plantations, carried out in order to enhance the value of this commodity and monopolize its cultivation. The restrictions on nutmeggrowing have long since been removed, and many plantations, with free labour, have been started in Ternate since 1885. It is a curious fact that Christianity has declined in Ternate in modern times, though it was an early stronghold and the number of Europeans settled there has materially increased.


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