The Full Wiki

Terrorism in Indonesia: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Recent Terrorism in Indonesia can in part be attributed to the al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah Islamist terror group.

Since 2002, a number of 'western targets' have been attacked. Victims have included both foreign—mainly Western tourists—as well as Indonesian civilians. Terrorism in Indonesia intensified in 2000 with the Jakarta Stock Exchange bombing, followed by four more large attacks. The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[1] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[2]. However, after the capture and killing of most of its key members and leaders, most notably Imam Samudra, Amrozi, Abu Dujana, Azahari Husin, and the latest one, Noordin Top, the terrorist cells in Indonesia are more and more insignificant.

Contents

Political and community responses

Conspiracy theories similar to those around the September 11 attacks appeared in the Indonesian media blaming the Bali bombings on a Western-Jewish-Chinese-Masonic plot to discredit Islam. Used to a culture of rumour and violence under the "New Order", many Indonesians considered such theories credible. Subsequent bombings in the centre of Jakarta, in which all but one victim were ordinary Indonesians, shocked the public and brought swift responses from the Indonesian security forces. Even the most reluctant politicians had to admit that the evidence was against a small group of Islamist agitators. The Jakarta bombings and legal prosecutions helped shift public opinion away from the use of extremist Islamic political violence, but also increased the influence of intelligence bodies, the police and military whose strength had diminished since 1998.[3]

Political factors clouded Indonesian responses to the "War on Terror"; politicians were at pains not to be seen to be bowing to US and Australian opinion, and the term "Jemaah Islamiyah" is controversial in Indonesia as it means "Islamic community/congregation", and was also the subject of previous "New Order" manipulation of the term.[4]

Effects

The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries including the United States[2] and Australia,[5] severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects. Bali's economy was particularly hard hit, as were tourism based businesses in other parts of Indonesia. In May 2008, the United States government decided to lift its warning.[5] In 2006, 227,000 Australians visited Indonesia and in 2007 this rose to 314,000.[5]

Counter terrorism

Detachment 88 is the Indonesian counter-terrorism squad, and part of the Indonesian National Police. Formed after the 2002 Bali bombing, the unit has had considerable success against the jihadi terrorist cells linked to Central Java-based Islamist movement Jemaah Islamiah.[5]

Within the next three months after the 2002 Bali bombing, various militants, including the attack's mastermind Imam Samudra, the notorious 'smiling-bomber' Amrozi, and many others were apprehended[6]. Samudra, Amrozi, and Amrozi's brother Ali Ghufron were executed by firing squad on November 9 2008.

On November 10 2005, bomb expert and senior player in Jemaah Islamiah, Malaysian Dr Azahari Husin, along with two other militants were killed in a raid of a house in Malang, East Java[7].

The police forces uncovered JI's new command structure in March 2007 and discovered a weapons depot in Java in May 2007. Abu Dujana, suspected leader of JI's military wing and its possible emir, was apprehended on June 9, 2007. [8]

As of May 2008, Indonesian police have arrested 418 suspects, of which approximately 250 have been tried and convicted. According to sources within Detachment 88, the JI organisation has been "shrunk", and many of its top operatives have been arrested or killed.[5]

On July 17 2009, two blasts ripped two Jakarta hotels, JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton, killing seven[9]. It was the first serious attack for the country in the last five years. The police stated that it was committed by a splinter, yet more radical, group of JI, led by the man dubbed as the most wanted terrorist in Southeast Asia, Noordin Top. Top was killed in a raid two months later on September 17 2009 in Solo, Central Java[10]. All members of his cell were either killed or captured, including the recruiter and field coordinator of the attack, Ibrohim, killed on August 12 2009[11], and the one said to be his successor, Syaifudin Zuhri, killed on October 9 2009. After Top, many believed that terrorism in Indonesia had ran out of charismatic leaders, and grew insignificant. According to South East Asian terrorism expert and director of South East Asia International Crisis Group, Sidney Jones, Top's death was "a huge blow for the extremist organizations in Indonesia and the region" .[12]

On March 9 2010, Dulmatin, a senior figure in the militant group Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and one of the most wanted terrorists in Southeast Asia was killed in a police raid in Pamulang, Jakarta by Detachment 88. [13]

References

Advertisements

Recent Terrorism in Indonesia can in part be attributed to the al-Qaeda-affiliated Jemaah Islamiyah Islamist terror group.

Since 2002, a number of 'western targets' have been attacked. Victims have included both foreign—mainly Western tourists—as well as Indonesian civilians. Terrorism in Indonesia intensified in 2000 with the Jakarta Stock Exchange bombing, followed by four more large attacks. The deadliest killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[1] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[2]. However, after the capture and killing of most of its key members and leaders, most notably Imam Samudra, Amrozi, Abu Dujana, Azahari Husin, and the latest one, Noordin Top, the terrorist cells in Indonesia are more and more insignificant.

Contents

Political and community responses

Conspiracy theories similar to those around the September 11 attacks appeared in the Indonesian media blaming the Bali bombings on a Western-Jewish-Chinese-Masonic plot to discredit Islam. Used to a culture of rumour and violence under the "New Order", many Indonesians considered such theories credible. Subsequent bombings in the centre of Jakarta, in which all but one victim were ordinary Indonesians, shocked the public and brought swift responses from the Indonesian security forces. Even the most reluctant politicians had to admit that the evidence was against a small group of Islamist agitators. The Jakarta bombings and legal prosecutions helped shift public opinion away from the use of extremist Islamic political violence, but also increased the influence of intelligence bodies, the police and military whose strength had diminished since 1998.[3]

Political factors clouded Indonesian responses to the "War on Terror"; politicians were at pains not to be seen to be bowing to US and Australian opinion, and the term "Jemaah Islamiyah" is controversial in Indonesia as it means "Islamic community/congregation", and was also the subject of previous "New Order" manipulation of the term.[4]

Effects

The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries including the United States[2] and Australia,[5] severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects. Bali's economy was particularly hard hit, as were tourism based businesses in other parts of Indonesia. In May 2008, the United States government decided to lift its warning.[5] In 2006, 227,000 Australians visited Indonesia and in 2007 this rose to 314,000.[5]

Counter terrorism

Detachment 88 is the Indonesian counter-terrorism squad, and part of the Indonesian National Police. Formed after the 2002 Bali bombing, the unit has had considerable success against the jihadi terrorist cells linked to Central Java-based Islamist movement Jemaah Islamiah.[5]

Within the next three months after the 2002 Bali bombing, various militants, including the attack's mastermind Imam Samudra, the notorious 'smiling-bomber' Amrozi, and many others were apprehended[6]. Samudra, Amrozi, and Amrozi's brother Ali Ghufron were executed by firing squad on November 9 2008.

On November 10 2005, bomb expert and senior player in Jemaah Islamiah, Malaysian Dr Azahari Husin, along with two other militants were killed in a raid of a house in Malang, East Java[7].

The police forces uncovered JI's new command structure in March 2007 and discovered a weapons depot in Java in May 2007. Abu Dujana, suspected leader of JI's military wing and its possible emir, was apprehended on June 9, 2007. [8]

As of May 2008, Indonesian police have arrested 418 suspects, of which approximately 250 have been tried and convicted. According to sources within Detachment 88, the JI organisation has been "shrunk", and many of its top operatives have been arrested or killed.[5]

On July 17 2009, two blasts ripped two Jakarta hotels, JW Marriott and Ritz-Carlton, killing seven[9]. It was the first serious attack for the country in the last five years. The police stated that it was committed by a splinter, yet more radical, group of JI, led by the man dubbed as the most wanted terrorist in Southeast Asia, Noordin Top. Top was killed in a raid two months later on September 17 2009 in Solo, Central Java[10]. All members of his cell were either killed or captured, including the recruiter and field coordinator of the attack, Ibrohim, killed on August 12 2009[11], and the one said to be his successor, Syaifudin Zuhri, killed on October 9 2009. After Top, many believed that terrorism in Indonesia had run out of charismatic leaders, and grew insignificant. According to South East Asian terrorism expert and director of South East Asia International Crisis Group, Sidney Jones, Top's death was "a huge blow for the extremist organizations in Indonesia and the region" .[12]

On March 9 2010, Dulmatin, a senior figure in the militant group Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) and one of the most wanted terrorists in Southeast Asia was killed in a police raid in Pamulang, Jakarta by Detachment 88. [13]

References

  1. ^ "Commemoration of 3rd anniversary of bombings". AAP (The Age Newspaper). 10 December 2006. http://www.theage.com.au/news/war-on-terror/services-to-honour-victims-of-2002-bali-bombing/2005/10/12/1128796537208.html. 
  2. ^ a b US Embassy, Jakarta (10 May 2005). "Travel Warning: Indonesia". Press release. http://www.usembassyjakarta.org/news/trv_warning02.html. Retrieved 2006-12-26. 
  3. ^ Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 218–219.. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 
  4. ^ Vickers, Adrian (2005). A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 219.. ISBN 0-521-54262-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d e McDonald, Hamish (31 June 2008). "Fighting terror with smart weaponry". Sydney Morning Herald. pp. 17. http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/fighting-terrorism-with-smart-weaponry/2008/05/30/1211654312137.html. 
  6. ^ "Police to quiz Bali 'mastermind'". BBC News. November 25, 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2509589.stm. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  7. ^ "'Bali bomb maker' believed dead". BBC News. November 10, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/4421300.stm. Retrieved May 25, 2010. 
  8. ^ Southeast Asian Terrorist Leader Is Under Arrest. Retrieved on June 14, 2007.
  9. ^ http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/fears-for-australians-after-jakarta-bomb-blasts/story-0-1225751335120
  10. ^ http://thejakartaglobe.com/home/noordin-m-top-killed-says-indonesian-police-chief/330424
  11. ^ http://www.tempointeractive.com/hg/nasional/2009/08/12/brk,20090812-192174,uk.html
  12. ^ Reuters.com
  13. ^ Bali bomber mastermind Dulmatin 'killed in shoot-out' Times Online 2010-03-09


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message