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Insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir
Kashmir map big.jpg
Kashmir : Shown in green is the Kashmiri region under Pakistani control. The dark-brown region represents Indian-controlled Jammu and Kashmir while the Aksai Chin is under Chinese control.
Date 1989-present
Location Jammu and Kashmir
Result Conflict ongoing, largely subsided
Kashmir independent.svg Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

Flag of Jihad.svg Lashkar-e-Taiba
Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Jaish-e-Mohammed
Flag of Jihad.svg Hizbul Mujahideen
Harakat flag.png Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Flag of Jihad.svg Al-Badr
Flag of al-Qaeda in Iraq.svg al-Qaeda (alleged)

Flag of India.svg India
Kashmir independent.svg Amanullah Khan

Flag of Jihad.svg Hafiz Muhammad Saeed
Jaishi-e-Mohammed.svg Maulana Masood Azhar
Flag of Jihad.svg Sayeed Salahudeen
Harakat flag.png Fazlur Rehman Khalil
Harakat flag.png Farooq Kashmiri
Flag of Jihad.svg Arfeen Bhai(until 1998)
Flag of Jihad.svg Bakht Zameen

Flag of Indian Army.png Deepak Kapoor

Flag of Indian Army.png Lt Gen P C Bhardwaj
Ensign of the Indian Air Force.svg Pradeep Vasant Naik

800[1]-3,200[2] 30,000[3]-600,000[4]
Casualties and losses
20,000 militants killed[5] 7,000 police killed[6]
29,000[2]-100,000 civilians killed[7][8][9][10]

Insurgency in Kashmir has existed in various forms, both on the Indian administrated side of the disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir and Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Kashmir has been the target of a campaign of militancy by all sides in the conflict. Thousands of lives have been lost since 1989 due to the intensified insurgency 1989, a widespread armed insurgency started in Kashmir with the disputed rigged 1987 election ;since after 1987 rigged Sate elections some of the 'states legislative assembly' 'formed militant wings' later on after the disputed rigged election and furthermore that had started a catalyst for the insurgency [21], [22] Casualties include civilians, Kashmiri, and Indian Armed Forces and foreign militants.

The Inter-Services Intelligence of Pakistan has been accused by India of supporting and training mujahideen[11][12] to fight in Jammu and Kashmir.[13][14] While, International Human Right Groups have accused Indian army of committing grave Human rights violations in Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir.[15]

According to official figures released in Jammu and Kashmir assembly(Indian controlled), there were 3,400 disappearance cases and the insurgency has left more than 47,000 people dead till July 2009. However, the number of insurgency-related deaths in the state have fallen sharply since the start of a slow-moving peace process between India and Pakistan.[16]


Militancy and military

Though there had been instances of sporadic conflict in many regions for many years, intensified attacks occurred in the late 1980s, when the 1987 state elections were rigged although disputed ; had resulted in some of the 'states legislative assembly' 'formed militant wings' later on after the election forming and creating the catalyst for the insurgency[23],[24] However Indian Government believes Mujahideen fighters from Afghanistan slowly infiltrated the region, with Pakistan's help, following the end of the Soviet-Afghan War in 1989.[17] Since then, violence has increased significantly in strength. Many separatists have carried out attacks on local Hindus, Indian civilians and Indian army installations in response to what they see as Indian army occupation.[2]

India frequently asserts that most of the separatist militant groups are based in Pakistan and Pakistan-administered Kashmir (also known as Azad Kashmir). Some like the All Parties Hurriyat Conference and the Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front, demand an independent Kashmir. Other militant groups such as Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed favour a Pakistani-Kashmir. These groups have contacts with Taliban and Bin Laden. Both the organisations no longer operate under these names after they were banned by the Indian and Pakistani government, and by other countries including the US and UK. Of the larger militant groups, the Hizbul Mujahideen, a militant organisation based in Indian administered Kashmir, unlike other groups, has only kept its name.[18] Despite casualties, the militants are still believed to number thousands rather than hundreds. Several new separatist organizations have also emerged. According to US Intelligence, Al-Qaeda also has a main base in Pakistani Kashmir and is helping to foment terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir.[19][20] However India, Pakistan and the separatist organizations call this as hoax. Inspector General Police, Kashmir range also referred this as a hoax.[21][22][23][24]

It is hard to determine the total number of casualties. According to a report by the Government of India in the year 2000, 31,000 Indian civilians had lost their lives due to the insurgency. Human rights groups and local NGOs put the total figure at more than 84,000 (2005 figure).[25] Militancy had reached its peak in 1994 when the region saw more than 6,043 incidents and has since declined. However, Kashmir continues to remain as the most volatile region in the world with an average of 2,500 incidents every year.[26] According to an Indian estimate in 2005 there were about 2,000 militants in the Kashmir valley alone; 1,200 of them belong to the Hizbul Mujahideen. Not all Kashmiri separatists and militant organizations share the same ideology. Some fight in the name of religion, some are openly pro-Pakistan and some favour an independent Kashmir.

Due to the presence of these numerous anti-India insurgent groups India has been compelled to deploy massive number of troops in the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir for the task of counter insurgency. New Delhi has never made an official count, but military analysts estimate that anywhere from 30,000 to nearly 33,000 security personnel are most likely involved, supported by thousands of Indian paramilitary groups such as the Rashtriya rifles, and the Romeo Force(all a part of Indian army).[3] notes of the Indian Armed forces in Kashmir that:

Some reports estimate that India deploys approximately 400,000 combined army and paramilitary forces in Kashmir, most of which are stationed in the interior, 80,000 of which are deployed along the LoC. Pakistani forces deployed along the LoC are reported to number in the 40,000-50,000 range


Times Online reports that around 250,000 Indian troops are stationed in Kashmir,[28] while Pravda.RU, a widely read Russian News source notes that 350,000-600,000 troops may be deployed in Kashmir.[29]

Militant groups

Organizations listed as terrorist groups by India
Northeastern India
National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
Naga National Council-Federal (NNCF)
National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang
United Liberation Front of Asom
People's Liberation Army
Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
Zomi Revolutionary Front
Al-Badr Mujahideen
Al Barq (ABQ)
Al Fateh Force (AFF)
Al Jihad Force (AJF)/Al Jihad
Al Mujahid Force (AMF)
Al Umar Mujahideen (AUR/Al Umar)
Awami Action Committee (AAC)
Dukhtaran-e-Millat (DEM)
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HUM)
Ikhwan-ul-Musalmeen (IUM)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen Almi (JUMA)
Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party (JKDFP)
Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF)
Jammu and Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami (JKJEI)
Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET)
Kul Jammat Hurriyat Conference (KJHC)
Mahaz-e-Azadi (MEA)
Muslim Janbaaz Force (MJF/Jaanbaz Force)
Muslim Mujahideen (MM)
Hizbul Mujahideen
United Jihad Council
Students Islamic Movement of India Tehreek-e-Jihad (TEJ)
Pasban-e-Islami (PEI/Hizbul Momineen HMM)
Shora-e-Jihad (SEJ)
Tehreek-ul-Mujahideen (TUM)
North India
Babbar Khalsa
Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan
Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Dashmesh Regiment
International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
Kamagata Maru Dal of Khalistan
Khalistan Armed Force
Khalistan Liberation Force
Khalistan Commando Force
Khalistan Liberation Army
Khalistan Liberation Front
Khalistan Liberation Organisation
Khalistan National Army
Khalistan Guerilla Force
Khalistan Security Force
Khalistan Zindabad Force
Shaheed Khalsa Force
Central India
People's war group
Balbir militias
Ranvir Sena

Over the last two years, a militant group, Lashkar-e-Toiba has split into two factions: Al Mansurin and Al Nasirin. Another new group reported to have emerged is the Save Kashmir Movement. Harkat-ul-Mujahideen (formerly known as Harkat-ul-Ansar) and Lashkar-e-Toiba are believed to be operating from Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir and Muridke, Pakistan respectively.[25] Other less well known groups are the Freedom Force and Farzandan-e-Milat. A smaller group, Al-Badr, has been active in Kashmir for many years and is still believed to be functioning.[30] All Parties Hurriyat Conference, an organization that uses moderate means to press for the rights of the Kashmiris, is often considered as the mediator between New Delhi and insurgent groups.

Not much is known about collaboration between the various groups, but most say they are members of an alliance known as the United Jihad Council (UJC).[31] The two groups which India says were behind the December 2001 attack on the Indian parliament in New Delhi – known then as Jaish-e-Mohammed and Lashkar-e-Toiba are believed to be members of the UJC. India says that it was Jaish-e-Mohammed that attacked the Jammu and Kashmir State Assembly in Srinagar in October 2001.[32] It is also known that the Jaish-e-Mohammed was responsible for the hijacking of Indian Airlines Flight IC-814 to Kandahar, which forced the Government of India to release Maulana Masood Azhar, the chief of the Jaish-e-Mohammed.[33] Recruits from various parts of the world have been sent to Pakistan-administered Kashmir for training and advice.[34]


India and Pakistan

A 1994 report by Human Rights Watch group lends support to both Indian and Pakistani charges. In support of Indian claims, it states that "

There is compelling evidence that elements of the Pakistani government have sponsored a significant flow of arms to Kashmiri militants [from arms bazaars in the North West Frontier Province], as well as an extensive training program.

While in support of Pakistani claims, its states that "the human rights record of the Indian government in Punjab and Kashmir is appalling. Abuses in Kashmir are clearly on the rise."[35] The US government has also supported the claim that anti-India terror groups exist in India.[36] India claims that there are also other Afghan, Egyptian, Yemeni and Bangladeshi terrorists active in Jammu and Kashmir. The Council on Foreign Relations states that Pakistan’s military and Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) both include personnel who sympathize with—or even assist—Islamist militants adding that "ISI has provided covert but well-documented support to terrorist groups active in Kashmir, among other outfits."[37] In a recent infiltration bid, a Pakistan Army officer was shot dead, with India citing that this was clear and conclusive evidence of Pakistani involvement in the insurgency.[38] The UN Security Council has also confirmed the existence of terrorist groups based in [Pakistani] Kashmir and urged Pakistan to crack down on terrorist groups which had been operating in Kashmir and killing innocent people.[39]

Pakistan describes the separatists as "freedom fighters" and says that it supports their effort for the cause of the Kashmiris only morally and diplomatically. Pakistan however admits that there has been 'cross border infiltration of militants' across the Line of Control. In 2008, Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari said India has never been a threat to Pakistan, and that militants in Kashmir are terrorists [40]. In 2002, Pakistani president Pervez Musharraf tried to clamp down on the militants[41] operating from Pakistan.[42] India, however, claims that Islamabad supports these groups financially and militarily. Sources have maintained that Pakistan's intelligence organisation, Inter Services Intelligence, is the main supplier of funds and arms to these groups;[43] a claim that Islamabad has dismissed. According to the Indian news site, British Government had stated in 2002 that there is a 'clear link' between Pakistan's Inter Services Intelligence and three major militant groups[44] An article in The Guardian had uncovered evidence that Pakistani militants were openly raising funds and training new recruits and that the ISI's Kashmir Cell was instrumental in funding and controlling the militant outfits.[35] Richard Bennett, a British military and intelligence analyst states that the ISI has armed and trained generations of Islamist extremists and has directed many of their attacks both within the Kashmir and in India's major cities.[45]

Indian sources also allege that there are between 2,600 to 3,000 militants receiving training in camps across Pakistan and Pakistan Administered Kashmir. During a peace summit between former Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf and Indian former-Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in January 2004, Islamabad assured India that it would do everything possible to curb the activities any training camps on its territory. However, violence has continued in Kashmir despite a 3 year long peace process between India and Pakistan. There were as many as 166 incidents in June 2005 alone in which some 201 people have died.[46]

According to Indian sources there are about 37 training camps in Pakistan, 49 in Azad Kashmir and 22 in Afghanistan.[26] The FBI also has produced images of camps operating in Pakistan.[47] India claims that every year thousands of armed insurgents infiltrate into Indian-administered Kashmir and carry out attacks against Indian Security Forces and Kashmiri civilians. In June 2005, the Indian Army had foiled at least 72 infiltration attempts along the Line of Control in Kashmir.[27] India alleges that despite the commitments made by Pervez Musharraf, Islamabad has done little to stop the training camps on its soil. According to India, most of the militants in Kashmir come from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Egypt, Yemen and Bangladesh. Not all Kashmiri separatists and militant organizations share the same ideology. Some fight in the name of religion, some are pro-Pakistan and some favour an independent Kashmir. While the vast majority of militants are Muslims, one report indicated a minority of fighter (40 to 50) are Hindu militants who have either taken up arms or provided safe cover for militants.[48]

Indian claims

The following statistics were compiled by Indian Army:[2]

  • Number of civilians killed in Kashmir since 1988: 65,000 to 1,00,000 [7][8][9][10]
  • Number of Youth disappeared during turmoil : 3429 [49][50 ][51 ][52]
  • Number of Kashmiri militant camps in Pakistan-administered Kashmir: 49
  • Total number of Kashmir militant camps in Pakistan: 37
  • Number of Kashmiri militant camps in Afghanistan: 22 (During Taliban rule)
  • Number of militants* operating in Jammu and Kashmir: 800 (2009 estimate [1])
  • Number of Kashmiri Militants in Indian jails: 125
  • Total number of Kashmiri Pandits displaced from the state: over 750,000
  • Amount of explosives recovered from Kashmiri Militants* in India: 60 tons or 30,000 kg (estimate)
  • Major Kashmiri Militant training camps:[46]
Location of major Militant* camps
Muridke (near Lahore) Punjab, Pakistan
Kotli Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Muzaffarabad Pakistan-administered Kashmir
Skardu Northern Areas, Pakistan
Gultari Northern Areas, Pakistan
Tarkuti Northern Areas, Pakistan
Batrasi North West Frontier Province, Pakistan
Sufaida North West Frontier Province, Pakistan
Tanda Allabyar Sindh, Pakistan

Note: Pakistan denies the existence of such training camps on their territory, and the existence of such camps is a matter of controversy.

Human rights violations

Human rights violations by India

A 1996 Human Rights Watch report accuses the Indian military and Indian-government backed paramilitaries of "committ[ing] serious and widespread human rights violations in Kashmir."[53] One such alleged massacre occurred on January 6, 1993 in the town of Sopore. TIME Magazine described the incident as such: "In retaliation for the killing of one soldier, paramilitary forces rampaged through Sopore's market setting buildings ablaze and shooting bystanders. The Indian government pronounced the event 'unfortunate' and claimed that an ammunition dump had been hit by gunfire, setting off fires that killed most of the victims."[54] In addition to this, there have been claims of disappearances by the police or the army in Kashmir by several human rights organizations.[55][56]

A soldier guards the roadside checkpoint outside Srinagar International Airport in January 2009.

Many human rights organizations such as Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch (HRW) have condemned human rights abuses in Kashmir by Indians such as "extra-judicial executions", "disappearances", and torture;[57] the "Armed Forces Special Powers Act", which "provides impunity for human rights abuses and fuels cycles of violence. The Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA) grants the military wide powers of arrest, the right to shoot to kill, and to occupy or destroy property in counterinsurgency operations. Indian officials claim that troops need such powers because the army is only deployed when national security is at serious risk from armed combatants. Such circumstances, they say, call for extraordinary measures." Human rights organizations have also asked Indian government to repeal[58] the Public Safety Act, since "a detainee may be held in administrative detention for a maximum of two years without a court order."[59].A 2008 report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees determined that Indian Administered Kashmir, was only 'partly Free' [60].

Human Rights violations by Pakistan

Human rights violations have also been reported in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.[61] A 2-day conference on Gilgit Baltistan was held on April 8–9, 2008 at the European Parliament in Brussels under the auspices of International Kashmir Alliance. Here several members of the European Parliament (MEPs) expressed concern over the human rights violation in Gilgit Baltistan and urged the government of Pakistan to establish democratic institutions and rule of law in this area of northern Kashmir. Abdul Hamid Khan, Chairman Balawaristan National Front speaking at the same conference said "no democratically elected representative (from Gilgit Baltistan) was included when Karachi Agreement was signed between Pakistan and Muslim Conference leaders in 1949." [62] On April 25, 2007 European Union published a report entitled 'on Kashmir: present situation and future prospects'. Section 2 of the noted the absence of democracy in Gilgit Baltistan region and in section 32 deplored the human rights violations in this region.[63] A 2008 report by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees determined that Pakistan administered Kashmir, was 'Not Free'. It also criticized the Pakistani Government saying 'The appropriation of land in the Northern Areas by non-Kashmiri migrants from elsewhere in Pakistan, with the tacit encouragement of the federal government and army, has led to dwindling economic opportunities for the local population and an increase in sectarian tension between the majority Shia Muslims and a growing number of Sunnis.'[64] The same report determined that the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir was 'Partly Free'.[60] Parties like Balawaristan National Front are fighting for independence of Pakistan-administered Kashmir from Pakistan.

Human rights violations by militants

Militants are accused of violence against the Kashmir populace.[65] Thousands of civilian Kashmiris both Hindus and Muslims have been killed in Kashmir over the past 10 years by militants organisations.[66] Human rights organizations put the figure of the number of civilians killed between Jan 1, 1999 and December 31, 1999 at about 9,733.[26]. According to official figures released in 2009, Indian Health and Family Welfare Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad, a Kashmiri himself and former chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir said 14,808 Muslims lost their lives while 1,748 Hindus and 115 Sikhs were killed during the rein of militancy in the state since 1989 by militants[67].

Tens of thousands of Kashmiri Pandits have emigrated as a result of the violence. Estimates of the displaced varies from 170,000 to 700,000. Thousands of Pandits have to move to Jammu because of terrorism.[68] On February 15, 2006 United States Congressman Frank Pallone introduced a resolution in United States House of Representatives condemning the violation of Human rights of Kashmiri Pandits. He stated that an ethnic cleansing campaign was being run by Islamic terrorists to convert Kashmir into a Muslim state and 400,000 Kashmiri Pandits had either been murdered or displaced from their homes.[69] The resolution was passed by the House (with Senate concurring) and stated that (1) Congress condemns the human rights violations committed against Kashmiri Pandits in the strongest terms (2) it is the sense of Congress that the Government of the Republic of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir should take immediate steps to remedy the situation of the Kashmiri Pandits and should act to ensure the physical, political, and economic security of this embattled community; and (3) Congress supports mutual discussions between the Government of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir to achieve a peaceful and equitable solution to the Kashmiri conflict that is acceptable to the Kashmiri Pandits while ensuring that they are a part of the ongoing dialogue.[70]

Militant acts in J&K

  • July and August 1989 - 3 CRPF personnel and politician Mohd. Yusuf Halwai of NC/F were killed.[71]
  • 1989 kidnapping of Rubaiya Sayeed daughter of the then Home Minister of India Mufti Sayeed.
  • 1995 kidnapping of western tourists in Jammu and Kashmir 6 foreign trekkers from Anantnag district were kidnapped by Al Faran, One was beheaded later, one escaped and other four remain untraced presumable killed.
  • Sangrampora Killings - On March 22, 1997, 7 Kashmiri Pandits were killed in Sangrampora village in the Budgam district.[72]
  • Wandhama Massacre - In January 1998, 24 Kashmiri Pandits living in the village of Wandhama were massacred by Pakistani militants. According to the testimony of one of the survivors, the militants dressed themselves as officers of the Indian Army, entered their houses and then started firing blindly. The incident was significant because it coincided with former US president Bill Clinton's visit to India and New Delhi used the massacre to present a case against the alleged Pakistan-supported terrorism in Kashmir.[73]
  • 1998 Prankote massacre - 26 Hindu villagers of Udhampur district were killed by militants.
  • 1998 Champanari massacre - 25 Hindu villagers killed on June 19, 1998 by Islamic militants.
  • 2001 terrorist attack on Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly On October 1, 2001, a bombing at the Legislative Assembly in Srinagar killed 38.[74]
  • 2003 Nadimarg Massacre - 24 Hindus killed in Nadimarg, Kashmir on March 23, 2003 by Lashkar-e-Taiba militants.
  • Qasim Nagar Attack - On July 13, 2003, armed militants believed to be a part of the Lashkar-e-Toiba threw hand grenades at the Qasim Nagar market in Srinagar and then fired on civilians standing nearby killing 27 and injuring many more.[75]
  • July 20, 2005 Srinagar Bombing - A car bomb exploded near an armoured Indian Army vehicle in the famous Church Lane area in Srinagar killing 4 Indian Army personnel, one civilian and the suicide bomber. Militant group Hizbul Mujahideen, claimed responsibility for the attack.[76]
  • Budshah Chowk attack - A militant attack on July 29, 2005 at Srinigar's city centre, Budshah Chowk, killed 2 and left more than 17 people injured. Most of those injured were media journalists.[77]
  • Assassination of Ghulam Nabi Lone - On October 18, 2005 suspected Kashmiri militants killed Jammu and Kashmir's then education minister Ghulam Nabi Lone. Militant group called Al Mansurin claimed responsibility for the attack.[78] Abdul Ghani Lone, a prominent All Party Hurriyat Conference leader, was assassinated by unidentified gunmen during a memorial rally in Srinagar. The assassination resulted in wide-scale demonstrations against the Indian forces for failing to provide enough security cover for Mr. Lone.[75]
  • On May 3, 2006 militants massacred 35 Hindus in Doda and Udhampur districts in Jammu and Kashmir.[79]
  • On June 12, 2006 one person was killed and 31 were wounded when terrorists hurled three grenades on Vaishnodevi shrine-bound buses at the general bus stand here this morning.[80]
  • June 2, 2009': 17-year-old Nigeen Awan was shot and killed at her residence by Militants.[81][82]
  • June 16, 2009: 45-year-old Rashma Jan died when terrorists barged into her house at Sopore on June 16 and fired indiscriminately.[81][82]

Recent developments

Violent activities in the region declined in 2004. There are two main reasons for this: warming of relations between New Delhi and Pakistan which consequently lead to a ceasefire between the two countries in 2003 and the fencing of the LOC being carried out by the Indian Army. Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory. In 2004, the two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region.

Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations have made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which was accepted by India. India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the militants whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan. However, ever since the ceasefire has come into action, the militants have received no back-up from Pakistani Military, which has contributed significantly to the decline in cross-border terrorism[83] in the state. Even the recently elected Pakistani President, Asif Ali Zardari admitted that the militants operating in Kashmir were indeed terrorists""[84][85]


According to Govt. of India Home Ministry, 2008 marks the lowest civilian casualties in 20 years with 89 deaths, compared to highest of 1,413 in 1996.[86] 85 security personnel died in 2008 compared to 613 in 2001. Human right situation improved with only 1 custodial death and no custodial disappearance.

  • Hizbul Mujahideen founder, considered founder of terrorism in Kashmir, Ahsan Dar was arrested on Jan 14th.[87]
  • Feberuary 21, 2009 : Bomai Killing: Army kills two devotees in an indiscriminate firing incident by 22nd Battalion of Rashtriya Rilfes in Bomai, Sopore. Which results in a massive valley wide protests.[88]
  • March 6, 2009: Nowhatta Killing: A CRPF vehicle killed one youth and crushed another at Nawhatta during a protest. The killing triggered violent protests across the city. Authorities clamed curfew for continuously for four days.[89]
  • Separatists and workers of a political party were believed to be behind stone pelting incidents[90] which generally leads to retaliatory fire by the police.[91] Autorickshaw laden with stones meant for distribution was seized by the police in 11 March 2009.[90]
  • March 18, 2009: Rajpora killing: Barely a few hours after the union home minister, P Chidambaram, assured action against troopers found guilty for Bomai killings,[92] 181 bn of paramilitary CRPF troopers shot dead a carpenter, Ghulam Mohiudin Malik son of Muhammad Akbar Malik, at Khaigam Pakherpora in south Kashmir’s Pulwama district.[92][93][94]
  • May 31, 2009:Shopian rape and murder case:Protests over rape and murder of two young women allegedly by Indian Armed Forces. Pro-freedom leaders arrested and police and paramilitary forces resorted to firing at protesters in several places, including Shopian, Baramulla and Srinagar killing one person and injuring hundreds.[95 ]
  • August 18, 2009 : Government stated there had been 3429 youth missing since 1990 - till date. However local and international rights groups have suggested over 8,000 people have disappeared in the region.[49][50 ][51 ][52]
  • September 9, 2009 : An Indian army major and three militants were killed in an encounter in the Mendhar area of Poonch district in Jammu and Kashmir. Indian army had earlier pointed out that there has been an increase in the activity on the western border. Anti-India militant outfits have been trying to push in as much men, money and weapons on to the Indian side before snow blocks their passage.[96][97][98]
  • December 2, 2009 : A Kashmir based group, International People's Tribunal on Human Rights and Justice, said that it had found 2600 bodies in unmarked graves during a three year survey. While the group did not who the buried were, it alleged that some could be innocent people killed by security force, and called for an investigation.[99]
  • December 18, 2009 :India withdraws 30,000 troops from Kashmir in one of the largest troop withdrawals in response to dramatic improvement in security situation.[100]
  • January 6, 2010 : A militant attack on a police station in Srinagar triggers a 20 hour gun battle between Lashkar-e-Taiba militants and Indian police. Two militants, one police officer, and one civilian were reported killed.[101][102]

See also

Related articles
Militant groups

Films, Documenties and Books



  • Yahaan – A love story of an idealistic Indian army soldier and a local Kashmiri girl.



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  65. ^ K P S Gill: The Kashmiri Pandits: An Ethnic Cleansing the World Forgot - Islamist Extremism & Terrorism in South Asia
  66. ^ Rights Abuses Behind Kashmir Fighting (Human Rights Watch, 16-7-1999)
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  68. ^ Alexander Evans, A departure from history: Kashmiri Pandits, 1990–2001, Contemporary South Asia (Volume 11, Number 1, 1 March 2002, pp. 19-37)
  69. ^ Pallone introduces resolution condemning Human rights violation against Kashmiri Pandits, United States House of Representatives, 2006-02-15
  70. ^ Expressing the sense of Congress that the Government of the Republic of India and the State Government of Jammu and Kashmir should take immediate steps to remedy the situation of the Kashmiri Pandits and should act to ensure the physical, political, and economic security of this embattled community. HR Resolution 344,United States House of Representatives, 2006-02-15
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  72. ^ "Sangrampora killings".  
  73. ^ "Wandhama Massacre report".  
  74. ^ Dugger, Celia (2001, October 9). "Pakistan Asks India to Revive Talks Aimed at Bringing Peace to Kashmir". The New York Times.  
  75. ^ a b "Human Rights Watch World Report 2003: India".  
  76. ^ "20 July 2005 Srinagar attack".  
  77. ^ "July 29 attack in Srinagar".,000900010002.htm.  
  78. ^ "Nabi Lone's assassination". BBC News. October 18, 2005. Retrieved January 5, 2010.  
  79. ^ "Massacre of 35 Hindus in Doda and Udhampur districts of Jammu".  
  80. ^ "Terror in Jammu, Anantnag".  
  81. ^ a b "No Shopian-type protest over murder of women by Hizb militants". The Hindu.  
  82. ^ a b "No Shopian-type protest over murder of women by Hizb militants". Indian Express.  
  83. ^ `Cross-border terrorism has not ended' The Hindu - June 14, 2003
  84. ^
  85. ^
  86. ^ [17]
  87. ^ [18]
  88. ^ Army kills 3 devotees in North
  90. ^ a b [19]
  91. ^ [20]
  92. ^ a b CRPF 'kills' carpenter in Pakherpora
  93. ^ Thousands protest police killing in Indian Kashmir
  94. ^ Rajpora firing
  95. ^ "One killed, 150 injured". Amnesty International. Retrieved 2009-06-11.  
  96. ^ Army major killed foiling infiltration bid in J&K
  97. ^ Three militants, major killed as troops foil infiltration bid
  98. ^ Army foils infiltration bid in J&K, 3 militants, 1 army official killed
  99. ^ Hussain, Aijaz (Dec 2, 2009). "Report: 2,600 bodies found in Kashmir graves". Yahoo News.  
  100. ^ India says troops have been withdrawn from Kashmir, BBC, 2009-12-18
  101. ^
  102. ^

Manoj Joshi, Lost Rebellion: Kashmir in the Nineties (New Delhi, Penguin Books, 1999)


  1. ^  BBC Timeline on Kashmir conflict.
  2. ^  Lashkar-e-toiba's profile
  3. ^  List of terrorist attacks in Kashmir
  4. ^  Article on Nadimarg killings
  5. ^  Amarnath killings report
  6. ^  Plight of Kashmiri Pundits
  7. ^  Schofield, Victoria. 'Kashmir: The origins of the dispute', BBC News UK Edition (January 16, 2002) Retrieved May 20, 2005
  8. ^  HT story - Kashmiri militants warn against return of Pandits

External links


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