|Systematic (IUPAC) name|
(4S,6S,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)- 3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy- 6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a- octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide
|ATC code||A01 D06 J01 S01 S02 S03 QG01 QG51 QJ51|
|Mol. mass||444.435 g/mol|
|Bioavailability||60-80% Oral, while fasting
|Half life||6-11 hours|
|Excretion||Fecal and Renal|
|Pregnancy cat.||D(AU) D(US)|
|Legal status||℞ Prescription only|
|Routes||oral, topical (skin & eye), im, iv|
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Tetracycline (INN) (pronounced /ˌtɛtrəˈsaɪkliːn/) is a broad-spectrum polyketide antibiotic produced by the Streptomyces genus of Actinobacteria, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. It is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It is commonly used to treat acne today, and more recently, rosacea, and played a historical role in stamping out cholera in the developed world. It is sold under the brand names Sumycin, Terramycin, Tetracyn, and Panmycin, among others. Actisite is a thread-like fiber form, used in dental applications. It is also used to produce several semi-synthetic derivatives, which together are known as the tetracycline antibiotics.
Tetracyclines work by binding the 30S ribosomal subunit and through an interaction with 16S rRNA, they prevent the docking of amino-acylated tRNA.
Resistance to tetracyclines can arise through drug efflux, ribosomal protection proteins, 16S rRNA mutation, and drug inactivation through the action of a monooxygenase.
The tetracyclines are a large family of antibiotics that were discovered as natural products by Benjamin Minge Duggar and first described in 1948. Under Yellapragada Subbarao, Benjamin Duggar made his discovery of the world's first tetracycline antibiotic, Aureomycin, in 1945.
In 1950, Harvard Professor Robert Woodward determined the chemical structure of Terramycin, the brand name for a member of the tetracycline family; the patent protection for its fermentation and production was also first issued in 1950. A research team of seven scientists at Pfizer ,in collaboration with Woodward, participated in the two-year research leading to the discovery .
Nubian mummies have been studied in the 1990s and were found to contain significant levels of tetracycline; there is evidence that the beer brewed at the time could have been the source. Tetracycline sparked the development of many chemically altered antibiotics and in doing so has proved to be one of the most important discoveries made in the field of antibiotics. It is used to treat many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and some protozoa. It, like some other antibiotics, is also used in the treatment of acne.
Are as those of the tetracycline antibiotics group:
Since tetracycline is not absorbed into bone, it is used as a marker of bone growth for biopsies in humans, and as a biomarker in wildlife to detect consumption of medicine- or vaccine-containing baits. The presence of tetracycline in bone is detected by its fluorescence.
In genetic engineering tetracycline is used in transcriptional activation. Tetracycline is also one of the antibiotics used to treat ulcers caused by bacterial infections. In cancer research at Harvard Medical School, tetracycline has been used to reliably cause regression of advanced stages of leukemia in mice, by placing it in their drinking water.
Tetracycline is used in cell biology as selective agent in cell culture systems. It is toxic to prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and selects for cells harboring the bacterial tetr gene, which encodes a 399-amino acid membrane associated protein. This protein actively exports tetracycline out of the cell rendering cells harboring this gene more resistant to the drug. The yellow crystalline powder can be dissolved in water (20 mg/ml) or ethanol (5 mg/ml) and is routinely used at 10 mg/l in cell culture. In cell culture at 37 °C it is stable for 4 days.