Tetrahydrocannabinol: Wikis

  
  

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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(−)-(6aR,10aR)-6,6,9-trimethyl-
3-pentyl-6a,7,8,10a-tetrahydro-
6H-benzo[c]chromen-1-ol
Identifiers
CAS number 1972-08-3
ATC code A04AD10
PubChem 16078
DrugBank APRD00571
ChemSpider 15266
Chemical data
Formula C21H30O2 
Mol. mass 314.45
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Synonyms Dronabinol
Physical data
Boiling point 157 °C (315 °F) [2]
Solubility in water 0.0028 [1] (23 °C) mg/mL (20 °C)
Spec. rot -152° (ethanol)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 10-35% (inhalation), 6-20% (oral)[3]
Protein binding 95-99%[3]
Metabolism mostly hepatic by CYP2C[3]
Half life 1.6-59 hours [3], 25-36 hours (orally administered Dronabinol)
Excretion 65-80% (feces), 20-35% (urine) as acid metabolites[3]
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. C
Legal status Schedule I and III (US)
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
3D rendering of the THC molecule.
A bud of marijuana displaying its trichomes rich with THC
.Tetrahydrocannabinol (pronounced /ˌtɛtrəˌhaɪdrɵkəˈnæbɨnɒl/ tet-rə-HYE-drə-kə-NAB-i-nol) (THC), also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol9-THC), Δ1-THC (using an older chemical nomenclature), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the cannabis plant.^ Effect of Delta-9-THC on EMG Measurements in Human Spasticity http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/...w.php?s_id=110 The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- 2009 - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • My birthday gift to you..... - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • San Onofre Surf Beach 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.sanonofre.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clinical usefulness of the cannabinoids, including .DELTA..sup.9-tetrahydrocannabinol (.DELTA..sup.9-THC), to provide analgesia, help alleviate nausea and emesis, as well as stimulate appetite has been well-recognized.
  • Products of Tetrahydrocannabinol, Compositions Comprising Prodrugs of Tetrahydrocannabinol and Methods of Using the Same - Patent application 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral Versus Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) Absorption .
  • Inhaled THC Produces Better Blood Levels than THC by Mouth 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.medmjscience.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Inhaled THC Produces Better Blood Levels than THC by Mouth 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC www.omma1998.org [Source type: Academic]

.It was first isolated by Raphael Mechoulam, Yechiel Gaoni, and Habib Edery from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, in 1964.^ Gaoni Y, Mechoulam R. The isolation and structure of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol and other neutral cannabinoids from hashish.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

[4][5][6] In pure form, it is a glassy solid when cold and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. .An aromatic terpenoid, THC has a very low solubility in water, but good solubility in most organic solvents.^ Water was not used as the drug vehicle, in order to prevent the low water solubility of WIN 55,212-2 from significantly influencing the diffusion rate.
  • (WO/2007/001891) TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF CANNABINOIDS 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

^ Lee has claimed that smoking marijuana is a (very) good thing as opposed to taking THC in other ways.
  • HorsesAss.Org » Blog Archive » The Pain of a Broken System 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC horsesass.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, endocannabinoids are lipophilic molecules that are not very soluble in water.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Like most pharmacologically-active secondary metabolites of plants, THC in cannabis is assumed to be involved in self-defense, perhaps against herbivores.^ The term cannabinoids also refers to a unique group of secondary metabolites found in the cannabis plant, which are responsible for the plant's peculiar pharmacological effects.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ (THC) is the prototypical plant-derived psychoactive cannabinoid and the main cause of the psychotropic effects of marijuana, which is the most widespread illicit drug in the world.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phytocannabinoids from the plant Cannabis sativa induce a variety of physiological and pharmacological responses in living systems, including anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anti-ulcer and antitumor activities.
  • Increased mortality, hypoactivity, and hypoalgesia in cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout mice. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC lib.bioinfo.pl [Source type: Academic]

[7] .THC also possesses high UV-B (280-315 nm) absorption properties, which, it has been speculated, could protect the plant from harmful UV radiation exposure.^ A preliminary investigation (Pate 1983) indicated that, in areas of high ultraviolet radiation exposure, the UV-B (280-315 nm) absorption properties of THC may have conferred an evolutionary advantage to Cannabis capable of greater production of this compound from biogenetic precursor CBD. The extent to which this production is also influenced by environmental UV-B induced stress has been experimentally determined by Lydon et al.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ UV-B selection pressures seem responsible for the distribution of THC-rich Cannabis varieties in areas of high ambient radiation, and may have influenced the evolution of an alternate biogenetic pathway from CBG to THC in some of these strains.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Immune system - In vitro exposure to very high concentrations of THC results in decreased function of macrophages, lymphocytes and NK cells 68 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[8][9][10]
.Dronabinol is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) for a pure isomer of THC, (-)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, that is, the main isomer in cannabis.^ CBD shares a precursor with THC and is the main cannabinoid in low-THC Cannabis strains.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Introduction Cannabis and its principal bioactive constituent (-)-Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-Δ 9 -THC) as well as its isoactive and more stable isomer (-)-Δ 8 -tetrahydrocannabinol ((-)-Δ 8 -THC) are currently receiving attention as potential therapeutic agents.
  • The Role of Halogen Substitution in Classical Cannabinoids: A CB1 Pharmacophore Model 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.aapsj.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Much of the total THC in crude cannabis is not free THC but tetrahydrocannabinolic acid 32 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[11] .It is sold as Marinol (a registered trademark of Solvay Pharmaceuticals).^ Solvay Pharmaceuticals provided study medication (dronabinol (Marinol) and placebo capsules), labelling, and packaging.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.Dronabinol is also marketed, sold, and distributed by PAR Pharmaceutical Companies under the terms of a license and distribution agreement with SVC pharma LP, an affiliate of Rhodes Technologies.^ This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ AN UPDATE FROM GEOFFREY GUY, a successful British pharmaceutical entrepreneur who in 1998 founded a company, G.W. Pharmaceuticals, to produce and market medically useful extracts from the cannabis plant.
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Pharmacology

.The pharmacological actions of THC result from its binding to the cannabinoid receptor CB1, located mainly in the central nervous system, and the CB2 receptor, mainly present in cells of the immune system.^ Cannabinoids and the immune system.

^ Large receptor reserve for cannabinoid actions in the central nervous system .
  • Ganja in Jamaica - Medical Analyses 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.tc.columbia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Cabral G, Marciano-Cabral F. Cannabinoid receptors in microglia of the central nervous system: immune functional relevance.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

.It acts as a partial agonist on both receptors, i.e., it activates them but not to their full extent.^ Compounds that activate receptors are called agonists.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Both morphine and codeine were full agonists when administered p.o.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Compounds that are agonists or antagonists for one or both of these receptors have been shown to provide a variety of pharmacological effects.
  • Pyrazole derivatives as cannabinoid receptor antagonists - Patent 7119108 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

.The psychoactive effects of THC are mediated by its activation of the CB1 receptor, which is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor in the brain.^ CB1 receptors are extraordinarily abundant in the brain.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (E–H) THC effects depend on CB1 receptor.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional differences in cannabinoid receptor/G-protein coupling in rat brain.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The presence of these specialized receptors in the brain implied to researchers that endogenous cannabinoids are manufactured by the body, so the search began for a substance normally manufactured in the brain that binds to these receptors, the so-called natural ligand or agonist, leading to the eventual discovery of anandamide, 2-arachidonyl glyceride (2-AG), and other related compounds known as endocannabinoids.^ Felder CC, Glass M. Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous agonists.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

.This story resembles the discovery of the endogenous opiates (endorphins, enkephalins, and dynorphin), after the realization that morphine and other opiates bind to specific receptors in the brain.^ Endogenous ligands for these receptors (enkephalins, dynorphins, and β-endorphin) can also produce such effects and play a role in controlling the perception of pain ( Richardson and Akil, 1977 ; Bhargava, 1991 ).
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Discovery of the presence and functional expression of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in brain.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Rubino T, Tizzoni L, Vigano D, Massi P, Parolaro D. Modulation of rat brain cannabinoid receptors after chronic morphine treatment.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, it has been shown that cannabinoids, through an unknown mechanism, activate endogenous opioid pathways involving the μ1 opioid receptor, precipitating a dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens.^ Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common µ1 opioid receptor mechanism.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of Cannabinoids on Nucleus Accumbens has been discussed above under the opioid system.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabinoid and heroin activation of mesolimbic dopamine transmission by a common 1l opioid receptor mechanism.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The effects of the drug can be suppressed by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor antagonist rimonabant (SR141716A) as well as opioid receptor antagonists (opioid blockers) naloxone and naloxonazine.^ Rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist blocks this appetite stimulating effect of Anandamide.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Is the cannabinoid CB1 receptor a 2-arachidonoylglycerol receptor?
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Allosteric modulation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

[12]
.The mechanism of endocannabinoid synaptic transmission is thought to occur as follows: First, transmission of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate causes an influx of calcium ions into the post-synaptic neuron.^ Endocannabinoids are released from neurons following membrane depolarisation and calcium influx into cells.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Conversely, when release of the excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, is reduced, the net effect is a decrease in the excitability of the endocannabinoid-releasing cell.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Endocannabinoids have similarity with Tetrahydrocannabinol and are produced post synaptically with actions on the presynaptic release of neurotransmitters.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Through a mechanism not yet fully understood, the presence of post-synaptic calcium induces the production of endocannabinoids in the post-synaptic neuron.^ Eye - Cannabis and THC have been shown repeatedly to lower the intraocular pressure, by a mechanism that is not yet understood 26 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ If the same processes occur in GnRH neurons in vivo , then the generation of endocannabinoids and their degradation to various eicosanoid products could serve as a novel mechanism for regulating GnRH secretion and, ultimately, reproduction in mammals.
  • Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion by Cannabinoids -- Gammon et al. 146 (10): 4491 -- Endocrinology 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pan B, Hillard CJ, Liu QS. Endocannabinoid signaling mediates cocaine-induced inhibitory synaptic plasticity in midbrain dopamine neurons.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

.These endocannabinoids (such as anandamide), then, are released into the synaptic cleft, where binding occurs at cannabinoid receptors present on pre-synaptic neurons, where they modulate neurotransmission.^ Evaluation of cannabinoid receptor binding and in vivo activities for anandamide analogs.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Tribute to Billy R. Martin, PhD
    1943-2008
    16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Table 2.2 Compounds that bind to cannabinoid receptors .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Receptors are activated when they bind with ligands such as anandamide or THC in this case.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

Thus, this form of neurotransmission is termed retrograde transmission, as the signal is carried in the opposite direction of orthodox propagation, which previously was thought to be exclusively one way.
.THC has mild to moderate analgesic effects, and cannabis can be used to treat pain.^ OCR for page 142 Page 142 Surgical Acute Pain Raft and co-workers150 found no analgesic effect of THC on surgical pain induced by tooth extraction.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Chronic cannabis use in the Compassionate Investigational New Drug Program: An examination of benefits and adverse effects of legal clinical cannabis.

^ Although high doses of Δ 9 -THC are analgesic, they can be accompanied by side effects such as anxiety, headache, euphoria, and tachycardia.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The mechanism for analgesic effects caused directly by THC or other cannabinoid agonists is not fully understood.^ Some effects of cannabinoid agonists are receptor-independent.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other novel analogs are cannabinoid receptor agonists.
  • Pyrazole derivatives as cannabinoid receptor antagonists - Patent 7119108 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ OCR for page 142 Page 142 Surgical Acute Pain Raft and co-workers150 found no analgesic effect of THC on surgical pain induced by tooth extraction.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Other effects include relaxation; euphoria; altered space-time perception; alteration of visual, auditory, and olfactory senses; anxiety; disorientation; fatigue; and appetite stimulation (colloquially known as "the munchies").^ The appetite stimulating effects of Cannabinoids has been known for a long time.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Nervous system: attenuation of pain, muscle relaxation, appetite enhancement, decrease in body temperature, vomiting, anti-emetic effects, neuroprotective effects in brain schema.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On a few other occasions during the year it was also used in family celebrations such as marriages and births, to induce a relaxed and sociable mood and a good appetite.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

.The mechanism for appetite stimulation in subjects is believed to result from activity in the gastro-hypothalamic axis.^ Results of chronic dosing studies in normal volunteers in a residential setting indicate that smoked marijuana stimulates appetite and increases caloric intake.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Effect of oral administration of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on memory, speech and perception of thermal stimulation: results with four normal human subjects.
  • Potential medical uses of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.sky.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that combining appetite stimulants does not offer added benefit in patients with AIDS wasting.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.CB1 activity in the hunger centers in the hypothalamus increases the palatability of food when levels of a hunger hormone ghrelin increase as food enters the stomach.^ Smoking up regulates the endogenous cannabinoid system with increased expression of CB1 receptors and increased hypothalamic endocannabinoid levels.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Increase in meso-prefrontal dopaminergic activity after stimulation of CB1 receptors by cannabinoids.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ CB1 activation in isolated mouse adipocytes increase the activity of lipogenic enzyme lipoprotein lipase.
  • Guthormones Adipokines Neuropeptides and the cause of Obesity 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.adipocyte.co.uk [Source type: Academic]

.After chyme is passed into the duodenum, signaling hormones such as cholecystokinin and leptin are released, causing reduction in gastric emptying and transmission of satiety signals to the hypothalamus.^ I am baffled by what I call "the black hole effect" that seems to surround DMT. A black hole causes a curvature of space such that no light can leave it, and, since no signal can leave it, no information can leave it.
  • Tryptamine Hallucinogens and Consciousness 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gastric acidity causes some isomerization of THC to the delta-8-derivative and the drug is subject to a significant first pass effect.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THC crosses the blood-brain barrier comparatively easily and accumulates in fatty tissues from where it is re-released only slowly into other tissues, such as the blood.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

.Cannabinoid activity is reduced through the satiety signals induced by leptin release.^ Cannabinoid activity is reduced through the satiety signals induced by leptin release.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The only information that I found is that after THC binds to the cannabinoid receptor on the cell, it triggers a series of events that result in a change in the cells activity (gene regulation and signaling).
  • Natural Standard Blog: Marijuana may Help Kill Brain Cancer Cells 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Natural Standard Blog: Marijuana may Help Kill Brain Cancer Cells 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC blog.naturalstandard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After chyme is passed into the duodenum , signaling hormones such as cholecystokinin and leptin are released, causing reduction in gastric emptying and transmission of satiety signals to the hypothalamus.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

.It also has anti-emetic properties, and also may reduce aggression in certain subjects.^ It also has anti-emetic properties, and also may reduce aggression in certain subjects.
  • THC -- Tetrahydrocannabinol Molecule 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.worldofmolecules.com [Source type: Academic]
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The anti-emetic properties of marijuana are well-documented in research studies, scholarly articles, and testimony before state and federal legislative and regulatory bodies.

^ Cannabis and some cannabinoids are effective anti-emetics and analgesics and reduce intra-ocular pressure.
  • Marijuana Research: Clinical Studies on Marijuana's Medical Use 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.drugscience.org [Source type: Academic]

.THC has an active metabolite, 11-Hydroxy-THC, which may also play a role in the analgesic and recreational effects of cannabis.^ In this regard, we tentatively predict that the potentiation of the GlyR function by THC and AEA may have a modulatory role in CB1 receptor-dependent release of dopamine in the mesolimbic system.
  • Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Endogenous Cannabinoid Anandamide Directly Potentiate the Function of Glycine Receptors — Molecular Pharmacology 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC molpharm.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results then suggest that other effects of CB1 activation, such as depression of glutamatergic transmission, might play a more relevant role in this context.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although high doses of Δ 9 -THC are analgesic, they can be accompanied by side effects such as anxiety, headache, euphoria, and tachycardia.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.The α7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine can block self-administration of THC in rats comparable to the effects of varenicline on nicotine administration.^ It is an antagonist of THC at CB 1 receptors and attenuates the psychoactive effects of THC. [5] .
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Martin BR. The THC receptor and its antagonists.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (E–H) THC effects depend on CB1 receptor.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

[13][14]

Toxicity

.There has never been a documented human fatality from overdosing on tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabis.^ Human fatalities following acute Cannabis intoxication have not been reported.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of vaporizers reduces toxins from cannabis smoke IACM-Bulletin Marijuana Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study Marijuana Water Pipe and Vaporizer Study Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

[15] .Information about THC's toxicity is derived from animal studies.^ Scallet, A. C.: Neurotoxicology of Cannabis and THC: a review of chronic exposure studies in animals.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food: Literature 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In animal studies with rats, plasma concentrations peaked at about 100 ng/ml after oral administration of 15 mg/kg THC (Hutchings et al.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, reliable data on the toxicity of THC in man should be based on studies with humans.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

.The toxicity depends on the route of administration and the laboratory animal.^ Antinociceptive effects of tetrahydrocannabinol side chain analogs: dependence upon route of administration.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Tribute to Billy R. Martin, PhD
    1943-2008
    16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ The toxic or negative effects of exposure to THC largely depend on the route of delivery, the duration of exposure, and the patient's age and immunologic status.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This present study focuses on the toxicity from oral administration with food, as well as the transferability to the ingestion route of biological effects observed with other routes of administration.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

Absorption is limited by serum lipids, which can become saturated with THC, mitigating toxicity.[16] .According to the Merck Index, 12th edition, THC has a LD50 (dose killing half of the research subjects) value of 1270 mg/kg (male rats) and 730 mg/kg (female rats) administered orally dissolved in sesame oil.^ Codeine showed the greatest shift in ED 50 value when administered after Δ 9 -THC (139.9 to 5.9 mg/kg).
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All doses are represented in mg/kg.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In rats, doses of 4.0 mg/kg THC are aversive 95 .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .The LD50 value for rats by inhalation of THC is 42 mg/kg of body weight.^ Oral dose THC per kg body weight .
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In rats, doses of 4.0 mg/kg THC are aversive 95 .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When this dose is extrapolated on the basis of body surface, the oral LD 50 in dogs would be a quarter of this dose (200-500 mg/kg) per kg BW and half of this dose (400-950 mg/kg) per kg BW in monkeys.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .One estimate of cannabis's LD50 for humans indicates that about 1500 pounds (680 kilograms) of cannabis would have to be smoked within 14 minutes.^ Indeed, the less intense and more prolonged effect of oral THC would appear to offer an advantage over the more intense but shorter-lasting effect of smoked cannabis.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Foltin, R.W. et al., 1988 Effects of Smoked Marijuana on Food Intake and Body Weight of Humans Living in a Residential Laboratory," Appetite 11:1-14 .
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana: Bibliography & Notes 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.drugpolicy.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In about 65% of both normal subjects and patients with glaucoma, THC has been shown to reduce the intraocular pressure (IOP), and both oral THC and smoked cannabis are effective 21 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[18] .This estimate is supported by studies which indicate that the effective dose of THC is at least 1000 times lower than the estimated lethal dose (a "safety ratio" of 1000:1).^ One example is the lethal dose of THC. .
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral THC 10 mg was less effective than 20 mg and it was comparable to codeine 60 mg.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ With the advent of high-dose intravenous metoclopramide, it was clear that THC is less effective than metoclopramide as an antiemetic, which itself is less effective than the 5-HT 3 antagonists, ondansetron (Zofran) or granisetron (Kytril).
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.This is much higher than alcohol (safety ratio of 10:1), cocaine (15:1), or heroin (6:1).^ As can be seen from the results in TABLE 1, all of the inventive compounds have receptor affinities much higher than compound SR141716A for at least one of the CB1 or CB2 receptors.
  • Pyrazole derivatives as cannabinoid receptor antagonists - Patent 7119108 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Neil (1984) showed that although both morphine and codeine are μ selective, codeine does not differentiate much between κ and δ sites, whereas morphine has a much higher affinity for the δ than the κ receptor.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients with CRP values 10 mg/L at baseline (1.4 for CE; 2.5 for THC; and –5.5 for PL) had mean overall QOL scores higher than the ITT average.
  • Comparison of Orally Administered Cannabis Extract and Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Treating Patients With Cancer-Related Anorexia-Cachexia Syndrome: A Multicenter, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial From the Cannabis-In-Cachexia-Study-Group -- Strasser et al. 24 (21): 3394 -- Journal of Clinical Oncology 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jco.ascopubs.org [Source type: Academic]

[19]
Animal Administration LD50 [mg/kg]
rat oral 666 [16]
rat (male) oral 1270 [17]
rat (female) oral 730 [17]
rat inhalation 42 [17]
rat intraperitoneal 373 [16]
rat intravenous 29 [16]
mouse intravenous 42 [16]
mouse oral 482 [16]
mouse intraperitoneal 168 [16]
monkey (LDLo) intravenous 128 [16]
dog oral 525 [16]

Research

.The discovery of THC was first described in "Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish", published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society in 1964.[4] Research was also published in the academic journal Science, with "Marihuana chemistry" by Raphael Mechoulam in June 1970,[20] followed by "Chemical basis of hashish activity" in August 1970.[21] In the latter, the team of researchers from Hebrew University Pharmacy School and Tel Aviv University Medical School experimented on monkeys to isolate the active compounds in hashish.^ American Journal of Medical Sciences 266: 160- 168.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal of the American Chemical Society 63: 2209-2213.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ American Journal of Medical Sciences 266:160-168.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Their results provided evidence that, except for tetrahydrocannabinol, no other major active compounds were present in hashish.^ The parent compound, THC, is the major active cannabinoid, present in Cannabis sativa , exhibiting therapeutic potential in the treatment of nausea and vomiting during cancer chemotherapy, in appetite stimulation, cachexia associated with AIDS, glaucoma, analgesia, and other indications.
  • Chemical Stabilization of a ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prodrug in Polymeric Matrix Systems Produced by a Hot-melt Method: Role of Microenvironment pH 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No evidence for a role of alcohol or other psychoactive drugs in accelerating immunodeficiency in HIV-1-positive individuals.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

^ The isolation and structure of delta -1-tetrahydrocannabinol and other neutral cannabinoids from hashish.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

Research indicating positive medicinal value

Studies in humans

.A number of studies show that THC provides medical benefits for cancer and AIDS patients by increasing appetite and decreasing nausea.^ A significant increase in appetite and decrease in nausea in most patients.
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dronabinol recipients reported increased appetite and decreased nausea.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Dronabinol enhancement of appetite in cancer patients.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

.It has also been shown to assist some glaucoma patients by reducing pressure within the eye, and is used in the form of cannabis by a number of multiple sclerosis patients, who use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity.^ Spasticity;Multiple sclerosis;Pain;Tremor;Depression .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spasticity; Spinal cord injury; Multiple sclerosis; Pain .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Spasticity; Multiple sclerosis; Pain .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

.The National Multiple Sclerosis Society is currently supporting further research into these uses.^ Further research into the use of cannabinoids in neuropathic pain is warranted.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ New diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis: guidelines for research protocols.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

[22]
.In August 2009 a phase IV clinical trial by the Hadassah Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel was started to investigate the effects of THC on post-traumatic stress disorders.^ For each clinical trial, the country where the project was held, the number of patients assessed, the type of study and comparisons done, the products and the dosages used, their efficacy and their adverse effects are described.
  • Cannabinoids In Medicine: A Review Of Their Therapeutic Potential (Abstract, References, and link to Full Text PDF - doctordeluca.com 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.doctordeluca.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Positive effects of THC in children with severe neurological disorders .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The New York State Department of Health stated that [t]he program is a large-scale (phase III) cooperative clinical trial.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

[23] .THC and other cannabinoid agonist have been shown to be beneficial both in open label studies, as well as in laboratory experiments with animals to ameliorate post-traumatic stress disorders.^ Cannabinoid agonists found in animals .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.
  • Beeinflussung des Krebswachstums durch Dronabinol 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.cannabis-med.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Other - Patients Out of Time / Iowans for Medical Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC science.iowamedicalmarijuana.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Consroe P, Sandyk R, Snider SR. Open label evaluation of cannabidiol in dystonic movement disorders.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Beeinflussung des Krebswachstums durch Dronabinol 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.cannabis-med.org [Source type: Academic]


.Preliminary research on synthetic THC has been conducted on patients with Tourette syndrome, with results suggesting that it may help in reducing nervous tics and urges by a significant degree.^ Cannabinoids reduce symptoms of Tourette's syndrom...
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The ingestion of THC with food may also result in the detection of THC metabolites in the urine.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abstract Introduction Methods Results Discussion References Participants Patients were recruited to the study in the period 27 February to 21 May 2002.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

.Research on twelve patients showed that Marinol reduced tics with no significant adverse effects.^ For each clinical trial, the country where the project was held, the number of patients assessed, the type of study and comparisons done, the products and the dosages used, their efficacy and their adverse effects are described.
  • Cannabinoids In Medicine: A Review Of Their Therapeutic Potential (Abstract, References, and link to Full Text PDF - doctordeluca.com 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.doctordeluca.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients were remarkably free of adverse physiologic effects.
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Phase III is confirm effectiveness and to assess adverse effects in a large and diverse patient population.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.A six-week controlled study on 24 patients showed that the patients taking Marinol had a significant reduction in tic severity without serious adverse effects.^ We chose three weeks as a compromise to ensure stability of the multiple sclerosis within the study period and to ensure that we were not looking at temporary effects.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Approximately 25% of the respondents who treated their patients with marijuana reported that the patients had adverse side effects.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.Seven patients dropped out or had to be excluded from the study, one due to adverse side-effects.^ The study found no major adverse side effects.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seven patients dropped out or had to be excluded from the study, one due to adverse side-effects.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For each clinical trial, the country where the project was held, the number of patients assessed, the type of study and comparisons done, the products and the dosages used, their efficacy and their adverse effects are described.
  • Cannabinoids In Medicine: A Review Of Their Therapeutic Potential (Abstract, References, and link to Full Text PDF - doctordeluca.com 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.doctordeluca.com [Source type: Academic]

.More significant reduction in tic severity was reported with longer treatment.^ More significant reduction in tic severity was reported with longer treatment.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clinical significance of the association of these events with MARINOL® treatment is unknown, but they are reported as alerting information for the clinician.
  • Marinol Capsules (Unimed), Drug Reference Encyclopedia 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.theodora.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The clinical significance of the association of these events with Marinol treatment is unknown, but they are reported as alerting information for the clinician.
  • AEGiS-PRn: Roxane Laboratories, Inc. Issues Prescribing Information 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.aegis.com [Source type: Academic]

.No detrimental effects on cognitive functioning and a trend towards improvement in cognitive functioning were reported during and after treatment.^ No detrimental effects on cognitive functioning and a trend towards improvement in cognitive functioning were reported during and after treatment.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no effect of marijuana abstinence on psychomotor task performance as compared to baseline during placebo maintenance.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Orally and rectally administered delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on spasticity Clinical Studies and Case Reports Nabilone in the treatment of multiple sclerosis Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effect of cannabinoids on spasticity and ataxia in multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.Marinol's usefulness as a treatment for TS cannot be determined until/unless longer controlled studies on larger samples are undertaken.^ Marinol’s usefulness as a treatment for TS cannot be determined until/unless longer controlled studies on larger samples are undertaken.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Double Blind Placebo-Controlled Study: In a double blind study neither the researcher nor the subject knows whether the test substance or a placebo (inactive substance that appears similar to the test substance) has been given until the study is completed.

^ Significance between treatment groups in the antagonist studies was determined using Student’s t test.
  • Enhancement of μ Opioid Antinociception by Oral Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol: Dose-Response Analysis and Receptor Identification — JPET 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC jpet.aspetjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[24][25][26]
.Marinol is now a Schedule III medication which allows doctors to prescribe it for off label uses.^ Allows the medical use of marijuana.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Proposition 215 in California creates a defense to criminal charges if a doctor recommends medical use of marijuana to a patient .
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A federal appeals court ruled that the government cannot revoke doctors' prescription licenses for prescribing medical marijuana .
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

It is now being prescribed to a small population of patients for ADHD and Depression.

Studies in animals and in vitro

.New scientific evidence is showing that THC can prevent Alzheimer's Disease in an animal model by preventing the inflammation caused by microglia cells which are activated by binding of amyloid protein.^ Cannabinoid receptor proteins are increased in Jurkat, human T-cell line after mitogen activation.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Ramirez BG, Blazquez C, del Pulgar GT, Guzman M, De Ceballos ML. Prevention of Alzheimer's disease pathology by cannabinoids: neuroprotection mediated by blockade of microglial activation.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Neurons in the brain are activated when a compound binds to its receptor, which is a protein typically located on the cell surface.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

[27]
.In in-vitro experiments, THC at extremely high concentrations, which could not be reached with commonly-consumed doses, caused inhibition of plaque formation (which are associated with Alzheimer's disease) better than currently-approved drugs.^ THC, both drugs combined better than both alone .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus their THC content is less than 1/200 of the amount found in drug products.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The THCs produce the high associated with cannabis by binding to the CB 1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[28]
.THC may also be an effective anti-cancer treatment, with studies showing tumor size reduction in mice conducted in 1975[29] and 2007[30], as well as in a pilot study in humans with glioblastoma multiforme (a type of brain cancer).^ Cannabis may be effective in the treatment of headache .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THC tested against brain tumors in pilot clinical study .
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ THC was well tolerated in this pilot study of intrakranial cannabinoid administration .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

[31]
.A two-year study in which rats and mice were force-fed tetrahydrocannabinol dissolved in corn oil showed reduced body mass, enhanced survival rates, and decreased tumor incidences in several sites, mainly organs under hormonal control.^ Cannabinoid receptors have been studied most in vertebrates, such as rats and mice.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was suggested by the example of rats that ingested 50 mg/kg THC every day for two years (Chan et al.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 1 shows that active marijuana significantly decreased ratings of 'Miserable' compared to baseline, while abstinence from marijuana significantly increased ratings of 'Miserable' and 'Chills' under placebo THC conditions.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

.It also caused testicular atrophy and uterine and ovarian hypoplasia, as well as hyperactivity and convulsions immediately after administration, of which the onset and frequency were dose related.^ Consensus proposal for 5HT3 antagonists in the prevention of acute emesis related to highly emetogenic chemotherapy: Dose, schedule, and route of administration.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[32]
.Research in rats indicates that THC prevents hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures.^ Molecular Cancer Research Delta(9)-THC) prevents cerebral infarction Unbound MEDLINE .
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hine B, Torrelio M, Gershon S. Differential effect of cannabinol and cannabidiol on THC-induced responses during abstinence in morphine-dependent rats.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ THC, both drugs combined better than both alone .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

[33] .In mice low doses of Δ9-THC reduces the progression of atherosclerosis.^ Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progress...
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis compound tackles blood vessel disease Cannabis compound tackles blood vessel disease Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis The Next Hurrah: Medical marijuana: study shows that THC slows atherosclerosis Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis Cardiovascular Effects of Cannabis Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption Cannabidiol attenuates high glucose-induced endothelial cell inflammatory response and barrier disruption Low dose oral cannabinoid therapy reduces progression of atherosclerosis in mice.
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

[34]
.Research has also shown that past claims of brain damage from cannabis use fail to hold up to the scientific method.^ Past month cannabis use was quantified using a time-line-follow-back approach.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of major reviews of the possible therapeutic uses of cannabis and cannabinoids have been carried out in several countries in the past seven years.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ UKCIA forum :: Research :: Symptoms of schizotypy precede cannabis use.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Instead, recent studies with synthetic cannabinoids show that activation of CB1 receptors can facilitate neurogenesis,[36] as well as neuroprotection[37], and can even help prevent natural neural degradation from neurodegenerative diseases such as MS, Parkinson's, and Alzheimer's.^ Cannabinoid receptors have been studied most in vertebrates, such as rats and mice.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pharmacology of cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Induction and Regulation of the Carcinogen-Metabolizing Enzyme CYP1A1 by Marijuana Smoke and Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol -- Roth et al. 24 (3): 339 -- American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC ajrcmb.atsjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal article Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression (Alzheimer's) Cannabidiol in vivo blunts β-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1β and iNOS expression Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro Cannabidiol displays unexpectedly high potency as an antagonist of CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists in vitro Antiinflammatory action of endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamid e and the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in a model of acute inflammation in the rat Antiinflammatory action of endocannabinoid palmitoylethanolamid e and the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone in a model of acute inflammation in the rat Inflammation and aging: can endocannabinoids help?
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.This, along with research into the CB2 receptor (throughout the immune system), has given the case for medical marijuana more support.^ Read more about MAPS' support of medical marijuana research .
  • MAPS: Short Term Effects of Cannabinoids in HIV Infection v 6.0 Protocol 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.maps.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is medical marijuana given in a reasonable way.
  • High Times > MY GRANDFATHER DISCOVERED THC 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC hightimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Are the Feds blocking medical marijuana research?
  • THC // Current 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38][39] .THC is both a CB1 and CB2 agonist.^ In spite of the difference between the receptor subtypes, most cannabinoid compounds bind with similar affinity* to both CB1 and CB2 receptors.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ So far two types of THC receptors, CB1 and CB2, each with additional subtypes, have been identified and cloned.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Anandamide binds to the central (CB1) and, to a lesser extent, peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptors, where it acts as a partial agonist.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[40]

Research indicating negative side-effects

.Some studies claim a variety of negative effects associated with constant, long-term use, including short-term memory loss.^ These studies were also organized to illustrate risks associated with short- or long-term exposure.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Heyser, C.J.; Hampson, R.E.; and Deadwyler, S.A. Effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on delayed match to sample performance in rats: Alterations in short-term memory associated with changes in task-specific firing of hippocampal cells.
  • White Deer Run Addiction Treatment Facilities | Drug And Alcohol Information References 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.whitedeerrun.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Grant I, Gonzalez R, Carey C, Natarajan L. Long-term neurocognitive consequences of marijuana: a meta-analytic study.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

[41][42] .Other studies have refuted this by evidence of MRIs of long-term users, showing little or no difference to MRIs of the non-using control group.^ Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users i...
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001-2007): demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants Long-term cannabis use: characteristics of users in an Australian rural area.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Grant I, Gonzalez R, Carey C, Natarajan L. Long-term neurocognitive consequences of marijuana: a meta-analytic study.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

.Using positron emission tomography (PET), one study reports altered memory-related brain function in marijuana users.^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Marijuana and ADD Therapeutic uses of Medical Marijuana in the treatment of ADD Therapeutic uses of Medical Marijuana in the treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder Oily fish makes 'babies brainier' BBC NEWS .
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All participants in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study were experienced marijuana users; thus, the drug acceptance rate was relatively high.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Marijuana as antiemetic medicine Clinical Studies and Case Reports Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy Clinical Studies and Case Reports Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

[43] .Conceivable long-term ill effects of THC on humans are disputed.^ The effect of delta-9-THC on human spasticity.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Marijuana and its main psychoactive component, THC, exert a plethora of behavioural and autonomic effects on humans and animals.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ One of the primary effects of marijuana in humans is disruption of short-term memory.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

.Its status as an illegal drug in most countries makes research difficult.^ However, the known pharmacology of cannabis makes it difficult to see how this drug could improve balance.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Would you suppose China bans illegal drugs by practicing xenophobia on itself, Latino countries fearing Latins, and African countries fearing blacks?
  • http://blogs.rapidcityjournal.com/politicalblog/?p=4809&cpage=3 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC blogs.rapidcityjournal.com [Source type: General]

^ I dont think you would be able to prove nor that you really believe that 1st world countries are first world because they made marijuana or any other drug illegal.
  • http://blogs.rapidcityjournal.com/politicalblog/?p=4809&cpage=3 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC blogs.rapidcityjournal.com [Source type: General]

.Some studies have suggested that marijuana users have a greater risk of developing psychosis than non-users.^ Compared with other licit social drugs, such as alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine, marijuana does not pose greater risks.
  • Health Aspects of Cannabis: Summary and References 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Chang study published in The Annals of Internal Medicine found that marijuana was more consistent than the oral THC pill.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The study found that [m]ore than ninety percent of the patients who received marijuana .
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

This risk is most pronounced in cases with an existing risk of psychotic disorder.[44] .Other studies have made similar associations, especially in individuals predisposed to psychosis prior to cannabis use.^ Cannabis use and psychosis: a longitudinal population-based study.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In conclusion, -9-THC produced a range of transient behavioral and cognitive effects in psychiatrically healthy individuals similar to those seen in schizophrenia and other endogenous psychoses.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis also formed part of the therapeutic armamentarium of traditional Indian medicine, and many of the uses to which it was put were similar to those for which it is advocated in our own society today.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[45] .A 2005 paper from the Dunedin study suggested an increased risk in the development of psychosis linked to polymorphisms in the COMT gene.^ Reduced endocannabinoid immune modulation by a common cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptor gene polymorphism: possible risk for autoimmune disorders.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Arseneault L, Cannon M, Poulton R, Murray R, Caspi A, MoffittTE. Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis use in adolescence risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[46] .A literature review on the subject concluded that "Cannabis use appears to be neither a sufficient nor a necessary cause for psychosis.^ Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature.
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Does cannabis use cause schizophrenia?

^ Journal article Neuroimaging in cannabis use: a systematic review of the literature.
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]

It is a component cause, part of a complex constellation of factors leading to psychosis."[47] .Contrastingly, a French review from 2009 came to a conclusion that cannabis use, particularly that before age 15, was a factor in the development of schizophrenic disorders.^ Review: executive functioning and cannabis use.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- 2009 - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Review: executive functioning and cannabis use.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A randomized controlled trial of brief cognitive-behavioral interventions for cannabis use disorder.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[48] .A 2008 German review reported that cannabis was a causal factor in some cases of schizophrenia and stressed the need for better education among the public due to increasingly relaxed access to cannabis.^ A case report and review of the literature.
  • Beeinflussung des Krebswachstums durch Dronabinol 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.cannabis-med.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of dronabinol for cannabis dependence: two case reports and review.
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ M., and Hall, W. The effects of adolescent cannabis use on educational attainment: A review.
  • White Deer Run Addiction Treatment Facilities | Drug And Alcohol Information References 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.whitedeerrun.com [Source type: Academic]

[49] .Research from 2007 reported a correlation between cannabis use and increased cognitive function in schizophrenic patients.^ Review: executive functioning and cannabis use.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- 2009 - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis use in patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Does the cannabinoid dronabinol reduce central pain in multiple sclerosis? Randomised double blind placebo controlled crossover trial -- Svendsen et al. 329 (7460): 253 -- BMJ 20 September 2009 8:56 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [Review: executive functioning and cannabis use.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

[50]
.A 2008 National Institutes of Health study of 18 chronic heavy marijuana users with cardiac and cerebral abnormalities (averaging 78 to 350 marijuana cigarettes per week, or 30 g to 270 g (1 to 9.5 ounces)) and 24 controls found elevated levels of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) in the chronic smokers.^ A study of medical marijuana, from the Institute of Medicine, .
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The administration of two or three active marijuana cigarettes during the social access period increased average daily caloric intake.
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In chronic, heavy marijuana users, THC metabolites were still detected in the urine after 2-3 months after cessation of consumption.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

[51][52] An increase in apoC-III levels induces the development of hypertriglyceridemia.
.A 2008 study by the University of Melbourne of 15 heavy marijuana users (consuming at least 5 marijuana cigarettes daily for on average 20 years) and 16 controls found an average size difference for the smokers in the hippocampus (12 percent smaller) and the amygdala (7 percent smaller).^ In chronic, heavy marijuana users, THC metabolites were still detected in the urine after 2-3 months after cessation of consumption.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 5 and Table 4 portray the average daily ratings on selected VAS scales during each day of each marijuana condition.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ All participants in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study were experienced marijuana users; thus, the drug acceptance rate was relatively high.
  • Medicinal Applications of Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Marijuana — Ann Intern Med 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.annals.org [Source type: Academic]

[53] .It has been suggested that such effects can be reversed with long term abstinence.^ This might reflect a disruptive effect of -9-THC on the 'filtering' of nonsalient information that has been observed in long-term cannabis users ( Solowij et al , 1991 ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ These results then suggest that other effects of CB1 activation, such as depression of glutamatergic transmission, might play a more relevant role in this context.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Long-term use of cannabis maintains its therapeutic effects .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

[54] .However, the study indicates that they are unsure that the problems were caused by marijuana alone.^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They were also told that the strength of the medication and marijuana cigarettes might change at any time throughout the study.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - Marijuana Withdrawal in Humans: Effects of Oral THC or Divalproex 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination Clinical Studies and Case Reports Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol and marijuana in HIV-positive marijuana smokers: caloric intake, mood, and sleep.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.A 2008 study at Karolinska Institute suggested that young rats treated with THC received an increased motivation for drug use, heroin in the study, under conditions of stress.^ Using any drug on a regular basis that alters reality may be detrimental to the psychosocial maturation of young persons.
  • Health Aspects of Cannabis: Summary and References 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.lycaeum.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This was suggested by the example of rats that ingested 50 mg/kg THC every day for two years (Chan et al.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food PART 2 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The IOM report also investigated the so-called gateway effect, which is the belief that using marijuana causes people to use other, more dangerous drugs like cocaine and heroin.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

[55][56]
.A 2009 study found that there was a high prevalence of cannabis in the toxicologic analysis of homicide (22%) and suicide victims (11%) in Australia.^ Studies on non-cannabinoids of hashish II. An approach to correlate the geographical origin of Cannabis with hydrocarbon content by chromatographic analysis.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In vivo, however, the observations are highly variable in different studies, and it is not yet clear whether there is or is not a significant effect of cannabis smoking on immune functions.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Lynskey MT, Coffey C, Degenhardt L, Carlin JB, Patton G. A longitudinal study of the effects of adolescent cannabis use on high school completion.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

[57] In a similar study from Sweden also it was also found that suicide victims had a significant higher use of cannabis, but the authors found that "this was explained by markers of psychological and behavioural problems".[58]

Biosynthesis

Biosynthesis of THC
.In the cannabis plant THC occurs mainly as tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH).^ Much of the total THC in crude cannabis is not free THC but tetrahydrocannabinolic acid 32 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Lindgren JE, Ohlsson A, Agurell S, Hollister L, Gillespie H. Clinical effects and plasma levels of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) in heavy and light users of cannabis.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

^ Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid Unheated Cannabis sativa extracts and its major compound THC-acid have potential immuno-modulating properties not mediated by CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways.
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]

The enzymatic condensation of geranyl pyrophosphate and olivetolic acid gives cannabigerolic acid[59], which is cyclized by the enzyme THC acid synthase to give THC-COOH. Heating decarboxylates the acid to THC.

Metabolism

.THC is metabolized mainly to 11-OH-THC (11-hydroxy-THC) by the human body.^ AG 11-OH-THC CBN .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-delta 8-THC-dimethylheptyl in mice and dogs.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Tribute to Billy R. Martin, PhD
    1943-2008
    16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

^ THC can also suppress natural killer cell cytolytic activity in cell cultures; 11-OH-THC, is even more potent.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

.This metabolite is still psychoactive and is further oxidized to 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH).^ Initially, THC is oxidized in the liver to 11-hydroxy-THC, a potent psychoactive metabolite.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of oral THC is more prolonged, and fewer doses a day would be required, but it is still not possible to avoid the psychoactive effects at THC doses that would provide a useful reduction of IOP. .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ OH-THC is a psychoactive metabolite with a potency comparable to that of THC and binds with high affinity to the CB-1 receptor (Ameri, 1999 ; Iversen, 2000 ).
  • Oculomotor Effects of {delta}-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Humans: Implications for the Functional Neuroanatomy of the Brain Cannabinoid System -- Ploner et al. 12 (10): 1016 -- Cerebral Cortex 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC cercor.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.In humans and animals, more than 100 metabolites could be identified, but 11-OH-THC and THC-COOH are the dominating metabolites.^ AG 11-OH-THC CBN .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The amount of THC-HS remaining after processing was more than 98.5%, which was higher than what was achieved with VES alone.
  • Chemical Stabilization of a ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Prodrug in Polymeric Matrix Systems Produced by a Hot-melt Method: Role of Microenvironment pH 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.aapspharmscitech.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-delta 8-THC-dimethylheptyl in mice and dogs.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Tribute to Billy R. Martin, PhD
    1943-2008
    16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

.Metabolism occurs mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4.^ CBD exerts this effect by inactivating cytochrome P450s, which are the most important class of enzymes that metabolize drugs.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The effect of cannabidiol on mouse hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450-dependent anandamide metabolism.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Such inhibitors of cannabinoid metabolism can include inhibitors of the P450 enzymes or other identified critical enzymatic processes.
  • (WO/2007/001891) TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF CANNABINOIDS 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

.More than 55% of THC is excreted in the feces and ~20% in the urine.^ Oral THC 10 mg was less effective than 20 mg and it was comparable to codeine 60 mg.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Again, 56 m M [K + ] stimulated GnRH secretion, and this was reduced by more than 2-fold with 50 µ M WIN 55,212-2 (Fig.
  • Regulation of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion by Cannabinoids -- Gammon et al. 146 (10): 4491 -- Endocrinology 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC endo.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, the research described above shows that marijuana is in fact a more effective medicine than the THC pill.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.The main metabolite in urine is the ester of glucuronic acid and THC-COOH and free THC-COOH. In the feces, mainly 11-OH-THC was detected.^ AG 11-OH-THC CBN .
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a nonpsychoactive, synthetic derivative of 11-THC-oic acid (a breakdown product of THC), and does not appear to bind to cannabinoid receptors.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Stereochemical effects of 11-OH-delta 8-THC-dimethylheptyl in mice and dogs.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Tribute to Billy R. Martin, PhD
    1943-2008
    16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

[60]

Detection in body fluids

.THC and THC-COOH can be quantitated in blood or urine using chromatographic techniques as part of a drug abuse testing program or in a forensic investigation of a traffic or other criminal offense or suspicious death.^ He has assisted counsel throughout the nation in defending individuals charged with criminal offenses for their use of marijuana as a medicine or for providing marijuana to the seriously ill through buyer's clubs.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Journal article DRUG INTERACTIONS- see INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER DRUGS DRUG TESTING Hemp oil causes positive urine tests for THC http://www.druglibrary.org/crl/drugt...JAnToxicol.pdf Deposition of cannabinoids in hair after long-term use of cannabis Deposition of cannabinoids in hair after long-term use of cannabis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The IOM report also investigated the so-called gateway effect, which is the belief that using marijuana causes people to use other, more dangerous drugs like cocaine and heroin.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.The concentrations obtained from such an analysis can often be helpful in distinguishing active from passive use or prescription from illicit use, elapsed time since use and extent or duration of use.^ The active drug materials concentrated in the butter phase and, as the mixture cooled, the butter could be separated from the water and used in preparations to be taken by mouth to produce the desired effects.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ However, these drug effects are variable, and depend on experimental conditions such as the experimental drug dose used, mitogen used, percent of serum in the culture, and timing of cannabinoid drug exposure.
  • Untitled Document 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.prop1.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since none of the outcomes conformed to normality due to floor effects, a nonparametric analysis for repeated measures data was used ( Brunner et al , 2002 ).
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

[61]

Dronabinol

Synthetic THC is known as dronabinol. .It is available as a prescription drug (under the trade name Marinol[62]) in several countries including the United States and Germany.^ A drug is placed in Schedule I if (1) it has a high potential for abuse; (2) it has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States; and (3) there is a lack of accepted safety for use of the drug under medical supervision.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following approval under the FFDCA, Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule I to Schedule II. Therefore, this drug, which has been approved under the FFDCA and rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act, may be legally prescribed by physicians.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DRONABINOL also see MARINOL GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States, Marinol is a Schedule III drug, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence.^ In the United States, Marinol is a Schedule III drug, available by prescription, considered to be non-narcotic and to have a low risk of physical or mental dependence.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This rescheduling comprised part of the argument for a 2002 petition for removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act , in which petitioner Jon Gettman noted, “Cannabis is a natural source of dronabinol (THC), the ingredient of Marinol, a Schedule III drug.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ONe more thing, Marinol is 100% pure THC and is FDA approved as a schedule III. Hash is a concentrated extract of Marijuana's THC and has been produced for thousands of years.
  • Marijuana stronger than ever ... More potent dope than the hippies smoked... addictions in teens on the rise :: The Fallbrook Village News 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.thevillagenews.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Efforts to get cannabis rescheduled as analogous to Marinol have not succeeded thus far, though a 2002 petition has been accepted by the DEA. .As a result of the rescheduling of Marinol from Schedule II to Schedule III, refills are now permitted for this substance.^ For instance, refills of Marinol prescriptions were not permitted.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As a result of the rescheduling of Marinol from Schedule II to Schedule III, refills are now permitted for this substance.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This substance is now scheduled in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.Marinol has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of anorexia in AIDS patients, as well as for refractory nausea and vomiting of patients undergoing chemotherapy, which has raised much controversy as to why natural THC is still a schedule I drug.^ Cannabis / Marijuana ( Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) Drugs and Human Performance FACT SHEETS - Cannabis / Marijuana ( D 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) Chemotherapy Efficacy of dronabinol alone and in combination Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol for supportive therapy in patients with malignant melanoma and liver metastases Clinical Studies and Case Reports Intractable nausea and vomiting Clinical Studies and Case Reports An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology Clinical Studies and Case Reports Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination Clinical Studies and Case Reports Marijuana as antiemetic medicine Clinical Studies and Case Reports Efficacy of tetrahydrocannabinol in patients refractory to standard anti-emetic therapy Clinical Studies and Case Reports Inhalation marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer chemotherapy.
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The following patient groups should be targeted for clinical studies of cannabinoids in the treatment of pain: ·      Chemotherapy patients, especially those being treated for the mucositis, nausea, and anorexia.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Antiemetic effect of tetrahydrocannabinol Clinical Studies and Case Reports Tetrahydrocanabinol versus metoclopramide and thiethylperazine Clinical Studies and Case Reports Effects of nabilone and prochlorperazine on chemotherapy-induced emesis Clinical Studies and Case Reports Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic Clinical Studies and Case Reports Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an antiemetic in cancer patients receiving high-dose methotrexate Clinical Studies and Case Reports THC as an antiemetic in patients treated with cancer chemotherapy Clinical Studies and Case Reports Amelioration of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting by delta-9-THC Clinical Studies and Case Reports Superiority of nabilone over prochlorperazine Clinical Studies and Case Reports Antiemetic effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol Clinical Studies and Case Reports Children Experiences with THC-treatment in children and adolescents Clinical Studies and Case Reports An efficient new cannabinoid antiemetic in pediatric oncology.
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

[63]
.An analog of dronabinol, nabilone, is available commercially in Canada under the trade name Cesamet, manufactured by Valeant.^ An analog of dronabinol, nabilone , is available commercially in Canada under the trade name Cesamet, manufactured by Valeant.
  • thc.com » About 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.thc.com [Source type: Academic]

^ NABILONE GENERIC NAME: NABILONE - ORAL (NAB-ih-lone) Brand Names : Cesamet NABILONE - ORAL side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Nabilone (Cesamet), a synthetic cannabinoid and an analog of Marinol.
  • Cannabinoids: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Cesamet has also received FDA approval and began marketing in the U.S. in 2006; it is a Schedule II drug.^ Following approval under the FFDCA, Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule I to Schedule II. Therefore, this drug, which has been approved under the FFDCA and rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act, may be legally prescribed by physicians.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For therapeutic research programs, states could dispense marijuana or other Schedule I drugs only by establishing formal research programs and getting FDA approval for an Investigational New Drug (IND) application.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If they are consistent with previous research it should result in marijuana becoming a prescription drug under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.In April 2005, Canadian authorities approved the marketing of Sativex, a mouth spray for multiple sclerosis patients, who can use it to alleviate neuropathic pain and spasticity.^ Long-term use of a cannabis extract in patients with multiple sclerosis .
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cannabis based treatments for neuropathic and multiple sclerosis-related pain.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Dr Jay's Medicinal Marijuana Forum Discuss the concerns of those who use and distribute cannabis as medicine this forum is dedicated to Dr Jay, October 1, 1949-April 24,2005 .
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]

Sativex contains tetrahydrocannabinol together with cannabidiol. .It is marketed in Canada by GW Pharmaceuticals, being the first cannabis-based prescription drug in the world (in modern times).^ Cannabis-based drugs could offer new hope for inflammatory bowel disease patients http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/28584.php .
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The following is a list of Pharmaceutical drugs which used Medical Cannabis as one of their ingredients.
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Russo EB, Guy GW, Robson PJ. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.
  • Endocannabinoid System Network (ECSN) - Bibliography 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.endocannabinoid.net [Source type: Academic]

Comparisons to medical marijuana

.Dronabinol is known to produce mild side effects similar to cannabis.^ In conclusion, -9-THC produced a range of transient behavioral and cognitive effects in psychiatrically healthy individuals similar to those seen in schizophrenia and other endogenous psychoses.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therapeutic effect of cannabis Perhaps the best known use of cannabis in a therapeutic setting is as an analgesic in the management of cancer pain, post-operative and phantom limb pain.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]

^ DRONABINOL also see MARINOL GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many scientists believe that dronabinol lacks beneficial properties of cannabis,[64][65] which contains more than 60 cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD), thought to be the major anticonvulsant that helps multiple sclerosis patients;[66] and cannabichromene (CBC), an anti-inflammatory which may contribute to the pain-killing effect of cannabis.^ Spasticity; Multiple sclerosis; Pain .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Multiple sclerosis; Pain .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

[67] .Others have countered that the effects of all of cannabis's cannabinoids have not been completely studied and are not fully understood.^ Cannabinoids for treatment of spasticity and other symptoms related to multiple sclerosis (CAMS study): multicentre randomised placebo-controlled trial.
  • Beeinflussung des Krebswachstums durch Dronabinol 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.cannabis-med.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Of the acute effects of cannabis and cannabinoids described above, the following appear to offer possible therapeutic applicability: .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

^ Analgesic effect of the synthetic cannabinoid CT-3 on chronic neuropathic pain http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/...ow.php?s_id=85 Smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy and cancer pain refractory to opiods.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • My birthday gift to you..... - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]
.It takes over one hour for Marinol to reach full systemic effect,[68] compared to minutes for smoked or vaporized cannabis.^ The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of smoked cannabis in painful peripheral neuropathy and cancer pain refractory to opiods.
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is an acute effect, but with chronic use it tends to be offset by bronchial irritation caused by the particulate fraction of cannabis smoke 67 .
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

[69] .Some patients accustomed to inhaling just enough cannabis smoke to manage symptoms have complained of too-intense intoxication from Marinol's predetermined dosages.^ The patients notes a significant amelioration of symptoms when smoking cannabis .
  • Clinical Studies and Case Reports 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC honoluluasa.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients http://www.cannabis-med.org/studies/...w.php?s_id=177 The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]
  • My birthday gift to you..... - International Cannagraphic Magazine Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.icmag.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Clinical Studies and Case Reports Nabilone improves pain and symptom management in cancer patients Clinical Studies and Case Reports The perceived effects of smoked cannabis on patients with multiple sclerosis.
  • Granny Storm Crow's List- - Cannabis Forums Message Boards - Medical Marijuana, Cannabis Club, Dispensary, News 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC boards.cannabis.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Medical Reports Scientific Research Studys On Medical Marijuana Cannabis & Illness's 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.onlinepot.org [Source type: Academic]
  • "Links to cannabis/health-related abstracts" - Grasscity.com Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC forum.grasscity.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

.Many patients have said that Marinol produces a more acute psychedelic effect than cannabis, and it has been speculated that this disparity can be explained by the moderating effect of the many non-THC cannabinoids present in cannabis.^ OCR for page 142 Page 142 Surgical Acute Pain Raft and co-workers150 found no analgesic effect of THC on surgical pain induced by tooth extraction.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies on non-cannabinoids of hashish II. An approach to correlate the geographical origin of Cannabis with hydrocarbon content by chromatographic analysis.
  • Chemical ecology of Cannabis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.hempfood.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore it is necessary to use dosages that produce equivalent peak effects, rather than identical amounts.
  • Medicinal Use Of Cannabis: History And Current Status 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.parl.gc.ca [Source type: Academic]

Mark Kleiman, director of the Drug Policy Analysis Program at UCLA's School of Public Affairs said of Marinol, "It wasn't any fun and made the user feel bad, so it could be approved without any fear that it would penetrate the recreational market, and then used as a club with which to beat back the advocates of whole cannabis as a medicine."[64] United States federal law currently registers dronabinol as a Schedule III controlled substance, but all other cannabis remains Schedule I, except nabilone. Taking a Marinol pill to manage nausea can be ineffective because nausea can cause the pill to be ejected before it is absorbed by the body.
Marinol is also more expensive than medical marijuana, costing for example US$723 for 30 doses at 10 mg online, as of May, 2008.[70]

Regulatory history

.Since at least 1986, the trend has been for THC in general, and especially the Marinol preparation, to be downgraded to less and less stringently-controlled schedules of controlled substances, in the U.S. and throughout the rest of the world.^ This substance is now scheduled in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, these also generate a number of false positives, since your hair can absorb THC via second hand exposure.
  • Is there a way to flush THC out of your system quickly? | Answerbag 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.answerbag.com [Source type: General]

^ If they are consistent with previous research it should result in marijuana becoming a prescription drug under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.On July 13, 1986, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) issued a Final Rule and Statement of Policy authorizing the "Rescheduling of Synthetic Dronabinol in Sesame Oil and Encapsulated in Soft Gelatin Capsules From Schedule I to Schedule II" (DEA 51 FR 17476-78).^ He has litigated drug policy issues including the use of the military in drug enforcement, the use of herbicides in marijuana eradication, the medical use of marijuana and urine testing of government employees.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Back) Statement Released by Barry R. McCaffrey, Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy, The Administration's Response to the Passage of California Proposition 215 and Arizona Proposition 200, December 30, 1996, pg.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Marinol capsules (Dronabinol solution in sesame oil in soft gelatin capsules).
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.This permitted medical use of Marinol, albeit with the severe restrictions associated with Schedule II status.^ DRONABINOL also see MARINOL GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This chapter reviews the components of that machinery with enough detail to permit the reader to compare what is known about basic biology with the medical uses proposed for marijuana.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ MARINOL/ SYNTHETICS/ CANNABINOID MIXTURES GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Phoenix Tears - Promoting Hemp Oil as a natural healing agent... 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.phoenixtears.ca [Source type: Academic]

For instance, refills of Marinol prescriptions were not permitted. .At its 1045th meeting, on April 29, 1991, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs, in accordance with article 2, paragraphs 5 and 6, of the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, decided that Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (also referred to as Δ9-THC) and its stereochemical variants should be transferred from Schedule I to Schedule II of that Convention.^ If they are consistent with previous research it should result in marijuana becoming a prescription drug under Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It should be noted that THC, the primary active ingredient in marijuana, is an FDA-approved drug referred to as dronabinol and marketed as Marinol.
  • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ THC-11-oic acid," as used herein, is meant to refer to Δ 8 - tetrahydrocannabinol-11 -oic acid, as well as to its pharmaceutically acceptable salts, solvates, metabolites (e.g., cutaneous metabolites), and metabolic precursors.
  • (WO/2007/001891) TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF CANNABINOIDS 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.wipo.int [Source type: Academic]

This released Marinol from the restrictions imposed by Article 7 of the Convention[2].
.An article published in the April-June 1998 issue of the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs found that "Healthcare professionals have detected no indication of scrip-chasing or doctor-shopping among the patients for whom they have prescribed dronabinol". The authors state that Marinol has a low potential for abuse[71].^ Health and Human Services Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration and http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/journal/ International Journal of Drug Testing, published by Florida State University.
  • Is there a way to flush THC out of your system quickly? | Answerbag 31 January 2010 14:10 UTC www.answerbag.com [Source type: General]

^ Full text of the study, "A pilot clinical study of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme," appears in the July issue of the British Journal of Cancer.
  • Cannabinoids Curb Brain Tumor Growth, First-Ever Patient Trial Shows - NORML 9 February 2010 16:41 UTC norml.org [Source type: News]

^ Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no financial, personal, or professional interests that could be construed to have influenced the present paper.
  • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

.In 1999, Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule II to III of the Controlled Substances Act, reflecting a finding that THC had a potential for abuse less than that of cocaine, and heroin.^ This substance is now scheduled in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following approval under the FFDCA, Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule I to Schedule II. Therefore, this drug, which has been approved under the FFDCA and rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act, may be legally prescribed by physicians.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (Back) Almost all of the materials published in this compilation were part of the record of proceedings challenging the scheduling of marijuana under the Controlled Substances Act before the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

.This rescheduling comprised part of the argument for a 2002 petition for removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act, in which petitioner Jon Gettman noted, "Cannabis is a natural source of dronabinol (THC), the ingredient of Marinol, a Schedule III drug.^ This substance is now scheduled in Schedule II of the Controlled Substances Act.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following approval under the FFDCA, Marinol was rescheduled from Schedule I to Schedule II. Therefore, this drug, which has been approved under the FFDCA and rescheduled under the Controlled Substances Act, may be legally prescribed by physicians.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, the pharmacology of marijuana and its major psychoactive ingredient, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are reviewed, and the evidence for therapeutic benefits of these substances is evaluated.
  • Marijuana - Report of the Council on Scientific Affairs 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.mfiles.org [Source type: Academic]

.There are no grounds to schedule cannabis in a more restrictive schedule than Marinol"[72].^ This was almost the inverse of patients randomized to Torecan, there more than 90 percent 22 out of 23 patients elected to discontinue use of Torecan and switched to marijuana.
  • Research Findings on Medicinal Properties of Marijuana 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.csdp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The sample was divided into two groups based on whether subjects had been exposed to cannabis more or less than 20 times in their lifetime.
  • Neuropsychopharmacology - The Psychotomimetic Effects of Intravenous Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Healthy Individuals: Implications for Psychosis 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There are no panaceas in the world, but the legalization of drugs would do more than any single act or policy to eliminate many of today's socio-political afflictions.
  • Medical Studies on Cannabis | The Hive 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC thehive.modbee.com [Source type: Academic]

.At its 33rd meeting, the World Health Organization Expert Committee on Drug Dependence recommended transferring THC to Schedule IV of the Convention, citing its medical uses and low abuse potential.^ World Health Organization, Genf 1997.
  • nova Institute: THC-Limits for Food: Literature 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.naihc.org [Source type: Academic]

^ DRONABINOL also see MARINOL GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
  • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Aceto MD. Anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid, has a very low physical dependence potential.
  • BiblioCannabis < Cannabis < Web Fundaci� Institut Catal� de Farmacologia 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC w3.icf.uab.es [Source type: Academic]

This would put THC in the Convention's least stringently-controlled Schedule.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ "ChemIDplus Lite". chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov. http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/ProxyServlet?objectHandle=Search&actionHandle=getAll3DMViewFiles&nextPage=jsp%2Fcommon%2FChemFull.jsp%3FcalledFrom%3Dlite&chemid=001972083&formatType=_3D. Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  2. ^ "Cannabis and Cannabis Extracts: Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts?". www.haworthpress.com. http://www.omma1998.org/McPartland-Russo-JCANT%201(3-4)-2001.pdf. Retrieved 2009-10-22. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Grotenhermen F (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids". Clin Pharmacokinet 42 (4): 327–60. doi:10.2165/00003088-200342040-00003. PMID 12648025. 
  4. ^ a b Gaoni, Yechiel; Raphael Mechoulam (1964). "Isolation, structure and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish" (PDF). Journal of the American Chemical Society 86 (8): 1646–1647. doi:10.1021/ja01062a046. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/searchRedirect.cgi/jacsat/1964/86/i08/pdf/ja01062a046.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-31. 
  5. ^ Interview with the winner of the first ECNP Lifetime Achievement Award: Raphael Mechoulam, Israel February 2007
  6. ^ Geller, Tom. (2007)."Cannabinoids: A Secret History", Chemical Heritage Newsmagazine, 25 (2)
  7. ^ Pate, D.W. (1994). "Chemical ecology of Cannabis". J. Int. Hemp Assoc 1 (29): 32–37. http://www.kew.org/kbd/detailedresult.do?id=91816. 
  8. ^ Pate, D.W. (1983). "Possible role of ultraviolet radiation in evolution of Cannabis chemotypes". Economic Botany 37: 396–405. doi:10.1007/BF02904200 (inactive 2009-12-04). 
  9. ^ Lydon, J; A.H. Teramura (1987). "Photochemical decomposition of cannabidiol in its resin base". Phytochemistry 26: 1216. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)82388-2. 
  10. ^ Lydon, J; A.H. Teramura, C.B. Coffman (1987). "UV-B radiation effects on photosynthesis, growth and cannabinoid production of two Cannabis sativa chemotypes". Photochem. Photobiol. A 46: 201. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.1987.tb04757.x. 
  11. ^ http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf
  12. ^ Lupica CR, Riegel AC, Hoffman AF (September 2004). "Marijuana and cannabinoid regulation of brain reward circuits". Br. J. Pharmacol. 143 (2): 227–34. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705931. PMID 15313883. 
  13. ^ "Plant extract may block cannabis addiction" http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn11904-plant-extract-may-block-cannabis-addiction-.html
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Further reading

  • Calhoun SR, Galloway GP, Smith DE (1998). ."Abuse potential of dronabinol (Marinol)". J Psychoactive Drugs 30 (2): 187–96. PMID 9692381. 
  • DEA Moves Marinol To Schedule Three, But Leaves Marijuana in Schedule One.^ (THC) is the prototypical plant-derived psychoactive cannabinoid and the main cause of the psychotropic effects of marijuana, which is the most widespread illicit drug in the world.
    • PLoS Biology: Genetic Dissection of Behavioural and Autonomic Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Mice 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.plosbiology.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ It should be noted that THC, the primary active ingredient in marijuana, is an FDA-approved drug referred to as dronabinol and marketed as Marinol.
    • Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ DRONABINOL also see MARINOL GENERIC NAME: DRONABINOL - ORAL (dro-NAB-in-all) BRAND NAME(S): Marinol DRONABINOL - ORAL (Marinol) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.
    • Granny Storm Crow's list- July 2009 update - YaHooka Forums 16 January 2010 15:18 UTC www.yahooka.com [Source type: Academic]

    The Magic of Sesame Oil, Richard Cowan, MarijuanaNews.Com.
  • Petition to Reschedule Cannabis (Marijuana) per 21 CFR §1308.44(b), Filed October 9, 2002 with the DEA by the Coalition for Rescheduling Cannabis.

External links


Simple English

THC is the chemical in cannabis that causes the high. It is almost impossible to overdose with as you would have to smoke 1500 pounds (680 kilograms) of cannabis within 15 minutes. [1]

References

  1. ^ Reefer madness-The Federal response to California’s Medical-Marijuana Law.Annas, G.J.  ; New Eng J Med, 1997; 337: 435-439



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Tetrahydrocannabinol, which are similar to those in the above article.








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