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Parish Church of St Mary the Virgin
Tewkesbury Abbey
Tewkesbury Abbey

Country England, United Kingdom
Denomination Church of England
Churchmanship High Church
Website www.tewkesburyabbey.org.uk
History
Dedication St Mary the Virgin
Administration
Parish Tewkesbury
Diocese Gloucester
Province Canterbury
Clergy
Vicar(s) The Revd Canon Paul Williams
Curate(s) The Revd Steven Short
The Revd Charles Whitney
Laity
Organist/Director of music Carleton Etherington
Organist(s) Benjamin Nicholas
Churchwarden(s) Pat Cox

The Abbey of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Tewkesbury in the English county of Gloucestershire is the second largest parish church in the country and a former Benedictine monastery.

Contents

Architecture

The church itself is one of the finest Norman buildings in England. Its massive crossing tower was rated "probably the largest and finest Romanesque tower in England" by Sir Nikolaus Pevsner. Fourteen of England's cathedrals are of smaller dimensions, while only Westminster Abbey contains more medieval church monuments.

Notable monuments

Notable church monuments surviving in Tewkesbury Abbey include:

Construction time-line

  • 23 October 1121 - the choir consecrated
  • 1150 - tower and nave completed
  • 1178 - large fire necessitated some rebuilding
  • ~1235 - Chapel of St Nicholas built
  • ~1300 - Chapel of St. James built
  • 1321-1335 - choir rebuilt with radiating chantry chapels
  • 1349-59 - tower and nave vaults rebuilt; the lierne vaults of the nave replacing wooden roofing
  • 1400-1410 - cloisters rebuilt
  • 1438 - Chapel of Isobel (countess of Warwick) built
  • 1520 - Guesten house completed (later became the vicarage)

History

The Chronicle of Tewkesbury records that the first Christian worship was brought to the area by Theoc, a missionary from Northumbria, who built his cell in the mid-7th century near a gravel spit where the Severn and Avon rivers join together. The cell was succeeded by a monastery in 715, but nothing remaining of it has been identified.

In the 10th century the religious foundation at Tewkesbury became a priory subordinate to the Benedictine Cranbourne Abbey in Dorset.[1] In 1087, William the Conqueror gave the manor of Tewkesbury to his cousin, Robert Fitzhamon, who, with Giraldus, Abbot of Cranbourne, founded the present abbey in 1092. Building of the present Abbey church did not start until 1102, employing Caen stone imported from Normandy and floated up the Severn.

Arms of Richard de Clare II, Earl of Hertford and Gloucester, Founders book of Tewkesbury Abbey, c. 1525

Robert Fitzhamon was wounded at Falaise in Normandy in 1105 and died two years later, but his son-in-law, Robert FitzRoy, the natural son of Henry I who was made Earl of Gloucester, continued to fund the building work. The Abbey's greatest single later patron was Lady Eleanor le Despenser, last of the De Clare heirs of FitzRoy. In the High Middle Ages, Tewkesbury became one of the richest abbeys of England.

After the Battle of Tewkesbury in the Wars of the Roses on 4 May 1471, some of the defeated Lancastrians sought sanctuary in the abbey, but the victorious Yorkists, led by King Edward IV, forced their way into the abbey, and the resulting bloodshed caused the building to be closed for a month until it could be purified and re-consecrated.

After the Dissolution of the Monasteries, the people of Tewkesbury saved the abbey from destruction in 1539: Insisting it was their parish church, which they had the right to keep, they bought it from King Henry VIII for the value of its bells and lead roof which would have been salvaged and melted down, leaving the structure a roofless ruin. The price came to £453.

The bells merited their own free-standing belltower, an unusual feature in English sites. After the Dissolution, the bell-tower was used as the gaol for the borough until it was demolished in the late 18th century.

The central stone tower was originally topped with a wooden spire, which collapsed in 1559 and was never rebuilt. Some restoration undertaken in the 19th century under Sir Gilbert Scott included the rood screen that replaced the one removed when the Abbey became a parish church.

Flood waters, from the nearby River Severn, reached inside the Abbey in severe floods in 1760, and again on 23 July 2007.

The organ

The church's 17th century organ was originally made for Magdalen College, Oxford. After the English Civil War it was removed to the chapel of Hampton Court Palace and came to Tewkesbury in 1737. A specification of the organ can be found on the National Pipe Organ Register.

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List of organists

  • J. Jones, ca. 1855 [2]
  • Charles Joseph Frost, ca. 1860?
  • Henry Rogers, 1878 - 1879[3]
  • David Hemmingway, ca. 1885[4]
  • Samuel Bath, 1891 - 1900[5]
  • Alfred W. V. Vine, 1900 - 1910
  • Capt. Percy Baker 1910 - 1943[6]
    • Revd. Claude William Parnell, 1916 - 1918 (deputising for Percy Baker)
  • Michael Stockwin Howard, 1943 - 1944[7]
  • Huskisson Stubington, dates unknown
  • Michael Ferguson, dates unknown
  • Michael Peterson, 1966 - 1985[8]
  • John Belcher, 1985 - 1996 (formerly organist of St Asaph Cathedral)[9]
  • Carleton Etherington, 1996 -

List of assistant organists

  • Leonard William Tracy Arkell 1910 - 1912[10]

The bells

The bells at the Abbey were overhauled in 1962. The ring is now made up of twelve bells, hung for change ringing, cast in 1962, by John Taylor of Loughborough [11]. The inscriptions of the old 5th and 10th bells are copied in fascimilie onto the new bells. The bells have modern cast iron headstocks and all run on self-aligning ball bearings. They are hung in the north-east corner of the tower, and the ringing chamber is partitioned off from the rest of the tower. There is also a semitone bell (Flat 6th) also cast by Taylor of Loughborough in 1991.

The Old Clock Bells are the old 6th (Abraham Rudhall II, 1725), the old 7th (Abraham Rudhall I, 1696), the old 8th (Abraham Rudhall I, 1696) and the old 11th (Abraham Rudhall I, 1717). In St Dunstan's Chapel, at the east end of the Abbey, is a small disused bell inscribed T. MEARS FECT. 1837

The Abbey bells are rung from 10:15am to 11:00am every Sunday except the first Sunday of the month (a quarter peal). There is also ringing for Evensong from 5:00pm to 6:00pm, except on the third Sunday (a quarter peal) and most fifth Sundays. Practice takes place each Thursday from 7:30pm to 9:00pm.[11]

Abbey precincts

The market town of Tewkesbury developed to the north of the abbey precincts, of which vestiges remain in the layout of the streets and a few buildings: the Abbot's gatehouse, the Almonry barn, the Abbey Mill, Abbey House, the present vicarage and some half-timbered dwellings in Church Street. The Abbey now sits partly isolated in lawns, like a cathedral in its cathedral close, for the area surrounding the Abbey is protected from development by the Abbey Lawn Trust, originally funded by a United States benefactor in 1962 [1].

Abbots

  • Giraldus (1102-1109), previously Abbot of Cranbourn, was the first Abbot of the Benedictine foundation. Deprived by Henry I of England in 1109.
  • Robert (1110-1124).
  • Benedict (1124-1137).
  • Roger (1137-1161).
  • Fromundus (1162-1178).
  • No Abbot between 1178-1182.
  • Robert (1182-1183).
  • Alan, (1187-1202). His tomb is in the south ambulatory of the choir.
  • Walter (1202-1213), previously Sacrist.
  • Hugh (1214), who had been the Prior.
  • Peter (1216-1231), a monk from Worcester.
  • Robert Forthington (1232-1254), or Robert III. had previously been Prior. A tomb thought to be his is in the south ambulatory.
  • Thomas de Stokes (1254-1275) had been Prior of St James, Bristol.
  • Richard de Norton (1276-1282).
  • Thomas Kempsey (1282-1328).
  • John Cotes ( -1367).
  • Thomas de Legh (1347-1361).
  • Thomas Chesterton (1361-1389).
  • Thomas Parker, or Pakare (1389-1421).
  • William Bristow, or de Bristol (1421-1442).
  • John de Abingdon (1442-????).
  • John Strensham, or Streynsham (????-1481)
  • Richard Cheltenham (1481-1509).
  • Henry Beoly, or Bealy (1509- ), was Abbot in 1525.
  • John Walker (d. 1531)
  • John Wich, Wyche, or Wakeman (1531-1539). This ecclesiastic was the last Abbot of Tewkesbury. He surrendered the abbey to the Crown and in return he obtained a pension of £266 13s 4d, and also the house and park at Forthampton. When, later, Gloucester was made a bishopric, he was the first bishop. He was buried at Forthampton

Choirs

The Abbey possesses, in effect, two choirs. The Abbey Choir sings at Sunday services, with children (boys and girls) and adults in the morning, and adults in the evening. Schola Cantorum is a professional choir of men and boys based at Dean Close Preparatory School and sings at weekday Evensongs as well as occasional masses and concerts. The Abbey School Tewkesbury, which educated, trained and provided choristers to sing the service of Evensong from its foundation in 1973 by Miles Amherst, closed in 2006; the choir was then re-housed at Dean Close School, Cheltenham and renamed the Tewkesbury Abbey Schola Cantorum.

Worship

For the most part, worship at the Abbey has been emphatically High Anglican. However, in more recent times there has been an acknowledgement of the value of less solemn worship, and this is reflected in the two congregational services offered on Sunday mornings. The first of these (at 9.15am) is a Parish Eucharist, with modern language and an informal atmosphere; a parish breakfast is typically served between these two services. The main Sung Eucharist at 11am is solemn and formal, including a choral Mass; traditional language is used throughout, and most parts of the service are indeed sung, including the Collect and Gospel reading. Choral Evensong is sung on Sunday evenings, and also on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday during the week. A said Eucharist also takes place every day of the week, at varying times, and alternating between traditional and modern language. Each summer since 1969 (with the exception of 2007 when the town was hit by floods) the Abbey has played host to Musica Deo Sacra, a festival combining music and liturgy to the highest standards.

References

  1. ^ "The priories of Cranbourne and Horton". British History Online. http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=40142. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  2. ^ The Ecclesiologist, Stevenson, 1855
  3. ^ Kelly's Directory of Gloucestershire, 1879, p. 766
  4. ^ Kelly's Directory of Gloucestershire, 1885, p. 600
  5. ^ Kelly's Directory of Gloucestershire, 1897, p.328
  6. ^ Who's who in Music; first post-War edition, 1949-50. Shaw Publishing
  7. ^ "Obituary of Michael Howard in the Independent". Independent, The. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/michael-howard-729672.html. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  8. ^ "Michael Peterson, organist". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/gloucestershire/4801817.stm. Retrieved 20 February 2010. 
  9. ^ Shaw, Watkins (1991) The Succession of Organists of the Chapel Royal and the Cathedrals of England and Wales from c. 1538. Oxford: Clarendon Press ISBN 0198161751
  10. ^ Who's who in Music. Shaw Publishing Ltd. First Post War Edition. 1949-50
  11. ^ a b The bells of Tewkesbury Abbey - by David Bagley
  • Morris, Richard K. & Shoesmith, Ron (editors) (2003) Tewkesbury Abbey: history, art and architecture. Almeley: Logaston Press ISBN 1-904396-03-8

External links

Coordinates: 51°59′25″N 2°09′38″W / 51.990252°N 2.160428°W / 51.990252; -2.160428


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