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Texaco logo.svg
Products: Gasoline
Convenience store
Some Locations:
Carwash
Automobile repair shop
Parent: Chevron Corporation
Sister Companies: List of Texaco Sisters
Creation: 1901
Official Website: Official Website

Texaco ("The Texas Company") is the name of an American oil retail brand. Its flagship product is its fuel, "Texaco with Techron". It also owns the Havoline motor oil brand.

Texaco was an independent company until it merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. It began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, and Arnold Schlaet upon discovery of oil at Spindletop. For many years, Texaco was the only company selling gasoline in all 50 states, but this is no longer true. Its logo features a white star in a red circle (a reference to the lone star of Texas), leading to the long-running advertising jingles "You can trust your car to the man who wears the star" and "Star of the American Road." The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, prior to the merger.

Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3. The Texaco brand is strong in the United States, Latin America and West Africa. It has a presence in Europe as well; for example, it is a well-known retail brand in the UK, with around 1,100 Texaco-branded service stations.

The current CEO is David J. O'Reilly.

Contents

History

A Texaco fuel station in Miami Beach, Florida.
  • 1911 – Texaco purchased from owner of the Red Star Oil Company, one Mr. Dawkins.
  • 1928 – Texaco became the first U.S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states (50 states after Alaska and Hawaii joined the Union in 1959).
  • 1931 – The Texas Company (Texaco's corporate name) purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois, a move that expanded Texaco's refining and marketing base in the Midwest and also gave Texaco the rights to Indian's manufacturing processes of Havoline "Wax Free" motor oil, which became a Texaco product and provided the company with a higher quality motor oil product.
  • 1932 – Texaco introduced Fire Chief gasoline nationwide, a motor fuel that met the octane requirements for fire engines, and promoted it through a radio program over NBC that was hosted by Ed Wynn the "Texaco Fire Chief." http://www.nfo.net/graphics/NBCOrchEdWynnTexaco1.jpg
  • 1936 - Texaco begins supplying the Nationalist rebels in Spain with oil, and continues to do so for the duration of the war, delivering some 3.5 million barrels.[1]
  • 1937 – Texaco commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. The resulting "Teague" Texaco station design was a functional white building with green trimmings featuring one or more service bays for "Washing", "Marfak Lubrication", etc., an office area with large plate glass window for display of tires, batteries and accessories along with "Men" and "Ladies" restrooms featuring Texaco-green tile walls and floors. The Teague station design was typically built of white porcelain tile but local and regional variations could include painted brick, concrete brick and stucco materials. Other features included red Texaco stars on the upper facade on outer sidewalls and above the service bays, and red lettering spelling out "TEXACO" above the office area. Stations were identified by the street from Texaco's "banjo" sign.
  • 1938 – Texaco introduced Sky Chief gasoline, a premium grade fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just an ethylized regular product. Sky Chief was dispensed from a silver gas pump in contrast with the red pump used for Fire Chief gasoline - a move that would last many years until the early 1960s.
  • 1939 – Texaco became one of the first oil companies to introduce a "Registered Rest Room" program to ensure that restroom facilities at all Texaco stations nationwide maintained a standard level of cleanliness to the motoring public. The company hired a staff of inspectors who traveled from station to station periodically to ensure that restrooms were up to standard. The "Registered Rest Room" program was later copied by other oil companies and continued at Texaco until the energy crises of the 1970s.
  • 1940 - Torkild Rieber, CEO, is led to resign when his connections with Germany are made public[2]
  • 1941 – Texaco introduced a "24-hour" station program for selected outlets along major highways during the summer months, to help ensure that motorists driving at night were no more than a tankful away from a Texaco station.
  • 1947 – Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent; it gained full control of Regent in 1956,[3] but the Regent brand remained in use until 1968-9.
  • 1954 – To meet the needs of modern automobiles with higher power engines, Texaco upgrades Sky Chief gasoline by adding Petrox as a new additive to increase octane ratings to levels similar to aviation fuel of World War II vintage.
  • 1959 – The Texas Company changes its corporate name to Texaco, Inc. to better reflect the value of the Texaco brand name, which represented the biggest selling gasoline brand in the U.S. and only marketer selling gasoline under one brand name in all 50 states.
  • 1959 – Texaco acquires McColl-Frontenac Oil Company Ltd. of Canada and changes its name to Texaco Canada Ltd.[4]
  • Late 1950s – Bought Paragon Oil, a major fuel oil distribution company in the northeastern United States.
  • 1961 – Texaco introduces the "The Man who wears the Star" campaign with the "Texaco Star Theme" written by W.A. Fredricks. The radio jingle (as of 1961), went as follows:
Texaco fuel station in Poá (São Paulo), Brazil.
We are the Men from Texaco

We wear the Texaco Star We like to think at Texaco We've got everything for your car

We've got wipers for your windshield' Plugs n' Belts n'Tires, too Lubricants and Batteries and polishes for you All the things to keep your engine up to par We've got everything for your car

That's why you can trust you car to the man who wears the Star for the kind of products that can take care of you car At every Texaco Station, clean across the Nation You can trust your car to the man who wears the Star The big bright Texaco star!

Both Fire Chief and Sky Chief gasolines are promoted as "Climate Controlled" as various blends of both gasolines are distributed to Texaco stations in various parts of the country.
  • 1964 – Texaco introduces the "Matawan" service station design at a station in Matawan, New Jersey. Features include mansard roofing design, service bays moved to the side of station and sheetrock covering over most exterior walls.[5]
  • 1966 – Texaco replaces the long-running banjo sign with a new hexagon logo that had previously been test-marketed with the "Matawan" station design introduced two years earlier. The new logo featured red outline with TEXACO in black bold lettering and small banjo logo with red star and green T at bottom. Texaco also enters agreement with Howard Johnson's for Texaco credit card to be honored for charging of lodging and food at Howard Johnson motor lodges, a widespread trend of the time among major oil companies that would last until the 1973 oil crisis.
  • 1967 – Regent name replaced by Texaco at British petrol stations.[6]
  • 1970 – In response to increasingly stringent federal emission standards that would ultimately lead to mandating of unleaded gasoline in 1975 and later-model cars and trucks, Texaco introduced Lead-free Texaco as the first regular-octane lead-free gasoline at stations in the Los Angeles area and throughout Southern California. Lead-free Texaco would become available nationwide in 1974, in time for the introduction of 1975-model vehicles.
  • 1978 – Texaco Canada Ltd. merges with Texaco Explorations Canada Ltd. to form Texaco Canada Inc.[4]
  • 1980 – Texaco replaces Sky Chief gasoline, a leaded premium grade, with new Super Lead-free Sky Chief. Following an industry trend of oil companies retrenching from operating service stations nationwide by pulling out of marginally-profitable or unprofitable regions that began with the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo, Texaco also ends its 50-year-plus commitment to 50-state marketing of gasoline by pulling out of Montana and several other states in the North Central and Midwestern U.S.
  • November 21, 1980 – Lake Peigneur/Jefferson Island disaster
  • 1982 – Texaco replaces 1966-vintage hexagon logo with a new rendition of the old banjo sign in red and white featuring the star and "T". The new service station design emphasizes use of dark colors including, black, red and gray. Gasoline products receive name changes with the advent of self-service including Lead-free Texaco to Texaco Unleaded, Fire Chief to Texaco Regular, and Super Lead-free Sky Chief to Texaco Super Unleaded.
  • 1984 – Bought Getty Oil (including Tidewater Petroleum). The Getty name and stations in the Northeastern United States were sold to Power Test and are now owned by Lukoil. Getty's Skelly stations in several Midwestern states rebranded as Texaco stations, including a few states in which Texaco returned after withdrawing a few years earlier.
A Texaco in Kendall, Washington.
  • 1985 – On November 19, Pennzoil (represented by famous litigator Joe Jamail) won a US$10.53 billion verdict from Texaco in the largest civil verdict in US history (Texaco established a signed contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Gordon Getty). To obtain the billions required to pay the verdict, Texaco sold 50% of its interests in marketing east of the Mississippi and Texas and its three Gulf Coast refineries to Saudi Aramco, which in turn formed a holding company called Saudi Refining that held the 50% ownership in the new venture called Star Enterprise. Texaco also withdrew from marketing gasoline in the Chicago area by selling its service stations and distribution facilities to Mobil in an exchange agreement for which Texaco acquired former Mobil outlets in the Oklahoma City area.
  • 1987 – Texaco files for bankruptcy; company continues trading under protection of U.S. bankruptcy laws.
  • 1989 – Texaco sells its Canadian refining and marketing operations to Imperial Oil, the Canadian subsidiary of Exxon Corp. In most areas of Canada, service stations rebranded from Texaco to Esso. (Locations in the Maritimes were acquired separately by Ultramar, and in Newfoundland and Labrador by Great Eastern Oil, now owned by North Atlantic Refining.)
  • 1989 – Texaco introduces System3 gasolines in all three grades of fuel, featuring the latest detergent additive technology to improve performance by reducing deposits that clog fuel injection systems.
  • 1993 – Several dozen tribal leaders and residents from the Ecuadoran Amazon file a billion-dollar class-action lawsuit against Texaco, as a result of massive ecological pollution of the area and rivers around Texaco's Ecuadorian off-shore drilling sites, causing toxic contamination of approximately 30,000 residents. http://www.texacorainforest.com/why/index.htm
  • 1994 – Texaco's System3 gasolines replaced by new CleanSystem3 gasolines for improved engine performance.
  • 1995 - Texaco merges its Danish and Norwegian downstream operations with those of Norsk Hydro under the new brand HydroTexaco. This joint venture was sold in 2007 to Norwegian retail interests as YX Energi, following the purchase of Hydro by Statoil.
  • 1996 – Texaco pays over $170 million to settle racial discrimination lawsuits filed by black employees at the company. It was the largest racial discrimination lawsuit settlement in the United States at the time, and was particularly damaging to Texaco's public relations when tapes were released containing ethnic slurs used repeatedly by company officers at high-level corporate meetings.[7]
  • 1998 – Formed joint venture Equilon with Shell Oil Company, combining their Western and Midwestern U.S. refining and marketing.[8] This gave rise to the 2006 U.S. Supreme Court antitrust case of Texaco Inc. v. Dagher, which cleared both Texaco and Shell of any antitrust liability concerning the pricing of Equilon's gasoline.
  • 1998 – Formed joint venture Motiva with Shell Oil Company and Saudi Aramco in which the Star Enterprise operations were merged with the Eastern and Gulf Coast U.S. refining and marketing operations of Shell.[8]
  • 2001 – Chevron Corporation merges with Texaco. Shell purchases Texaco's interest in the Equilon and Motiva joint ventures.[9]
  • 2002 - Shell Oil Company begins converting its Texaco stations to the Shell brand, a process expected to be complete by June 2004, "the largest retail re-branding initiative in American business history."[10]
  • July 2004 – Chevron regains non-exclusive rights to the Texaco brand name in the U.S.[11]
  • August 2005 – Texaco introduces the Techron additive into its fuels in the U.S. and parts of Latin America.[12]
  • July 2006 – Chevron regains exclusive rights to the Texaco brand name in the U.S. and begins opening up gas stations across the U.S.[13]
  • 2007 - Delek Benelux took over marketing activities for Chevron Global Energy Inc. in Benelux, including 869 filling stations, mostly under the Texaco brand.[14]

Corporate headquarters

Prior to the merger, Texaco's headquarters, a 750,000-square-foot building, were in Harrison, New York, near White Plains.[15][16][17] In 2002 Chevron sold the former Texaco headquarters to Morgan Stanley. Morgan Stanley bought the building and the surrounding 107 acres for $42 million.[15]

Sponsorships

Racing driver Nigel Mansell driving in the 1993 CART IndyCar World Series

Texaco is associated with the Havoline brand of motor oil and other automotive products. It is one of the sponsors of NASCAR with drivers like Davey Allison, Ernie Irvan, Ricky Rudd, Jamie McMurray, and Casey Mears. Texaco last sponsored Car 42, driven by Juan Pablo Montoya. Havoline has sponsored a NASCAR race car continuously since the early 1980s. At the end of the 2008 NASCAR season, Texaco Havoline officially ended their sponsorship with NASCAR and the Chip Ganassi Racing Team. This brings to a close a 20-plus year relationship with the sport. Texaco has also has also been involved in open wheel racing, sponsoring the Texaco Grand Prix of Houston along with sponsoring drivers like Indianapolis 500 winner Mario Andretti and his son Michael.

Texaco was long associated with the Metropolitan Opera as sole sponsor of its radio broadcasts for 63 years. It was identified as well with such entertainment legends as Bob Hope, Jack Benny and Milton Berle (many of their shows were originally sponsored by Texaco - see Texaco Star Theatre, which includes the sponsorship lyrics of the opening theme: "We're the men of Texaco, We work from Maine to Mexico..."). Berle's program was broadcast in the same time slot as Fulton J. Sheen's religious program for a while, thus leading to Berle's oft-quoted quip, "We both have the same boss - Sky Chief!"

In 1958, Texaco became the sole sponsor of The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC-TV. The nightly newscast had had difficulty retaining sponsors since it first took the air in the fall of 1956.

In Latin America, Texaco sponsors Brazilian soccer superstar Ronaldinho. In West Africa, Texaco sponsors the soccer-based comic Supa Strikas.

Environmental issues

From 1965 to 1993, Texaco participated in a consortium to develop the Lago Agrio oil field in Ecuador. It has been accused of extensive environmental damage from these operations, and faces legal claims from both private plaintiffs and the government of Ecuador. The case has been widely publicized by environmental activists and is the subject of Crude, a 2009 documentary film by Joe Berlinger. Chevron claims that it is being unfairly targeted as a deep pocket defendant, when the actual responsibility lies with the government and its national oil company.

The NiMH chemistry used in modern hybrid vehicles was invented by ECD Ovonics founder, Stan Ovshinksy, and Dr. Masahiko Oshitani of the Yuasa Company[18][19] In 1994, General Motors acquired a controlling interest in Ovonics's battery development and manufacturing. On October 10, 2001, Texaco purchased GM's share in GM Ovonics, and Chevron completed its acquisition of Texaco six days later. In 2003, Texaco Ovonics Battery Systems was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) Ovonics.[20] Chevron's influence over Cobasys extends beyond a strict 50/50 joint venture. Chevron holds a 19.99% interest in ECD Ovonics.[21] In addition, Chevron maintains the right to seize all of Cobasys' intellectual property rights in the event that ECD Ovonics does not fulfill its contractual obligations.[22] On September 10, 2007, Chevron filed a legal claim that ECD Ovonics has not fulfilled its obligations. ECD Ovonics disputes this claim.[23] Since that time, the arbitration hearing was repeatedly suspended while the parties negotiate with an unknown prospective buyer. No agreement has been reached with the potential buyer.[24] Cobasys's patents relating to NiMH batteries expire in 2015.

In her book, Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America, published in February 2007, Sherry Boschert argues that large-format NiMH batteries are commercially viable but that Cobasys refuses to sell or license them to small companies or individuals. Boschert argues that Cobasys accepts only very large orders for these batteries. When Boschert conducted her research, major auto makers showed little interest in large orders for large-format NiMH batteries. However, Toyota employees complained about the difficulty in getting smaller orders of large format NiMH batteries to service the existing 825 RAV-4EVs. Because no other companies were willing to make large orders, Cobasys was not manufacturing nor licensing any large format NiMH battery technology for automotive purposes. Boschert concludes that "it's possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it's possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles."[25]

In an interview with the Economist, Ovshinsky subscribed to the former view. "I think we at ECD we made a mistake of having a joint venture with an oil company, frankly speaking. And I think it’s not a good idea to go into business with somebody whose strategies would put you out of business, rather than building the business.[26]"

In December 2006, Cobasys and General Motors announced that they had signed a contract under which Cobasys provides NiMH batteries for the Saturn Aura hybrid sedan.[27] In March 2007, GM announced that it would use Cobasys NiMH batteries in the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu hybrid as well.

In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services, Inc. and Innovative Transportation Systems AG filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for refusing to fill a large, previously agreed-upon order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the electric Innovan.[28]

In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International Inc. filed suit against Cobasys claiming that Cobasys isn’t delivering the batteries it agreed to build for Mercedes-Benz’s planned hybrid SUV.[29]

See also

  • Chevron Corporation
  • Caltex - joint venture between Texaco and Chevron, now a major international brand name of Chevron Corporation


References

  1. ^ [1] FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America P68
  2. ^ FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America, Dominic Tierney P68
  3. ^ Report by the Monopolies Commission on the Supply of Petrol to Retailers in the United Kingdom, 1965
  4. ^ a b Texaco Canada Inc
  5. ^ Texaco: Service Stations, accessed November 23, 2006
  6. ^ "News and Views: Regent become Texaco". Autocar 127 (nbr 3746): page 48. date 30 November 1967.  
  7. ^ Cohen, Milstein, Hausfeld & Toll, P.L.L.C. Announces Class Action Lawsuit Against Microsoft | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET
  8. ^ a b http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/finance/mergers/stindex.html, Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
  9. ^ http://www.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/2002/02/04/daily41.html
  10. ^ http://driving.myfoxcharlotte.com/news_this_week/2002-05-08-1912-driving/index.html, Retrieved on 2009-03-24.
  11. ^ http://www.chevron.com/news/press/Release/?id=2004-07-01a
  12. ^ http://www.texaco.com/about/news_press_081505.asp
  13. ^ http://www.texaco.com/about/news_press_063006.asp
  14. ^ Delek Petroleum, Ltd.
  15. ^ a b Brenner, Elsa. "IN BUSINESS; Morgan Stanley Seals Deal on Texaco Headquarters." The New York Times. Sunday March 31, 2002. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  16. ^ "Harrison village, New York." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  17. ^ "Contact Us." Texaco. December 5, 1998. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  18. ^ http://www.greencar.com/article/nickel-metal-hybrid-batteries/
  19. ^ http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/ovshinsky.html.
  20. ^ Roberson, J. (March 14, 2007) "Supplier Cobasys exploring more hybrid batteries" Detroit Free Press
  21. ^ ECD Ovonics Definitive Proxy Statement of January 15, 2003
  22. ^ ECD Ovonics Amended General Statement of Beneficial Ownership of December 2, 2004
  23. ^ ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending September 30, 2007
  24. ^ ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending March 31, 2008
  25. ^ Boschert, S. (2007) Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America (Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers) ISBN 9780865715714
  26. ^ http://www.theenergyroadmap.com/futureblogger/show/1030-stanford-ovshinsky-and-the-future-of-energy-interview-part-1
  27. ^ Abuelsamid, S. (December 6, 2006) "Cobasys providing NiMH batteries for Saturn Aura hybrid" Autobloggreen.com
  28. ^ ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending March 31, 2008
  29. ^ "Mercedes sues Cobasys over battery deal" Automotive News Europe

External links

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Texaco
Products: Gasoline
Convenience store
Some Locations:
Carwash
Automobile repair shop
Parent: Chevron Corporation
Sister Companies:

Chevron

Gulf
Creation: 1901
Official Website: Official Website

Texaco ("The Texas Company") is the name of an American oil retail brand. Its flagship product is its fuel, "Texaco with Techron". It also owns the Havoline motor oil brand.

Texaco was an independent company until it merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001. It began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, and Arnold Schlaet upon discovery of oil at Spindletop. For many years, Texaco was the only company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 states as well as Canada, making it the most truly national brand among its competitors. Its current logo features a white star in a red circle (a reference to the lone star of Texas), leading to the long-running advertising jingles "You can trust your car to the man who wears the star" and "Star of the American Road."[citation needed] The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, prior to the merger.

Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3. The Texaco brand is strong in the U.S., Latin America and West Africa. It has a presence in Europe as well; for example, it is a well-known retail brand in the UK, with around 1,100 Texaco-branded service stations.

Contents

History

.]]

Founding through 1930s

  • 1905 – Texaco establishes an operation in Antwerp, Belgium, under the name Continental Petroleum Company.
  • 1911 – Texaco purchased from owner of the Red Star Oil Company, one Mr. Dawkins.
  • 1913 – Texaco acquires control of the Central Petroleum Company.[1]
  • 1928 – Texaco becomes the first U.S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states (50 states after Alaska and Hawaii joined the Union in 1959).
  • 1931 – The Texas Company (Texaco's corporate name) purchases Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois, a move that expands Texaco's refining and marketing base in the Midwest and also gives Texaco the rights to Indian's manufacturing processes of Havoline "Wax Free" motor oil, which becomes a Texaco product and provides the company with a higher-quality motor oil product.
  • 1932 – Texaco introduces Fire Chief gasoline nationwide, a motor fuel that meets the octane requirements for fire engines, and promotes it through a radio program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn, the "Texaco Fire Chief."[2]
  • 1936 – Texaco begins supplying the Nationalist rebels in Spain with oil, and continues to do so for the duration of the war, delivering some 3.5 million barrels.[3]
  • 1936 – Marketing operations East of Suez (including Asia, East Africa, and Australasia) are placed into a joint venture with Standard Oil Company of California - Socal (Chevron) under the brand name Caltex, in exchange for Socal placing its Bahrain refinery and Arabian oilfields into the venture.
  • 1937 – Texaco commissions industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. The resulting "Teague" Texaco station design is a functional white building with green trimmings featuring one or more service bays for "Washing", "Marfak Lubrication", etc., an office area with large plate glass window for display of tires, batteries, and accessories, along with "Men" and "Ladies" restrooms featuring Texaco-green tile walls and floors. The Teague station design is typically built of white porcelain tile but local and regional variations could include painted brick, concrete brick, and stucco materials. Other features include red Texaco stars on the upper facade on outer sidewalls and above the service bays, and red lettering spelling out "TEXACO" above the office area. Stations are identified by the street from Texaco's "banjo" sign.
  • 1938 – Texaco introduces Sky Chief gasoline, a premium grade fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just an ethylized regular product. Sky Chief is dispensed from a silver gas pump in contrast with the red pump used for Fire Chief gasoline - a move that lasts many years until the early 1960s.
  • 1939 – Texaco becomes one of the first oil companies to introduce a "Registered Rest Room" program to ensure that restroom facilities at all Texaco stations nationwide maintained a standard level of cleanliness to the motoring public. The "Registered Rest Room" program is later copied by other oil companies and continued at Texaco until the energy crises of the 1970s.

1940s and 50s

  • 1940 - Torkild Rieber, CEO, is led to resign when his connections with Germany are made public[4]
  • 1947 - Texaco's European marketing operations are also placed into the Caltex joint venture
  • 1947 – Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent; it gained full control of Regent in 1956,[5] but the Regent brand remained in use until 1968-9.
  • 1954 - Texaco adds the detergent additive Petrox to its "Sky Chief" gasoline, which was also souped up with higher octane to meet the antiknock needs of new cars with high-compression engines. A new plant was built in Port Arthur, Texas specifically to manufacture Petrox.
  • 1958 - Texaco became the sole sponsor of The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC-TV. The nightly newscast had had difficulty retaining sponsors since it first took the air in the fall of 1956.
  • 1959 – The Texas Company changes its corporate name to Texaco, Inc. to better reflect the value of the Texaco brand name, which represented the biggest selling gasoline brand in the U.S. and only marketer selling gasoline under one brand name in all 50 states.
  • 1959 – Texaco acquires McColl-Frontenac Oil Company Ltd. of Canada and changes its name to Texaco Canada Ltd.[6]
  • Late 1950s – Bought Paragon Oil, a major fuel oil distribution company in the northeastern U.S.

1960s and 70s

  • 1961 – Texaco introduces the "The Man who wears the Star" campaign with the "Texaco Star Theme" written by W.A. Fredricks. The radio jingle (as of 1961), went as follows:
(São Paulo), Brazil.]]
We are the Men from Texaco

We wear the Texaco Star We like to think at Texaco We've got everything for your car

We've got wipers for your windshield' Plugs n' Belts n'Tires, too Lubricants and Batteries and polishes for you All the things to keep your engine up to par We've got everything for your car

That's why you can trust you car to the man who wears the Star for the kind of products that can take care of you car At every Texaco Station, clean across the Nation You can trust your car to the man who wears the Star The big bright Texaco star!

Both Fire Chief and Sky Chief gasolines are promoted as "Climate Controlled" as various blends of both gasolines are distributed to Texaco stations in various parts of the country.
  • 1964 – Texaco introduces the "Matawan" service station design at a station in Matawan, New Jersey. Features include mansard roofing design, service bays moved to the side of station and sheetrock covering over most exterior walls.[7]
  • 1966 – Texaco replaces the long-running banjo sign with a new hexagon logo that had previously been test-marketed with the "Matawan" station design introduced two years earlier. The new logo featured red outline with TEXACO in black bold lettering and small banjo logo with red star and green T at bottom. Texaco also enters agreement with Howard Johnson's for Texaco credit card to be honored for charging of lodging and food at Howard Johnson motor lodges, a widespread trend of the time among major oil companies that would last until the 1973 oil crisis.
  • 1967 – Regent name replaced by Texaco at British petrol stations.[8]
  • 1970 – In response to increasingly stringent federal emission standards that would ultimately lead to mandating of unleaded gasoline in 1975 and later-model cars and trucks, Texaco introduced Lead-free Texaco as the first regular-octane lead-free gasoline at stations in the Los Angeles area and throughout Southern California. Lead-free Texaco would become available nationwide in 1974, in time for the introduction of 1975-model vehicles.
  • 1978 – Texaco Canada Ltd. merges with Texaco Explorations Canada Ltd. to form Texaco Canada Inc.[6]

1980s and 90s

  • November 21, 1980 – Lake Peigneur/Jefferson Island disaster
  • 1982 – The new service station design emphasizes use of dark colors including, black, red and gray. Gasoline products receive name changes with the advent of self-service including Lead-free Texaco to Texaco Unleaded, Fire Chief to Texaco Regular, and Super Lead-free Sky Chief to Texaco Super Unleaded.

.]]

  • 1985 – On November 19, Pennzoil (represented by famous litigator Joe Jamail) won a US$10.53 billion verdict from Texaco in the largest civil verdict in US history (Texaco established a signed contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Gordon Getty).
  • 1987 – Texaco files for bankruptcy; company continues trading under protection of U.S. bankruptcy laws.
  • 1988 – Texaco and Saudi Aramco agree to form a joint venture known as Star Enterprise in which Saudi Aramco would own a 50% share of Texaco's refining and marketing operations in the eastern U.S. and Gulf Coast.[9]
  • 1989 – Texaco introduces System3 gasolines in all three grades of fuel, featuring the latest detergent additive technology to improve performance by reducing deposits that clog fuel injection systems.
  • 1991 - The company was awarded the National Medal of Arts.[10]
  • 1993 – Several dozen tribal leaders and residents from the Ecuadoran Amazon file a billion-dollar class-action lawsuit against Texaco, as a result of massive ecological pollution of the area and rivers around Texaco's Ecuadorian offshore drilling sites, causing toxic contamination of approximately 30,000 residents.[11]
  • 1994 – Texaco's System3 gasolines replaced by new CleanSystem3 gasoline for improved engine performance.
  • 1995 - Texaco merges its Danish and Norwegian downstream operations with those of Norsk Hydro under the new brand HydroTexaco. This joint venture was sold in 2007 to Norwegian retail interests as YX Energi, following the purchase of Hydro by Statoil.
  • 1996 – Texaco pays over $170 million to settle racial discrimination lawsuits filed by black employees at the company. It was the largest racial discrimination lawsuit settlement in the U.S. at the time, and was particularly damaging to Texaco's public relations when tapes were released containing ethnic slurs used repeatedly by company officers at high-level corporate meetings.[12]
  • 1998 – Formed joint venture Equilon with Shell Oil Company, combining their Western and Midwestern U.S. refining and marketing.[13] This gave rise to the 2006 U.S. Supreme Court antitrust case of Texaco Inc. v. Dagher, which cleared both Texaco and Shell of any antitrust liability concerning the pricing of Equilon's gasoline.
  • 1998 – Formed joint venture Motiva with Shell Oil Company and Saudi Aramco in which the Star Enterprise operations were merged with the Eastern and Gulf Coast U.S. refining and marketing operations of Shell.[13]

2000 to 2010

  • 2001 – Chevron Corporation merges with Texaco. Shell purchases Texaco's interest in the Equilon and Motiva joint ventures.[14]
  • 2002 - Shell Oil Company begins converting its Texaco stations to the Shell brand, a process expected to be complete by June 2004, "the largest retail re-branding initiative in American business history."[15]
  • July 2004 – Chevron regains non-exclusive rights to the Texaco brand name in the U.S.[16]
  • August 2005 – Texaco introduces the Techron additive into its fuels in the U.S. and parts of Latin America.[17]
  • July 2006 – Chevron regains exclusive rights to the Texaco brand name in the U.S. and begins opening up gas stations across the U.S. and sold some of its BP and its Citgo stations in the southeast.[18]
  • 2007 - Delek Benelux took over marketing activities for Chevron Global Energy Inc. in Benelux, including 869 filling stations, mostly under the Texaco brand.[19] Chevron Corporation sold its Conoco stations in Mississippi to the Texaco brand name, a process to be complete at the end of the year.
  • April 2010 - Chevron continued to allow independent jobbers to switch to the Texaco brand, such as the small chain of BP gas stations in Mississippi operated by Mississippi Oil/Smith Petroleum as Dandy Dan C-Stores.[20]
  • July 2010 - Chevron and Texaco end retail operations in the Mid-Atlantic US, removing their brand from 1,100 stations in Delaware, Indiana, Kentucky, North Carolina, New Jersey, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia, Washington, D.C., and parts of Tennessee. [21]

Corporate headquarters

Prior to the merger, Texaco's headquarters, a 750,000-square-foot (70,000 m2) building, were in Harrison, New York, near White Plains.[22][23][24] In 2002 Chevron sold the former Texaco headquarters to Morgan Stanley. Morgan Stanley bought the building and the surrounding 107 acres for $42 million.[22]

Sponsorships

World Series]]

Texaco is associated with the Havoline brand of motor oil and other automotive products. It was one of the sponsors of NASCAR with drivers like Davey Allison, Ernie Irvan, Ricky Rudd, Jamie McMurray, and Casey Mears. Texaco last sponsored Car 42, driven by Juan Pablo Montoya. Havoline sponsored a NASCAR race car continuously from the early 1980s through the 2008 season. At the end of the 2008 NASCAR season, Texaco Havoline officially ended their sponsorship with NASCAR and the Chip Ganassi Racing Team. This brought to a close a 20-plus year relationship with the sport. Texaco has also has also been involved in open wheel racing, sponsoring the Texaco Grand Prix of Houston along with sponsoring drivers like Indianapolis 500 winner Mario Andretti and his son Michael.

Texaco was long associated with the Metropolitan Opera as sole sponsor of its radio broadcasts for 63 years. It was identified as well with such entertainment legends as Bob Hope, Jack Benny and Milton Berle (many of their shows were originally sponsored by Texaco - see Texaco Star Theatre, which includes the sponsorship lyrics of the opening theme: "We're the men of Texaco, We work from Maine to Mexico..."). Berle's program was broadcast in the same time slot as Fulton J. Sheen's religious program for a while, thus leading to Berle's oft-quoted quip, "We both have the same boss - Sky Chief!"

In Latin America, Texaco sponsors Brazilian soccer superstar Ronaldinho. In West Africa, Texaco sponsors the soccer-based comic Supa Strikas.

Environmental issues

From 1965-1993, Texaco participated in a consortium to develop the Lago Agrio oil field in Ecuador. It has been accused of extensive environmental damage from these operations, and faces legal claims from both private plaintiffs and the government of Ecuador. The case has been widely publicized by environmental activists and is the subject of Crude, a 2009 documentary film by Joe Berlinger. Chevron claims that it is being unfairly targeted as a deep pocket defendant, when the actual responsibility lies with the government and its national oil company.

The NiMH chemistry used in modern hybrid vehicles was invented by ECD Ovonics founder, Stan Ovshinksy, and Dr. Masahiko Oshitani of the Yuasa Company[25][26] In 1994, General Motors acquired a controlling interest in Ovonics's battery development and manufacturing. On October 10, 2001, Texaco purchased GM's share in GM Ovonics, and Chevron completed its acquisition of Texaco six days later. In 2003, Texaco Ovonics Battery Systems was restructured into Cobasys, a 50/50 joint venture between Chevron and Energy Conversion Devices (ECD) Ovonics.[27] Chevron's influence over Cobasys extends beyond a strict 50/50 joint venture. Chevron holds a 19.99% interest in ECD Ovonics.[28] In addition, Chevron maintains the right to seize all of Cobasys' intellectual property rights in the event that ECD Ovonics does not fulfill its contractual obligations.[29] On September 10, 2007, Chevron filed a legal claim that ECD Ovonics has not fulfilled its obligations. ECD Ovonics disputes this claim.[30] Since that time, the arbitration hearing was repeatedly suspended while the parties negotiate with an unknown prospective buyer. No agreement has been reached with the potential buyer.[31] Cobasys's patents relating to NiMH batteries expire in 2015.

In her book, Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America, published in February 2007, Sherry Boschert argues that large-format NiMH batteries are commercially viable but that Cobasys refuses to sell or license them to small companies or individuals. Boschert argues that Cobasys accepts only very large orders for these batteries. When Boschert conducted her research, major auto makers showed little interest in large orders for large-format NiMH batteries. However, Toyota employees complained about the difficulty in getting smaller orders of large format NiMH batteries to service the existing 825 RAV-4EVs. Because no other companies were willing to make large orders, Cobasys was not manufacturing nor licensing any large format NiMH battery technology for automotive purposes. Boschert concludes that "it's possible that Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through its control of patent licenses in order to remove a competitor to gasoline. Or it's possible that Cobasys simply wants the market for itself and is waiting for a major automaker to start producing plug-in hybrids or electric vehicles."[32]

In an interview with the Economist, Ovshinsky subscribed to the former view. "I think we at ECD we made a mistake of having a joint venture with an oil company, frankly speaking. And I think it’s not a good idea to go into business with somebody whose strategies would put you out of business, rather than building the business.[33]"

In December 2006, Cobasys and General Motors announced that they had signed a contract under which Cobasys provides NiMH batteries for the Saturn Aura hybrid sedan.[34] In March 2007, GM announced that it would use Cobasys NiMH batteries in the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu hybrid as well.

In October 2007, International Acquisitions Services, Inc. and Innovative Transportation Systems AG filed suit against Cobasys and its parents for refusing to fill a large, previously agreed-upon order for large-format NiMH batteries to be used in the electric Innovan.[31]

In August 2008, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International Inc. filed suit against Cobasys claiming that Cobasys isn’t delivering the batteries it agreed to build for Mercedes-Benz’s planned hybrid SUV.[35]

See also

New York portal
Texas portal
Companies portal
  • Chevron Corporation
  • Caltex - joint venture between Texaco and Chevron, now a major international brand name of Chevron Corporation

References

  1. ^ News of the Week: Union Oil of Delaware, Business Digest and Investment Weekly, Volume 26, Issue 5, Arthur Fremont Rider (editor), 1920, p. 95 (retrieved 2 August 2010 from Google Books)
  2. ^ http://www.nfo.net/graphics/
  3. ^ Tierney, Dominic (2007). "American Men, American Oil, American Arms". FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America. Duke University Press. p. 68. ISBN 9780822340768. http://books.google.com/?id=LgkuIcArK6sC&pg=PA68. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  4. ^ Dominic Tierney (2007) (in French). FDR and the Spanish Civil War: neutrality and commitment in the struggle that divided America. p. 68. ISBN 9780822340768. http://books.google.com/?id=LgkuIcArK6sC&pg=PA68&lpg=PA68&dq=%22Thorkild+Rieber%22+texaco&q=%22Thorkild%20Rieber%22%20texaco. 
  5. ^ Report by the Monopolies Commission on the Supply of Petrol to Retailers in the United Kingdom, 1965
  6. ^ a b Texaco Canada Inc
  7. ^ Texaco: Service Stations, accessed November 23, 2006
  8. ^ [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "News and Views: Regent become Texaco"]. Autocar 127 (nbr 3746): page 48. date 30 November 1967. 
  9. ^ "Saudi-Texaco Joint Venture". The New York Times: p. 11. 3 January 1989. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/01/03/business/saudi-texaco-joint-venture.html. Retrieved 2009-06-10. 
  10. ^ Lifetime Honors - National Medal of Arts
  11. ^ "Why A Lawsuit?". Archived from the original on Dec 02, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20071202073108/http://www.texacorainforest.com/why/index.htm. Retrieved 11 June 2010. 
  12. ^ Cohen, Milstein, Hausfeld & Toll, P.L.L.C. Announces Class Action Lawsuit Against Microsoft Business Wire Oct 4, 2000
  13. ^ a b Aspects of the Refining/Marketing Joint Ventures of Shell Oil, Star Enterprises, and Texaco, Retrieved on 2009-06-10.
  14. ^ "Shell to brand new U.S. gas stations". Houston Business Journal. February 8, 2002. http://www.bizjournals.com/houston/stories/2002/02/04/daily41.html. 
  15. ^ Nerad, Jack (May 8, 2002). "Trust Your Car to the Man who Wears the... Shell". Driving Today. http://driving.myfoxcharlotte.com/news_this_week/2002-05-08-1912-driving/index.html. Retrieved 2009-03-24. 
  16. ^ ChevronTexaco (Jul. 1, 2004). "ChevronTexaco Welcomes Back the Texaco Retail Brand in the U.S.". Press release. http://www.chevron.com/news/press/Release/?id=2004-07-01a. 
  17. ^ http://www.texaco.com/about/news_press_081505.asp[dead link]
  18. ^ http://www.texaco.com/about/news_press_063006.asp[dead link]
  19. ^ Delek Petroleum, Ltd.
  20. ^ "Pine Belt BP stations changing to Texaco". WDAM Channel 7 online. June 25, 2010. http://www.wdam.com/Global/story.asp?S=12710983. 
  21. ^ "Eastern Withdrawal for Chevron". December 7, 2009. http://www.cspnet.com/ME2/Audiences/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=Publishing&mod=Publications::Article&mid=8F3A7027421841978F18BE895F87F791&tier=4&id=807613D32D8C4FC3B85631A0224C0EC5&AudID=CBA745B91AFB44FA923476ACBBD040A5. 
  22. ^ a b Brenner, Elsa. "IN BUSINESS; Morgan Stanley Seals Deal on Texaco Headquarters." The New York Times. Sunday March 31, 2002. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  23. ^ "Harrison village, New York." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  24. ^ "Contact Us." Texaco. December 5, 1998. Retrieved on October 3, 2009.
  25. ^ Olvera, Jennifer (07/03/2008). "5 Things You Need to Know About Nickel-Metal-Hybrid Batteries". GreenCar.com. http://www.greencar.com/article/nickel-metal-hybrid-batteries/. 
  26. ^ "Stanford Ovshinsky : Amorphous semiconductor materials". Inventor of the Week. March 2000. http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/ovshinsky.html. 
  27. ^ Roberson, J. (March 14, 2007) "Supplier Cobasys exploring more hybrid batteries" Detroit Free Press
  28. ^ ECD Ovonics Definitive Proxy Statement of January 15, 2003
  29. ^ ECD Ovonics Amended General Statement of Beneficial Ownership of December 2, 2004
  30. ^ ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending September 30, 2007
  31. ^ a b ECD Ovonics 10-Q Quarterly Report for the period ending March 31, 2008
  32. ^ Boschert, S (2007). Plug-in Hybrids: The Cars that Will Recharge America. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers. ISBN 9780865715714. http://www.newsociety.com/bookid/3934. 
  33. ^ Greenberg, Joel (October 14 2008). "The Edison of our Age: Stan Ovshinsky and the Future of Energy [Video Interview Part 1]". The Energy Roadmap. http://www.theenergyroadmap.com/futureblogger/show/1030-stanford-ovshinsky-and-the-future-of-energy-interview-part-1. 
  34. ^ Abuelsamid, S. (December 6, 2006) "Cobasys providing NiMH batteries for Saturn Aura hybrid" Autobloggreen.com
  35. ^ "Mercedes sues Cobasys over battery deal" Automotive News Europe

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