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State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Lone Star State
Motto(s): Friendship
before statehood, known as
the Republic of Texas
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official language(s) No official language
(see Languages spoken in Texas)
Demonym Texan
Texian (archaic)
Capital Austin
Largest city Houston
Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington[1]
Area  Ranked 2nd in the US
 - Total 268,820[2] sq mi
(696,241 km2)
 - Width 773[3] miles (1,244 km)
 - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
 - % water 2.5
 - Latitude 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 - Longitude 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
Population  Ranked 2nd in the US
 - Total 24,782,302 (2009 est.)[4]
 - Density 79.6[5]/sq mi  (30.75/km2)
Ranked 26th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Guadalupe Peak[6]
8,751 ft  (2,667 m)
 - Mean 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico coast[6]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  December 29, 1845 (28th)
Governor Rick Perry (R)
Lieutenant Governor David Dewhurst (R)
U.S. Senators Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)
John Cornyn (R)
U.S. House delegation 20 Republicans, 12 Democrats (list)
Time zones  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - tip of West Texas Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations TX Tex. US-TX
Website http://www.texasonline.com/
.Texas (Listeni /ˈtɛksəs/) is the second-largest U.S. state in both area and population, and the largest state in the contiguous United States.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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.The name, meaning "friends" or "allies" in Caddo, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in East Texas.^ Under Spanish rule, Texas had been one of the Four Internal Provinces of the East, along with Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Nuevo Santander (later known as Tamaulipas).
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[7] .Located in the South Central United States, Texas is bordered by Mexico to the south, New Mexico to the west, Oklahoma to the north, Arkansas to the northeast, and Louisiana to the east.^ United States - North Dakota (western) .
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^ United States - Indiana (far west) .
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^ The United States and Mexico 1821-1848 , New York, 1913.
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Texas has an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km2), and a growing population of 24.7 million residents.[8]
.Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth-largest in the United States, while Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston are the fourth and sixth largest United States metropolitan areas, respectively.^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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.Other major cities include San Antonio, El Paso, and Austin—the state capital.^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ The Austin City Gazette of May 6, 1840, stated that the Red-Lander "diedabout the month of December [1839]."
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^ Other items directly relating to Texas and published while Texas was still a Mexican state include the Breve Apologia of Gutiérrez de Lara, Monterrey, 1827 (No.
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.Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify Texas as an independent republic and as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico.^ This lone star state was created as the result of the dedication of some of the most courageous people ever to settle in the United States of America.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This agreement marks the culmination of the Texas struggle for independence.
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.The "Lone Star" can be found on the Texas State Flag and on the Texas State Seal today.^ This lone star state was created as the result of the dedication of some of the most courageous people ever to settle in the United States of America.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Lone-Star Vanguard: The Catholic Re-Occupation of Texas (1838-1848) , St. Louis, 1945.
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[9]
Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes that resemble both the American South and the Southwest.[10] .Although Texas is popularly associated with the Southwestern deserts, less than 10% of the land area is desert.^ In 1919 Sam visited Matamoros again and its population was less than 10,000.
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^ That embraced all west Texas - more than half the area of the state.
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[11] Most of the population centers are located in areas of former prairies, grasslands, forests, and the coastline. .Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, and finally the desert and mountains of the Big Bend.^ To the south, east and west, as far as the eye could see, were rolling prairies, hills and vales covered with green grass knee high, and dotted here and there with clumps of Elm and Live Oak trees.
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^ Slowly the travelers made their way through Hopkins, Kaufman, Dallas, Ellis, Hill, McLennan and Bell Counties and finally reached Little River in eastern Bell County.
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.Due to its long history as a center of the American cattle industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy.^ I dedicate this production to the memory of my beloved father, Samuel W. Bishop, to his descendants and his pioneer friends and relatives, also to the lovers of the romance of the early cattle industry in Texas.
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^ He and his cowboys headed to the north in the direction of Kansas City to blaze a new route to the markets of the east for Texas cattle.
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^ Remember there were no fences in those days in Texas, so the herd had to be herded night and day by cowboys to keep the cattle from escaping.
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.The term "six flags over Texas" came from the several nations that had rule over the territory.^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
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.Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas.^ For the first edition, all of Streeters entries were checked in the major Texas libraries, the more important scholarly libraries throughout the country, and the National Union Catalogue.
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.France held a short-lived colony in Texas.^ Keene merely had a vision, but the Napoleonic exiles who established the short-lived Champ-dAsile Colony near the mouth of the Trinity River in the spring of 1818 actually established the first non-Spanish colony in Texas.
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.Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
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^ From the beginning of the Texas Republic in 1836 to 1841, the capitol of Texas was pushed around from pillar to post, holding its congressional sessions at various places.
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^ By that time about 40,000 Americans had become residents of Texas, but citizens of Mexico.
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.In 1845 it joined the United States as the 28th state.^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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^ When Texas became one of the United States in 1845, Sam Houston was elected its first U. S. senator and later served Texas as Governor.
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.The state's annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. Texas declared its secession from the United States in early 1861, joining the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War.^ War had been declared by the United States against Mexico.
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^ United States - Texas (far west) .
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^ Father served a hectic four years in the Confederate army of the Civil War.
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.After the war and its restoration to the Union, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation.^ Conditions remained this way, to some extent, in many parts of Texas until long after the Civil War.
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In the early 1900s, oil discoveries initiated an economic boom in the state. Texas has since economically diversified. .Today it has more Fortune 500 companies than any other U.S. state.^ Johnson again in 1844, as in 1843, is credited with the printing of more of the years entries than any other printer.
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^ The greatest legacy that can be left a people is the legacy of noble ancestry: The nobility and patriotism of the early settlers of Texas has contributed more to the State's greatness and glory than all else combined.
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^ That embraced all west Texas - more than half the area of the state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[12][13] With a growing base of industry, the state is a leader in many, including agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. It leads the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.

Contents

History

Pre-European era

Texas lies between two major cultural spheres of Pre-Columbian North America: the Southwestern and the Plains areas. Archaeologists have found that three major indigenous cultures lived in this territory, and reached their developmental peak before the first European contact. These were:[14]
.
  • the Pueblo from the upper Rio Grande region, centered west of Texas;
  • the Mississippian culture, also known as Mound Builder, which extended along the Mississippi River Valley east of Texas; and
  • the civilizations of Mesoamerica, centered south of Texas.^ Early in the year 1918 Sam moved to the Rio Grande Valley with his son and family.
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    ^ He went on a steamboat from Brownsville up the Rio Grande River to the mouth of the San Juan, near Rio Grand City; thence up the San Juan River to Carmargo.
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    ^ The herd, now on the east side of the Mississippi River, at Rock Island, Ill., was turned east for Chicago which was still many miles away.
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    Influence of Teotihuacan in northern Mexico peaked around AD 500 and declined over the 8th to 10th centuries.
.No culture was dominant in the present-day Texas region, and many peoples inhabited the area.^ Present day generation can never experience the joy and thrills they brought to Texas pioneers.
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^ Very few people in Texas in the 50s could realize that this rich black prairie land would some day be valuable for farming.
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^ Remember there were no fences in those days in Texas, so the herd had to be herded night and day by cowboys to keep the cattle from escaping.
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[14] .Native American tribes that lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama, Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Coahuiltecan, Comanche, Cherokee, Choctaw, Coushatta, Hasinai, Jumano, Karankawa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Tonkawa, and Wichita.^ Present day generation can never experience the joy and thrills they brought to Texas pioneers.
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[15][16] The name Texas derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".[2][17][18][19][20]
Whether a Native American tribe was friendly or warlike was critical to the fates of European explorers and settlers in that land.[21] .Friendly tribes taught newcomers how to grow indigenous crops, prepare foods, and hunt wild game.^ Then travelers depended largely on wild game for food.
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Warlike tribes made life difficult and dangerous for Europeans through their attacks and resistance to the newcomers.[22]

Colonization

Texas in 1718, Guillaume de L'Isle map, approximate state area highlighted, northern areas indefinite.
.The first historical document related to Texas was a map of the Gulf Coast, created in 1519 by Spanish explorer Alonso Álvarez de Pineda.^ The evidence for fixing the date of the first issue of the paper was presented by Mr. E.W. Winkler in a note in the Quarterly , Texas State Historical Association, for January, 1905, Vol.
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^ Texas to the Arkansas River, the first large-scale map of Texas alone, as distinguished from a general map including Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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[23][24] .Nine years later, shipwrecked Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and his cohort became the first Europeans in Texas.^ Chisholm made his first trip nine years later in 1866.
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^ He was nine years old and living in Texas when the telegraph was invented.
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^ When Texas became one of the United States in 1845, Sam Houston was elected its first U. S. senator and later served Texas as Governor.
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[25][26] .European powers ignored Texas until accidentally settling there in 1685. Miscalculations by René Robert Cavelier de La Salle resulted in his establishing the colony of Fort Saint Louis at Matagorda Bay rather than along the Mississippi River.^ He longed to see his family so struck out afoot to the west until he reached the Mississippi River.
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^ The herd was driven on the west side of the Mississippi River until they reached Davenport, Iowa, before crossing.
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^ About ten to fifteen miles to the southwest of Joseph's prairie home along the divide between the Leon and Cowhouse rivers, there was a dense cedar brake.
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[27] .The colony lasted only four years before succumbing to harsh conditions and hostile natives.^ He lived to be ninety four years of age and was active to the last.
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^ This was the same place where, four years before, he found the five deserters from the army, and persuaded them to become soldiers.
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^ Brown, where Sam had climbed the flag-pole and attached the Confederate flag fifty-four years before while serving in the Confederate army.
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[28]
In 1690 Spanish authorities, concerned that France posed competitive threat, constructed several missions in East Texas.[29] After Native American resistance, the Spanish missionaries returned to Mexico.[30] .When France began settling Louisiana, mostly in the southern part of the state, in 1716 Spanish authorities responded by founding a new series of missions in East Texas.^ An educated man named Professor C. H. Davis had wandered down to this part of Texas from New York state.
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^ He and his cowboys headed to the north in the direction of Kansas City to blaze a new route to the markets of the east for Texas cattle.
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^ It soon became apparent that several of the southern states would secede from the Union; then the question arose, What will Texas do about it?
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[31][32] .Two years later, they created San Antonio as the first Spanish civilian settlement in Texas.^ They lived in Sams home for two years, being treated kindly.
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^ His first two year term moved smoothly and he was re-elected.
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^ Two days later we drove into San Angelo.
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[33]
Hostile native tribes and distance from nearby Spanish colonies discouraged settlers from moving to Texas. It was one of New Spain's least populated provinces.[34] In 1749, the Spanish peace treaty with the Lipan Apache[35] angered many tribes, including the Comanche, Tonkawa, and Hasinai.[36] The Comanche signed a treaty with Spain in 1785[37] and later helped to defeat the Lipan Apache and Karankawa tribes.[38][39] .With more numerous missions being established, priests led a peaceful conversion of most tribes.^ Sam was very happy now in the thought of returning to his home and being once more united with his family in peace and happiness.
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By the end of the 1700s only a few nomadic tribes had not converted to Christianity.[40]
.When the United States purchased Louisiana from France in 1803, American authorities insisted that the agreement also included Texas.^ United States - Texas (far west) .
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^ United States - Louisiana .
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^ United States - Texas .
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.The boundary between New Spain and the United States was finally set at the Sabine River in 1819.[41] Eager for new land, many United States settlers refused to recognize the agreement.^ Zachary Taylor's famous army in the War of 1846-48 between the United States and Mexico.
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^ Joseph Bishop located his new home near the beautiful San Gabriel River, many miles from any other settlement.
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^ United States - New Mexico .
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Several filibusters raised armies to invade Texas.[42] .In 1821, the Mexican War of Independence included the Texas territory, which became part of Mexico.^ Baptism into the Roman Catholic Church played an interesting part in the social history of Texas as a province of Mexico so a form of a baptismal certificate, No.
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^ The Life, Travels and Opinions of Benjamin Lundy, including his journeys to Texas and Mexico , Philadelphia, 1847.
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^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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[43] Due to its low population, Mexico made the area part of the state of Coahuila y Tejas.[44]
Stephen F. Austin was the first American empresario given permission to operate a colony within Mexican Texas.
.Hoping that more settlers would reduce the near-constant Comanche raids, Mexican Texas liberalized its immigration policies to permit immigrants from outside Mexico and Spain.^ Mexico, including Texas, had long been a province of Spain.
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^ The greatest legacy that can be left a people is the legacy of noble ancestry: The nobility and patriotism of the early settlers of Texas has contributed more to the State's greatness and glory than all else combined.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[45] .Under the Mexican immigration system, large swathes of land were allotted to empresarios, who recruited settlers from the United States, Europe, and the Mexican interior.^ Thus time passed away and soon forgotten was one of Texas earliest settlers who was a leader in paving the way for civilization in this great state.
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.The first grant, to Moses Austin, was passed to his son Stephen F. Austin after his death.^ Moses Austin died before filling his contract with Mexico, and on his death bed requested his son, Stephen F. Austin, to take over the deal and complete the contract, which Stephen did.
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.Austin's settlers, the Old Three Hundred, made places along the Brazos River in 1822.[46] Twenty-three other empresarios brought settlers to the state, the majority of whom were from the United States.^ This was a great sight for the boys but no more interesting than the old suspension bridge across the Brazos River (which is still in use).
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^ No bridges spanned even the larger streams, and it was certainly a daring feat to cross such rivers as the Trinity, Brazos, Colorado and may others not so large.
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^ In this happy state of mind when within three miles of his destination he met an old negro who belonged to the Meadows family and stopped to talk.
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[46][47] The population of Texas grew rapidly. In 1825, Texas had a population of approximately 3,500, with most of Mexican descent.[48] By 1834, Texas had grown to approximately 37,800 people, with only 7,800 of Mexican descent.[49]
Many immigrants openly flouted Mexican law, especially the prohibition against slavery. .Combined with United States' attempts to purchase Texas, Mexican authorities decided in 1830 to prohibit continued immigration from the United States.^ The greatest legacy that can be left a people is the legacy of noble ancestry: The nobility and patriotism of the early settlers of Texas has contributed more to the State's greatness and glory than all else combined.
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^ When Texas became one of the United States in 1845, Sam Houston was elected its first U. S. senator and later served Texas as Governor.
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[50] New laws also called for the enforcement of customs duties angering both native Mexican citizens (Tejanos) and recent immigrants.[51]
.The Anahuac Disturbances in 1832 were the first open revolt against Mexican rule and they coincided with a revolt in Mexico against the nation's president.^ This is the first published account of Minas expedition in the spring of 1817 from Galveston Island to Soto la Marina in Tamaulipas to aid the Mexican revolt from Spain.
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^ Uncle Jack was vice president of the First National Bank of Killeen, served as city commissioner and as school trustee.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
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[52] .Texians sided with the federalists against the current government and drove all Mexican soldiers out of East Texas.^ In the early 1870s the legislature of Texas enacted a law requiring all public domain of the state to be surveyed and laid out in sections (640 acres).
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[53] They took advantage of the lack of oversight to agitate for more political freedom. Texians met at the Convention of 1832 to discuss requesting independent statehood, among other issues.[54] The following year, Texians reiterated their demands at the Convention of 1833.

Republic

Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845
Proposals of 1850 for Texas northwestern boundary
New Mexico proposed boundary before Compromise of 1850
Within Mexico, tensions continued between federalists and centralists. In early 1835, wary Texians formed Committees of Correspondence and Safety.[55] The unrest erupted into armed conflict in late 1835 at the Battle of Gonzales.[56] .This launched the Texas Revolution, and over the next two months, the Texians successfully defeated all Mexican troops in the region.^ The terms lasted two or three months each year - all pay schools.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Trading in cotton during the war built up two other thriving towns at the mouth of the Rio Grande: Clarksville, on the Texas side of the Rio Grande and Bagdad, on the Mexican side.
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^ All kinds of supplies were hauled from Port Lavaca and Indianola, two of Texas best seaports at that time.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[57] Texians elected delegates to the Consultation, which created a provisional government.[58] The provisional government soon collapsed from infighting, and Texas was without clear governance for the first two months of 1836.[59][60]
.During this time of political turmoil, Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna personally led an army to end the revolt.^ Santa Anna in battle with 3,000 Mexican soldiers.
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[61] The Mexican expedition was initially successful. .General Jose de Urrea defeated all the Texian resistance along the coast culminating in the Goliad Massacre.^ However, we Texians are all generals, colonels, or majors."
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[62] .Santa Anna's forces, after a thirteen-day siege, overwhelmed Texian defenders at the Battle of the Alamo.^ Santa Annas report, sent off at eight in the morning of March 6, 1836, of the capture of the Alamo three hours before.
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^ Santa Anna in battle with 3,000 Mexican soldiers.
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^ Agreement between Santa Anna and the Texian Government , Brazoria [1836].
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News of the defeats sparked panic amongst Texas settlers.[63] .The newly-elected Texian delegates to the Convention of 1836 quickly signed a Declaration of Independence on March 2, forming the Republic of Texas.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ [Harrisburg] TELEGRAPH AND TEXAS REGISTER The Telegraph was published at San Felipe from October 10, 1835, through March 24, 1836 (Vol.
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After electing interim officers, the Convention disbanded.[64] .The new government joined the other settlers in Texas in the Runaway Scrape, fleeing from the approaching Mexican army.^ The other appendices have been retained in their positions following Texas Imprints , Mexican Imprints , and U.S. and European Imprints .
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^ Sam decided he would approach them and try to prevail on them to come out and join the army.
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^ Since then new entries have been added to Mexican Imprints and others removed so that while there were formerly 333 numbered entries and 3 sub-entries, there are now 356 numbered entries and 21 sub-entries.
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[63] .After several weeks of retreat, the Texian Army commanded by Sam Houston attacked and defeated Santa Anna's forces at the Battle of San Jacinto.^ For the Battle of San Jacinto, Houstons report is a must.
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^ This may have been a printing of Houstons proclamation of November 25, 1837, calling for elections in San Augustine County ( Writings of Sam Houston , Vol.
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^ One of the most noted battles of all time took place - the Battle of San Jacinto.
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[65] .Santa Anna was captured and forced to sign the Treaties of Velasco, ending the war.^ Santa Anna himself was captured.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Santa Annas report, sent off at eight in the morning of March 6, 1836, of the capture of the Alamo three hours before.
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^ May 19, 1836, of the interim president of Mexico, José Justo Corro, announcing the capture of Santa Anna.
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[66]
.While Texas had won their independence, political battles raged between two factions of the new Republic.^ This was the last invasion of Texas by Mexico, and indeed the end of actual hostilities between the two countries.
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^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This gives the essential and little known facts of the last two years of the Texas Navy and of the bitter controversy between President Houston and Moore.
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.The nationalist faction, led by Mirabeau B. Lamar, advocated the continued independence of Texas, the expulsion of the Native Americans, and the expansion of the Republic to the Pacific Ocean.^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
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^ He had a dream of extending the Republic west to the Pacific Ocean.
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.Their opponents, led by Sam Houston, advocated the annexation of Texas to the United States and peaceful co-existence with Native Americans.^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
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^ The young couple left their native state immediately and spent their honeymoon in transit to Texas.
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^ Sam was very happy now in the thought of returning to his home and being once more united with his family in peace and happiness.
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.The conflict between the factions was typified by an incident known as the Texas Archive War.^ When they reached the Red River, the border between Arkansas and Texas, they found not only the war with Mexico at its height, but also savage Indians were on a rampage in Texas.
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[67]
.Mexico launched two small expeditions into Texas in 1842. The town of San Antonio was captured twice and Texans were defeated in battle in the Dawson Massacre.^ This was the last invasion of Texas by Mexico, and indeed the end of actual hostilities between the two countries.
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^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe , Zacatecas, 1828 (No.
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Despite these successes, Mexico did not keep an occupying force in Texas, and the republic survived.[68] .The republic's inability to defend itself added momentum to Texas's eventual annexation into the United States.^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
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^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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Statehood

As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States.[69] .Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, slowed Texas's admission into the Union.^ It has seemed to me a worth-while task to attempt a bibliography of the significant fifty years preceding the entry of this great State into the Union.
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^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
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^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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Texas was finally annexed when the expansionist James K. Polk won the election of 1844. .On December 29, 1845, Congress admitted Texas to the U.S. as a constituent state of the Union.^ The prospectus, dated October 16, 1845, announcing the purchase of the press of the Harrison Times , was reprinted in the Texas National Register (Washington) of December 6, 1845.
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^ A manuscript printing bill in the Texas State Archives, dated Patriot Office, Huntsville, December 23, 1845, is in the name of Wade & Robinson.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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[70]
.When Texas was annexed, Mexico broke diplomatic relations with the United States.^ In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole.
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^ Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it.
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^ By the same token, laws on elections of the four Internal Provinces of the East, of which Texas was one, are included; while election laws of the Central Government relating to Mexico as a whole have been excluded, though Texas may be one of the states mentioned.
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.While the United States claimed that Texas's border stretched to the Rio Grande, Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River.^ United States - Texas (far west) .
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - New Mexico .
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - Texas .
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the former Republic of Texas could not enforce its border claims, the United States had the military strength and the political will to do so.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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.President Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor south to the Rio Grande on January 13, 1846. A few months later Mexican troops routed an American cavalry patrol in the disputed area in the Thornton Affair starting the Mexican-American War.^ The war was over in a few months.
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^ Now in the Civil War, these great generals were divided; some for the North and some for the South.
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^ Sam made the discovery during the Civil War that the lower Rio Grande Valley was as rich as the valley of the Nile.
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The first battles were fought in Texas: the Siege of Fort Texas, Battle of Palo Alto and Battle of Resaca de la Palma. .After these decisive victories, the United States invaded Mexican territory ending the fighting in Texas.^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
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^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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[71]
.After a series of United States victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two year war.^ Zachary Taylor's famous army in the War of 1846-48 between the United States and Mexico.
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^ He died in 1863, two years before the war closed.
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^ War had been declared by the United States against Mexico.
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.In return, for US $18,250,000, Mexico gave the U.S. undisputed control of Texas, ceded the Mexican Cession in 1848, most of which today is called the American Southwest, and Texas's borders were established at the Rio Grande.^ Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it.
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^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ This is the contemporary account, written by the founder, of the establishment of the first Anglo-American settlement of Texas and the first book or pamphlet of over a dozen pages printed in Texas.
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[71]
.The Compromise of 1850 set Texas's boundaries at their present form.^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
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^ It is intended to present to the reader, in a condensed form, not only the improvements in the science, but a faithful portrait of the prevailing endemicks of Texas, their treatment and medical topography.
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Texas ceded its claims to land which later became half of present day New Mexico, a third of Colorado, and small portions of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Wyoming to the federal government, in return for the assumption of $10 million of the old republic's debt.[72] .Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the state.^ It was not long however until immigrants from other states began to come to Texas and acquire free land.
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^ Trading in cotton during the war built up two other thriving towns at the mouth of the Rio Grande: Clarksville, on the Texas side of the Rio Grande and Bagdad, on the Mexican side.
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^ After the war, he returned to his native state, married and came to Texas in the early 1870s.
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[73]

Civil War and Reconstruction

Civil war monument in Galveston, Texas
Texas was at war again after the election of 1860. Abraham Lincoln's election triggered South Carolina's declaration of secession from the Union. A State Convention considering secession opened in Austin on January 28, 1861. On February 1, by a vote of 166–8, the Convention adopted an Ordinance of Secession from the United States. .Texas voters approved this Ordinance on February 23, 1861. Texas joined the Confederate States of America, ratifying the permanent C.S. Constitution on March 23, 1861.[2][74] Not all Texans favored secession initially, although many of the same would later support the Southern cause.^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
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^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ A manuscript printing bill in the Texas State Archives, dated Patriot Office, Huntsville, December 23, 1845, is in the name of Wade & Robinson.
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.Texas's most notable unionist was the state Governor, Sam Houston.^ Houston was governor of Texas at that time.
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^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
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^ While in this state of mind Sam wanted to hide out from the world as did General Sam Houston when his beautiful young bride of three months deserted him while he was Governor of Tennessee.
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.Not wanting to aggravate the situation further, Houston refused two offers from President Lincoln for Union troops to keep him in office.^ Houston served as its first president for two years and as its third president for three years.
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After refusing to swear an oath of allegiance to the Confederacy, Houston was deposed as governor.[75]
.While far from the major battlefields of the American Civil War, Texas contributed large numbers of men and equipment to the rest of the Confederacy.^ He saw service from the prison walls of Columbus, Ohio for five months to the last battle of the Civil War at Brownsville, Texas in 1865.
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^ One day these two men were engaged in casual conversation about the Civil War.
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^ The Civil War closed in 1865 but Texas was held under military rule until 1878.
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[76] .Though few battles were fought in Texas, Union troops briefly occupied the state's primary port, Galveston.^ It soon became apparent that several of the southern states would secede from the Union; then the question arose, What will Texas do about it?
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Texas's border with Mexico was known as the "backdoor of the Confederacy" because trade occurred at the border, bypassing the Union blockade.[77] .The Confederacy repulsed all Union attempts to shut down this route,[76] but Texas's role as a supply state was marginalized in mid-1863 after the Union capture of the Mississippi River.^ An educated man named Professor C. H. Davis had wandered down to this part of Texas from New York state.
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^ Federal soldiers were coming up the Mississippi river in gun boats, headed for this post, with the intention of capturing it.
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^ Just as they reached mid-stream of the great Mississippi River this steer in his excitement leaped over the ballaster into the river.
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.The final battle of the Civil War was fought near Brownsville Texas at Palmito Ranch[78] with a confederate victory.^ Father served a hectic four years in the Confederate army of the Civil War.
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^ For the next few months he interested himself by reviewing his activities around Brownsville during the last year of the Civil War, including the last battle fought near Brownsville, which occurred in May 1865 thirty days after peace had been declared.
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^ He saw service from the prison walls of Columbus, Ohio for five months to the last battle of the Civil War at Brownsville, Texas in 1865.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

.Texas descended into near anarchy for two months between the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia and the assumption of authority by Union General Gordon Granger.^ However, in 1872 the necessary procedure was had to let Texas back into the Union and permit the Southerners to vote.
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^ A battle ensued between the two armies which lasted for several days.
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Violence marked the early months of Reconstruction.[79] Juneteenth commemorates the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation in Galveston by General Gordon Granger, over two and a half years after the original announcement.[80][81] President Johnson, in 1866, declared the civilian government restored in Texas.[82] .Despite not meeting reconstruction requirements, Congress readmitted Texas into the Union in 1870. Social volatility continued as the state struggled with agricultural depression and labor issues.^ However, in 1872 the necessary procedure was had to let Texas back into the Union and permit the Southerners to vote.
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^ It soon became apparent that several of the southern states would secede from the Union; then the question arose, What will Texas do about it?
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^ In the early 1870s the legislature of Texas enacted a law requiring all public domain of the state to be surveyed and laid out in sections (640 acres).
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[83]

Modern era

Spindletop
On January 10, 1901, the first major oil well in Texas, Spindletop, was found south of Beaumont. Other fields were later discovered nearby in East Texas, West Texas, and under the Gulf of Mexico. The resulting "Oil Boom" transformed Texas.[84] Oil production eventually averaged three million barrels per day at its peak in 1972.[85]
.The Great Depression and the Dust Bowl dealt a double blow to the state's economy, which had significantly improved since the Civil War.^ Now in the Civil War, these great generals were divided; some for the North and some for the South.
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^ With this extra money and the money we received from a good cotton crop the same year, Sam felt he was a little ahead financially for the first time since the Civil War.
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^ The march of civilization has wrought great changes in and around Austin during the 109 years that have lapsed since this caravan of wanderers passed that way.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Migrants abandoned the worst hit sections of Texas during the Dust Bowl years. .Especially from this period on, blacks left Texas in the Great Migration to get work in the Northern United States or California and to escape the oppression of segregation.^ The young couple left their native state immediately and spent their honeymoon in transit to Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The greatest legacy that can be left a people is the legacy of noble ancestry: The nobility and patriotism of the early settlers of Texas has contributed more to the State's greatness and glory than all else combined.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Texas became one of the United States in 1845, Sam Houston was elected its first U. S. senator and later served Texas as Governor.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[86]
On November 22, 1963, in Dallas, Texas, Lee Harvey Oswald assassinated president John F. Kennedy.[87] Texas Governor John B. Connally was also critically injured in the incident but survived.[88] On Air Force One at Dallas's Love Field Airport, Kennedy's vice president, the Texan Lyndon Baines Johnson, was sworn in as the 36th president.[89]
Texas modernized and expanded its system of higher education through the 1960s. .Under the leadership of Governor Connally, the state created a comprehensive plan for higher education, a different distribution of resources, and a central state apparatus designed to manage state institutions more efficiently.^ Together they lived in Texas under the administration of every President of The Republic of Texas and every Governor of the State.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

These changes helped Texas universities receive federal research funds.[90]

Geography

.Texas is the second largest U.S. state, behind Alaska, with an area of 268,820 square miles (696,200 km2).^ That embraced all west Texas - more than half the area of the state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In a few days they reached Austin, the capitol of Texas, situated on the north bank of the Colorado River, the second largest river in Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Father was living in Texas three years before the telegraph was invented and before a mile of railroad was built in the state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

It is 10% larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, though it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were a country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile and Zambia.
.Texas is in the south-central part of the United States of America.^ An educated man named Professor C. H. Davis had wandered down to this part of Texas from New York state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This lone star state was created as the result of the dedication of some of the most courageous people ever to settle in the United States of America.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Three of its borders are defined by rivers. The Rio Grande river forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south. .The Red River forms a natural border with Oklahoma and Arkansas to the north.^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Worth and Kansas City on the direct route were many large rivers, such as the Red River, the Arkansas, the Canadian and many smaller ones.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He and his traveling associates deemed it unsafe for the lives of their families to cross the Red River under these prevailing conditions, so they remained in Arkansas for three years.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east. .The Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western border with New Mexico at 103° W.^ When they reached the Red River, the border between Arkansas and Texas, they found not only the war with Mexico at its height, but also savage Indians were on a rampage in Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This edition in Spanish of the invitation to the inhabitants of New Mexico to become citizens of Texas has material not in the English edition, No.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.El Paso lies on the state's western tip at 32° N and the Rio Grande.^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72]
Hill Country
With 10 climatic regions, 14 soil regions, and 11 distinct ecological regions, regional classification becomes problematic with differences in soils, topography, geology, rainfall, and plant and animal communities.[91] .One classification system divides Texas, in order southeast to west, into the following: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.^ Boats navigated the Rio Grande for 100 miles or more and followed the San Juan River fifty miles into the interior of Mexico to Carmargo.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to acquaint the reader with the perilous conditions that confronted Sam when he was brought into Texas in 1838 - a child of six years of age - I give you the following historical facts.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In order to ride the waves the ship was headed east and went far out into the gulf, off of its course.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Gulf Coastal Plains region wraps around the Gulf of Mexico on the southeast section of the state.^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vegetation in this region consists of thick pineywoods. The Interior Lowlands region consists of gently rolling to hilly forested land is part of a larger pine-hardwood forest. .The Great Plains region in central Texas is located in spans through the state's panhandle to the state's hill country near Austin.^ Gradually families from the north and east moved into this country, and in 1854 James Clements moved from Cass County, in east Texas, to Perry Hills now Moody, Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The greatest legacy that can be left a people is the legacy of noble ancestry: The nobility and patriotism of the early settlers of Texas has contributed more to the State's greatness and glory than all else combined.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus time passed away and soon forgotten was one of Texas earliest settlers who was a leader in paving the way for civilization in this great state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

This region is dominated by prairie and steppe. In the state's extreme west, is the state's Basin and Range Province. The most complex of the regions, this area includes Sand Hills, the Stockton Plateau, desert valleys, wooded mountain slopes and desert grasslands.
Texas has 3,700 named streams and 15 major rivers.[92][93] .The largest of these rivers is Rio Grande.^ He went on a steamboat from Brownsville up the Rio Grande River to the mouth of the San Juan, near Rio Grand City; thence up the San Juan River to Carmargo.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This little bunch of Confederates rode to Rio Grande City, a small town on the bank of the Rio Grande River, about one hundred miles west of Brownsville.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Boats navigated the Rio Grande for 100 miles or more and followed the San Juan River fifty miles into the interior of Mexico to Carmargo.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

While Texas does not have any large natural lakes, Texans have built over 100 artificial reservoirs[94].
Texas's size and unique history makes its regional affiliation debatable. Depending on the source, it can be fairly considered either or both a Southern or Southwestern state. The vast geographic, economic, and cultural diversity within the state itself prohibits easy categorization of the whole state into a recognized region of the United States. .The East, Central, and North Texas regions have a stronger association with the American South than with the Southwest.^ He and his cowboys headed to the north in the direction of Kansas City to blaze a new route to the markets of the east for Texas cattle.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Gradually families from the north and east moved into this country, and in 1854 James Clements moved from Cass County, in east Texas, to Perry Hills now Moody, Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

.Others, such as far West Texas and South Texas share more similarities with the latter.^ That embraced all west Texas - more than half the area of the state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Geology

Shaded Relief Map of the Llano Estacado
Texas is the southernmost part of the Great Plains, which ends in the south against the folded Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. The continental crust forms a stable Mesoproterozoic craton which changes across a broad continental margin and transitional crust into true oceanic crust of the Gulf of Mexico. .The oldest rocks in Texas date from the Mesoproterozoic and are about 1,600 million years old.^ He was nine years old and living in Texas when the telegraph was invented.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Early reports indicate the man suspected of opening fire on the steps of the Texas Capitol is a 24-year-old from Houston.
  • Austin News - Topix 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.topix.com [Source type: General]
  • Austin News - Topix 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.topix.net [Source type: General]

^ James Bevill is a very interesting speaker and has many interesting historical anecdotes about the early history of Texas that he has discovered over his years of research.
  • Texas Heritage Society - Home Page 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC texasheritagesociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These Precambrian igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the state, and are exposed in three places: Llano uplift, Van Horn, and the Franklin Mountains, near El Paso.^ These three newspapers constituted Sams reading matter and through them, he kept well posted on local, state and national affairs.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Sedimentary rocks overlay most of these ancient rocks. The oldest sediments were deposited on the flanks of a rifted continental margin, or passive margin that developed during Cambrian time. This margin existed until Laurasia and Gondwana collided in the Pennsylvanian era to form Pangea. This is the buried crest of the Appalachian MountainsOuachita Mountains zone of Pennsylvanian continental collision. This orogenic crest is today buried beneath the Dallas–Waco—Austin–San Antonio trend.
The late Paleozoic mountains collapsed as rifting in the Jurassic era began to open the Gulf of Mexico. Pangea began to break up in the Triassic, but seafloor spreading to form the Gulf of Mexico occurred only in the mid and late Jurassic. .The shoreline shifted again to the eastern margin of the state and the Gulf of Mexico passive margin began to form.^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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Today 9 miles (14 km) to 12 miles (19 km) of sediments are buried beneath the Texas continental shelf and a large proportion of remaining US oil reserves are located here. At the start of its formation, the incipient Gulf of Mexico basin was restricted and seawater often evaporated completely to form thick evaporite deposits of Jurassic age. These salt deposits formed salt dome diapirs, and are found in East Texas along the Gulf coast.[95]
East Texas outcrops consist of Cretaceous and Paleogene sediments which contain important deposits of Eocene lignite. .The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian sediments in the north; Permian sediments in the west; and Cretaceous sediments in the east, along the Gulf coast and out on the Texas continental shelf contain oil.^ In order to ride the waves the ship was headed east and went far out into the gulf, off of its course.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Oligocene volcanic rocks are found in far west Texas in the Big Bend area. A blanket of Miocene sediments known as the Ogallala formation in the western high plains region is an important aquifer.[96] .Located far from an active plate tectonic boundary, Texas has no volcanoes and few earthquakes.^ There were no public schools in Texas at that time and but few private schools.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[97]

Climate

The Average Annual Precipitation in Texas
The Average Annual Temperature in Texas
The large size of Texas and its location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives the state very variable weather. .The Panhandle of the state has colder winters than North Texas, while the Gulf Coast has mild winters.^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ History of the North Mexican States and Texas , San Francisco, 1886-1889.
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^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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Texas has wide variations in precipitation patterns. .El Paso, on the western end of the state, averages as little as 8 inches (200 mm) of annual rainfall while Houston, on the southeast Texas averages as much as 54 inches (1,400 mm) per year.^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ When Texas became one of the United States in 1845, Sam Houston was elected its first U. S. senator and later served Texas as Governor.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ After much trouble crossing Little River and climbing the steep banks on the south side, the caravan headed south in the direction of Austin, the capitol of the Republic of Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[98] Dallas in the North Central region averages a more moderate 37 inches (940 mm) per year.
.Generally, snow falls multiple times each winter in the Panhandle and mountainous areas of West Texas, once or twice a year in North Texas, and once every few years in Central and East Texas.^ It has been told and written many times that Chisholm blazed the first trail from Texas to the north with cattle, but that is a mistake.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Once every year as long as he lived he would return to the Sugar Loaf cemetery and place flowers on the graves of his father and mother.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ He and his cowboys headed to the north in the direction of Kansas City to blaze a new route to the markets of the east for Texas cattle.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Snow rarely falls south of San Antonio or on the coast except in rare circumstances. Of note is the 2004 Christmas Eve Snowstorm was the first recorded White Christmas in Houston where 6 inches of snow fell as far south as Kingsville, where the average high temperature in December is 65° F.[99]
.Maximum temperatures in the summer months average from the 80s °F (26 °C) in the mountains of West Texas and on Galveston Island to around 100 °F (38 °C) in the Rio Grande Valley, but most areas of Texas see consistent summer high temperatures in the 90 °F (32 °C) range.^ Sam made the discovery during the Civil War that the lower Rio Grande Valley was as rich as the valley of the Nile.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ This little bunch of Confederates rode to Rio Grande City, a small town on the bank of the Rio Grande River, about one hundred miles west of Brownsville.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Boats navigated the Rio Grande for 100 miles or more and followed the San Juan River fifty miles into the interior of Mexico to Carmargo.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Night time summer temperatures range from the upper 50s °F (14 °C) in the West Texas mountains[100] to 80 °F (27 °C) in Galveston.[101]
Thunderstorms strike Texas often, especially the eastern and northern portions of the state. Tornado Alley covers the northern section of Texas. .The state experiences the most tornadoes in the United States, an average of 139 a year.^ This lone star state was created as the result of the dedication of some of the most courageous people ever to settle in the United States of America.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.
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^ After a short stay in the United States he set up his base of operations on Galveston Island in November of that year.
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These strike most frequently in North Texas and the Panhandle.[102] .Tornadoes in Texas generally occur in the months of April, May, and June.^ Boletin Oficial del Estado de Coahuila y Texas , Monclova, April-May, 1835.
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^ May 27, 1833, issue, giving a general description of Texas; various statements in No.
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^ Cruger & Bonnells bill of May 20, 1840, for printing done for the Adjutant and Inspector General of the Republic of Texas.
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[103]
.Some of the most destructive hurricanes in U.S. history have impacted Texas.^ It has been pronounced the best county history of any in Texas: the most accurate and the most detailed of any.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The most helpful of the earlier studies on printing in Texas have been Dr. Barkers "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836," 1 and the unpublished manuscript of Ben C. Stuarts History of Texas Newspapers .
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^ History of Texas Newspapers from the Earliest Period to the Present, IncludingBrief Sketches of Some of the Pioneer Editors , Beaumont, Texas, 1917; manuscript at the Rosenberg Library, typescript at the University of Texas Library.
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A hurricane in 1875 killed approximately 400 people in Indianola, followed by another hurricane in 1886 that destroyed the town. .At the time Indianola was the most important port city in the state[citation needed] and these events allowed Galveston to take over as the chief port city.^ Carmargo at that time was a prosperous city, built up by trade with the Confederate states.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All kinds of supplies were hauled from Port Lavaca and Indianola, two of Texas best seaports at that time.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

The Galveston hurricane of 1900 subsequently devastated that city killing approximately 8,000 people (possibly as many as 12,000), making it the deadliest natural disaster in U.S. history. .Other devastating Texas hurricanes include the 1915 Galveston Hurricane, Hurricane Audrey in 1957 which killed over 600 people, Hurricane Carla in 1961, Hurricane Beulah in 1967, Hurricane Alicia in 1983, Hurricane Rita in 2005, and Hurricane Ike in 2008.[104] Tropical storms have also caused their share of damage: Allison in 1989 and again during 2001, and Claudette in 1979 among them.^ Trading in cotton during the war built up two other thriving towns at the mouth of the Rio Grande: Clarksville, on the Texas side of the Rio Grande and Bagdad, on the Mexican side.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Texas emits the most greenhouse gases in the U.S.[105][106][107] The state emits nearly 1.5 trillion pounds (680 billion kg) of carbon dioxide annually. .As an independent nation, Texas would rank as the world's seventh-largest producer of greenhouse gases.^ Under his leadership, Texas won her independence and a new nation came into existence - The Republic of Texas.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

[106] Causes of the state's vast greenhouse gas emissions include the state's large number of coal power plants and the state's refining and manufacturing industries.[106]

Demographics

Texas Population Density Map
As of 2009, the state has an estimated population of 24,782,302, an increase of 1.97% from the prior year and 16.1% since the year 2000.[108] The state's rate of natural increase (births and deaths) since the last census was 1,389,275 people, immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 801,576 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 451,910 people.[2] As of 2004, the state had 3.5 million foreign-born residents (15.6 percent of the state population), of which an estimated 1.2 million are illegal immigrants. Texas from 2000–2006 had the fastest growing illegal immigration rate in the nation.[109]
Texas's population density is 34.8 persons/km2 which is slightly higher than the average population density of the US as a whole, at 31 persons/km2. In contrast, while Texas and France are similarly sized geographically, the European country has a population density of 110 persons/km2.
Two-thirds of all Texans live in a major metropolitan area such as Houston. .The Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area is the largest in Texas.^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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^ TxFw: Carnegie Public Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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While Houston is the largest city in Texas and the fourth largest city in the United States, the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area is considerably larger than that of Houston.

Racial group and ethnic origins

As of the 2006 US Census estimates, the racial distributions in Texas were as follows:
Grouped by ethnicity, the population was:
German descendants inhabit much of central and southeast-central Texas. Over one-third of Texas residents are of Hispanic origin;[5] while many have recently arrived, some Tejanos have ancestors with multi-generational ties to 18th century Texas. In addition to the descendants of the state's former slave population, many African American college graduates have come to the state for work recently in the New Great Migration.[110] .Recently, the Asian population in Texas has grown—primarily in Houston and Dallas.^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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Other communities with a significantly growing Asian American population is in Austin, Corpus Christi, and the Sharyland area next McAllen, Texas. Currently, three federally recognized Native American tribes reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo.[16]

Religion

Religion[111]
Roman Catholic 28%
Baptist 21%
No religion 11%
Methodist 8%
Christian - Others 7%
Lutheran 3%
Pentecostal 3%
Presbyterian 2%
Non-denominational 2%
Mormon 2%
Episcopalian 1%
Islam 1%
Jehovah's Witnesses 1%
Assemblies of God 1%
Church of God 1%
Other 2%
Lakewood Church interior
.Texas has the highest percentage of people with a religious affiliation in the United States.^ United States - Texas (far west) .
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - Texas .
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed] The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2000 were the Roman Catholic Church with 4,368,969; the Southern Baptist Convention with 3,519,459; and the United Methodist Church with 1,022,342.[112]
Known as the "buckle" of the Bible Belt, East Texas is socially conservative.[113] .Dallas-Fort Worth, home to three major evangelical seminaries and a host of monasteries as well as the landmark University of Dallas, a Catholic school of theology and seminary.^ There are copies at the Huntington Library, Harvard Law School (with some defects), Dallas Historical Society, University of Texas Law School, and in my collection.
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^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
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^ TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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.Lakewood Church in Houston, although not considered a "church" in the traditional sense of the word, boasts the largest attendance in the nation averaging more than 43,000 weekly.^ NOTE: Runs marked with a dagger are more specifically reported here than in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 , Houston, 1841.
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[114] Lubbock, according to local lore, has the most churches per capita in the nation.[113]
Adherents of many non-Christian religions reside predominantly in the urban centers of Texas. .Approximately 400,000 Muslims live in Texas [115] while the Jewish population stands at approximately 128,000.[116] Approximately 146,000 adherents of non Abrahamic religions such as Hinduism and Sikhism live in Texas.^ By 1834 its population, as reported by Almonte, had increased to 24,700 including slaves; its trade for the year was estimated at $1,400,000, practically all of it from the Anglo-American settlements; and by that time Texas was in many respects an American State.
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[117]

Cities and towns

.The state has the most cities with populations exceeding a million: Houston, San Antonio, and Dallas.^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
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^ Though with less Texas material their opportunities to help have not been as extensive, my thanks are also due to the librarians and staffs of five other important Texas libraries, the Texas State Library, the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston and San Antonio Public Libraries, and the San Jacinto Museum.
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^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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[118] .These three rank among the 10 most populous cities of the United States.^ The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.
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As of 2000, six Texas cities had populations greater than 500,000 people. .Austin, Fort Worth, and El Paso are among the 25 largest U.S. cities.^ From an item in the Austin City Gazette of December 25, 1839, it appears that by that time Wallach had taken over the paper.
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.Texas has four metropolitan areas with populations greater than a million: Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown, San Antonio–New Braunfels, and Austin–Round Rock–San Marcos.^ Accordingly, except for documents of the Fifteenth and later Congresses, it has been intended to locate copies of items given main or sub-entry in the bibliography that are present in the following nine Texas libraries: University of Texas, Texas State Library, Baylor University, Rosenberg Library (Galveston), Houston Public, San Antonio Public, Southern Methodist University, Fort Worth Public, and Dallas Public; and in the following ten libraries situated outside of Texas: Library of Congress, New York Public, Yale, Harvard, New-York Historical Society, the Henry E. Huntington Library, Boston Public, the Newberry Library at Chicago, the Bancroft Library at the University of California, and the library of the writer.
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^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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The Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas number about 6.3 million and 5.7 million residents, respectively. .Three interstate highways – I-35 to the west (Dallas–Fort Worth to San Antonio, with Austin in between), I-45 to the east (Dallas to Houston), and I-10 to the south (San Antonio to Houston) define the Texas Urban Triangle region.^ Texas Statecraft 1836-45 , San Antonio, 1941.
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^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe , Zacatecas, 1828 (No.
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.The 60,000 square mile region contains most of the state's largest cities and metropolitan areas as well as 17 million people, nearly 75 percent of Texas's total population.^ The region which had perhaps 4,000 people of European descent during the opening years of this bibliography, and around 125,000 at its close, now has more than seven and a half million people who call it their home, and it is known as one of the richest and most prosperous of our states.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.
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[119] .Dallas and Houston have been recognized as beta world cities.^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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[120]
In contrast to the cities, unincorporated rural settlements known as colonias often lack basic infrastructure and are marked by poverty.[121] .As of 2007, Texas had at least 2,294 colonias, located primarily along the state's 1,248-mile (2,008 km) border with Mexico.^ The only copy located is at the Texas State Library.
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^ There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Houston, 1839, No.
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^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
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[121] Texas has the largest concentration of people, approximately 400,000, living in colonias.

Government and politics

.The current Texas Constitution was adopted in 1876. Like many states, it explicitly provides for a separation of powers.^ It states with force and eloquence why Texas should be separated from Coahuila and have its own state government.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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.The state's Bill of Rights is much larger than its federal counterpart, and has provisions unique to Texas.^ A manuscript printing bill in the Texas State Archives, dated Patriot Office, Huntsville, December 23, 1845, is in the name of Wade & Robinson.
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^ This, and not, as McMurtrie stated in his Pioneer Printing in Texas , the Report of the Committee to Whom Was Referred So Much of the Presidents Message as relates to the Land Bill , No.
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^ It was also on the press of Miner & Cruger that the Report of the Committee on the Bill of Rights and General Provisions of the Constitution (No.
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[122]

State government

Texas has a plural executive branch system limiting the power of the Governor. Except for the Secretary of State, voters elect executive officers independently making candidates directly answerable to the public, not the Governor.[123] This election system has led to some executive branches split between parties. When Republican President George W. Bush served as Texas's governor, the state had a Democratic Lieutenant Governor, Bob Bullock. .The executive branch positions consist of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Comptroller of Public Accounts, Land Commissioner, Attorney General, Agriculture Commissioner, the three-member Texas Railroad Commission, the State Board of Education, and the Secretary of State.^ A manuscript certificate in the Texas State Archives (Comptrollers Military Service Records) shows that Sidney Smith Callender "became a member of the New Orleans Volunteer Grays on the 22d October 1835.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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^ He had come to Texas as early as 1825 and had been a member of the Convention of 1833 and a secretary for a short time of the Consultation of 1835.
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[123]
.The bicameral Texas Legislature consists of the House of Representatives, with 150 members, and a Senate, with 31 members.^ It will contain a complete transcript of the Journals of the Senate and House of Representatives."
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^ It will perhaps be noticed that I do not include in the foregoing lists the various editions of the House and Senate Journals of the congresses of the Republic of Texas or the numerous reports of congressional committees.
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The Speaker of the House leads the House, and the Lieutenant Governor, the Senate.[124] The Legislature meets in regular session biennially, but the Governor can call for special sessions as often as desired.[125] The state's fiscal year spans from the previous calendar year's September 1 to the current year's August 31. Thus, the FY 2008 dates from September 1, 2007 through August 31, 2008.
.The judicial system of Texas is one of the most complex in the United States, with many layers and overlapping jurisdictions.^ United States - Texas (far west) .
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^ United States - Texas .
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Texas has two courts of last resort: the Texas Supreme Court, for civil cases, and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. Except for some municipal benches, partisan elections select judges at all levels of the judiciary; the Governor fills vacancies by appointment.[126] .Texas leads the nation in executions – 442 as of October 2009 (see Capital punishment in Texas).^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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^ The prospectus, dated October 16, 1845, announcing the purchase of the press of the Harrison Times , was reprinted in the Texas National Register (Washington) of December 6, 1845.
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^ Ewell in telling the story says that there was then no bindery in Texas, but in the National Banner for October 5, 1838 (Vol.
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.The Texas Ranger Division of the Texas Department of Public Safety is a law enforcement agency with statewide jurisdiction.^ This is the first publication in full of the fundamental law which governed Texas until the Texas Revolution.
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^ Only two copies (at New York Public and in my collection) of this first issue of the first publication of the Laws of Texas are located.
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Over the years, the Texas Rangers have investigated crimes ranging from murder to political corruption. .They have acted as riot police and as detectives, protected the Texas governor, tracked down fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force both for the republic and the state.^ It states with force and eloquence why Texas should be separated from Coahuila and have its own state government.
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^ In recording the help given me in Texas, I would be remiss if I did not speak of the Handbook of Texas , Austin, 1952, and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly , both publications of the Texas State Historical Association.
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^ That the Journal was both rare and incomplete in 1841, or only five years after the Convention, is shown by a letter, now in the Franklin Papers at the University of Texas, which Acting Secretary of State Roberts wrote on June 29, 1841, to Benjamin C. Franklin.
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.The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by Stephen F. Austin in 1823 and formally constituted in 1835. The Rangers were part of several important events of Texas history and some of the best-known criminal cases in the history of the Old West.^ The History of the German Settlements in Texas 1831-1861 , Austin, 1930.
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^ A letter from Brown Austin to his brother Stephen, dated at Bexar, May 4, 1823 ( Austin Papers , Vol.
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^ After all, the story of the newspapers of a region for a given period is an important part of the history of printing in the region for that period.
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[127]

Politics

Lyndon B. Johnson, Texan and 36th president of the United States
.As in other "Solid South" states, whites resented the Republican Party after the American Civil War, and the Democratic Party dominated Texas politics from the end of Reconstruction until the late 20th century.^ Other items directly relating to Texas and published while Texas was still a Mexican state include the Breve Apologia of Gutiérrez de Lara, Monterrey, 1827 (No.
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^ Texas State Library; the other was the Exposition of the Part Taken by T.J. Chambers, in the difficulties of Texas in the summer of the past year , Brazoria, 1833, No.
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^ The sketch of Whiting in the Handbook of Texas records that he remained in Austin until about December, 1842, left for a trip East in 1843, "was back in Texas in 1849, enroute to California, and died somewhere in the state of New York in 1862."
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When President Lyndon Johnson signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964, he reportedly said "We have lost the South for a generation".[128]
The Texas political atmosphere leans towards fiscal and social conservatism.[129][130] Since 1980, most Texas voters have supported Republican presidential candidates. .In 2000 and 2004, Republican George W. Bush won Texas with 60.1% of the vote, partly due to his "favorite son" status as a former Governor of the state.^ As stated in the Handbook of Texas , the Musquito was edited by George H. French and printed by his brother-in-law, Samuel Bangs.
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John McCain won the state in 2008, but with a smaller margin of victory compared to Bush at 55% of the vote. Austin consistently leans Democratic in both local and statewide elections. .Houston, San Antonio and Dallas remain approximately split.^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
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^ The remaining twelve entries are for items printed at Austin, Clarksville, Galveston, Houston, and San Augustine.
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.Counties along the Rio Grande generally vote for Democrats, while most rural and suburban areas of Texas vote Republican.^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
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^ A choice between the two is difficult, but probably Das Cajütenbuch would be generally regarded as the most desirable Texas novel to acquire.
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^ Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.
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[131][132]
.The 2003 Texas redistricting of Congressional districts led by the Republican Tom Delay, was called by the New York Times "an extreme case of partisan gerrymandering".[133] A group of Democratic legislators, the "Texas Eleven", fled the state in a quorum-busting effort.^ The "new paper" was the Texas Times .
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^ Another landmark in Texas cartography is the Burr map of Texas,* New York, 1833 (No.
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^ Still another picture of life in Texas in 1831 is by the anonymous author of A Visit to Texas ,* New York, 1834 (No.
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[134] Despite these efforts, the legislature passed a map heavily in favor of Republicans. Protests of the redistricting reached the national Supreme Court in the case League of United Latin American Citizens v. Perry, but the ruling went in the Republicans' favor.[135]
.As of the general elections of 2008, a large majority of the members of Texas's U.S. House delegation are Republican, along with both U.S. Senators.^ Texas to the Arkansas River, the first large-scale map of Texas alone, as distinguished from a general map including Texas.
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^ It will perhaps be noticed that I do not include in the foregoing lists the various editions of the House and Senate Journals of the congresses of the Republic of Texas or the numerous reports of congressional committees.
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^ Unanimous Declaration of Independence, by the Delegates of the People of Texas, in General Convention, at the Town of Washington, on the Second Day of March, 1836 .
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.In the 111th United States Congress, of the 32 Congressional districts in Texas, 20 are held by Republicans and 12 by Democrats.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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Texas's Senators are Kay Bailey Hutchison and John Cornyn. Since 1994, Texans have not elected a Democrat to a statewide office. The state's Democratic presence comes primarily from some minority groups and urban voters, particularly in El Paso, Austin, San Antonio, Dallas, and Houston.

Administrative divisions

Texas has 254 counties—the most nationwide. Each county runs on Commissioners' Court system consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts in the county, roughly divided according to population) and a county judge elected at large from the entire county. County government runs similar to a "weak" mayor-council system; the county judge has no veto authority, but votes along with the other commissioners.
.Although Texas permits cities and counties to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services, the state does not allow consolidated city-county governments, nor does it have metropolitan governments.^ It states with force and eloquence why Texas should be separated from Coahuila and have its own state government.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ Apparently it was the procedure at this time to allow for the depreciated value of the Texas promissory notes, which the government used in payment of its debts, by multiplying by six the face amount of the liability.
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Counties are not granted home rule status; their powers are strictly defined by state law. The state does not have townships— areas within a county are either incorporated or unincorporated. Incorporated areas are part of a municipality. The county provides limited services to unincorporated areas. Municipalities are classified either "general law" cities or "home rule".[136] A municipality may elect home rule status once it exceeds 5,000 population with voter approval. Municipal elections are nonpartisan[137] as are elections for school boards and community college districts.

Economy

Texas had a gross state product (GSP) of $1.09 trillion, the second highest in the U.S.[138][139] Its GSP is comparable to the GDP of India or Canada which are ranked 12th and 11th worldwide. Texas's economy is the third largest in the world of country subdivisions behind California and Tokyo Prefecture. Its Per Capita personal income in 2007 was $37,083, ranking 22nd in the nation. Texas's large population, abundance of natural resources, and diverse population and geography have led to a large and diverse economy. Since oil was discovered, the state's economy has reflected the state of the petroleum industry. In recent times, urban centers of the state have increased in size, containing two-thirds of the population in 2005. The state's economic growth has led to excessive urban sprawl and its associated symptoms.[140]
Texas has a "low taxes, low services" reputation.[129] According to the Tax Foundation, Texans' state and local tax burdens rank among the lowest in the nation, 7th lowest nationally; state and local taxes cost $3,580 per capita, or 8.7% of resident incomes.[141] Texas is one of six states that lack a state income tax.[141][142] Instead, the state collects revenue from a state sales tax, which is charged at the rate of 6.25%.[141] Texas is a "tax donor state"; in 2005, for every dollar Texans paid to the federal government in federal income taxes, the state received approximately $0.94 in benefits.[141]
In 2004, Site Selection Magazine ranked Texas as the most business-friendly state in the nation in part because of the state's three-billion-dollar Texas Enterprise Fund.[143] The state holds the most Fortune 500 company headquarters in the United States.[144][145]

Agriculture and mining

Cotton modules after being harvested in West Texas
.Texas has the most farms and the highest acreage in the United States.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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[146] Texas leads the nation livestock production.[146] .Cattle is the state's most valuable agricultural product, and the state leads nationally in production of sheep and goat products.^ The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.
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Texas leads the nation in production of cotton.[146] The state grows significant amounts of cereal crops and produce.[146] Texas has a large commercial fishing industry. With mineral resources, Texas leads in creating cement, crushed stone, lime, salt, sand and gravel.[146]

Energy

An oil well
Ever since the discovery of oil at Spindletop, energy has been a dominant force politically and economically within the state.[147] According to the Energy Information Administration, Texans consume the most energy in the nation per capita and as a whole.[148] Unlike the rest of the nation, most of Texas is on its own alternating current power grid, the Texas Interconnection. Despite the California electricity crisis, Texas still has a deregulated electric service.
The Railroad Commission of Texas, contrary to its name, regulates the state's oil and gas industry, gas utilities, pipeline safety, safety in the liquefied petroleum gas industry, and surface coal and uranium mining. Until the 1970s, the commission controlled the price of petroleum because of its ability to regulate Texas's oil reserves. The founders of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) used the Texas agency as one of their models for petroleum price control.[149]
Brazos Wind Farm in the plains of West Texas
Texas has known petroleum deposits of about 5 billion barrels (790,000,000 m3), which makes up approximately one-fourth of the known U.S. reserves.[148] The state's refineries can process 4.6 million barrels (730,000 m3) of oil a day.[148] The Baytown Refinery in the Houston area is the largest refinery in America.[148] Texas also leads in natural gas production, producing one-fourth of the nation's supply.[148] Several petroleum companies are based in Texas such as: Conoco-Phillips, Exxon-Mobil, Halliburton, Valero, and Marathon Oil.
The state is a leader in renewable energy sources; it produces the most wind power in the nation.[148][150] The Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center in Taylor and Nolan County, Texas, is the world's largest wind farm as of November 2008 with a 735.5 megawatt (MW) capacity.[151] The Energy Information Administration states that the state's large agriculture and forestry industries could give Texas an enormous amount biomass for use in biofuels. The state also has the highest solar power potential for development in the nation.[148]

Technology

Electronic Data Systems headquarters in Plano
.With large universities systems coupled with initiatives like the Texas Enterprise Fund and the Texas Emerging Technology Fund, a wide array of different high tech industries have developed in Texas.^ In an entirely different classification is the first prospectus for a company with capital stock to carry on an industrial business in Texas.
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.The Austin area is nicknamed the "Silicon Hills" and the north Dallas area the "Silicon Prairie". Texas has the headquarters of many high technology companies, such as Dell, Inc., Texas Instruments, Perot Systems, AT&T and Electronic Data Systems (EDS), as well as the former headquarters of Compaq Computer Corp, which exists today as the largest campus of Hewlett-Packard (headquartered in CA).^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (NASA JSC) located in Southeast Houston, sits as the crown jewel of Texas's aeronautics industry. Fort Worth hosts both Lockheed Martin's Aeronautics division and Bell Helicopter Textron.[152][153] Lockheed builds the F-16 Fighting Falcon, the largest Western fighter program, and its successor, the F-35 Lightning II in Fort Worth.[154]

Commerce

Texas's affluence stimulates a strong commercial sector consisting of retail, wholesale, banking and insurance, and construction industries. Examples of Fortune 500 companies not based on Texas traditional industries are: AT&T, Men's Warehouse, Landry's Restaurants, Kimberly-Clark, Blockbuster, Whole Foods Market, and Tenet Healthcare.[155] Nationally, the Dallas–Fort Worth area, home to the second shopping mall in the United States, has the most shopping malls per capita of any American metropolitan area.[156]
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) contributes to Mexico, the state's largest trading partner, importing a third of the state's exports. NAFTA has encouraged the formation of controversial maquiladoras on the Texas/Mexico border.[157]

Transportation

.Texans have historically had difficulties traversing Texas due to the state's large size and rough terrain.^ Texas State Library; the other was the Exposition of the Part Taken by T.J. Chambers, in the difficulties of Texas in the summer of the past year , Brazoria, 1833, No.
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^ The evidence for fixing the date of the first issue of the paper was presented by Mr. E.W. Winkler in a note in the Quarterly , Texas State Historical Association, for January, 1905, Vol.
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^ In recording the help given me in Texas, I would be remiss if I did not speak of the Handbook of Texas , Austin, 1952, and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly , both publications of the Texas State Historical Association.
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Texas has compensated by building both America's largest highway and railway systems in terms of mileage, as well as the largest number of airports.[158] The regulatory authority, the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) maintains the state's immense highway system, regulates aviation,[159] and public transportation systems.[160] Located in centrally in North America, the state is an important transportation hub. From the Dallas/Fort Worth area, trucks can reach 93% of the nation's population within 48 hours, and 37% within 24 hours.[161] Texas has 33 foreign trade zones (FTZ), the most in the nation.[162] In 2004, a combined total of $298 billion of goods passed though Texas FTZs.[162]

Highways

I-10 and I-45 interchange in Houston
Texans have heavily traveled their freeways since the 1948 opening of the Gulf Freeway in Houston.[163] As of 2005, 79,535 miles (127,999 km) of public highway crisscrossed Texas (up from 71,000 miles (114,263 km) in 1984).[164] To fund recent growth in the state highways, Texas has 17 toll roads (see list) with several additional tollways proposed.[165] .In west Texas, both I-10 and I-20 have speed limits of 80 miles per hour (130 km/h), the highest in the nation.^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
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[166] Every mile of federal and state highway in Texas is paved.

Airports

.Texas has the most airports of any state in the nation.^ The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.
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^ The map of Texas I most prize is the Map of Texas with Parts of the Adjoining States Compiled by Stephen F. Austin ,* Philadelphia, 1830 (No.
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[158] Largest of these is Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), the second largest in the United States, and fourth in the world.[167] In traffic, DFW is the busiest in the state, fourth in the United States,[168] and sixth worldwide.[169] AMR Corporation's American / American Eagle, the world's largest airline in total passengers-miles transported[170] and passenger fleet size,[171] uses DFW as its largest and main hub. Southwest Airlines, also headquartered in Dallas, has its operations currently at Dallas Love Field.[172] .It ranks as the largest airline in the United States by number of passengers carried domestically per year and the largest airline in the world by number of passengers carried.^ After a short stay in the United States he set up his base of operations on Galveston Island in November of that year.
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[173]
Texas's second-largest air facility is Houston's George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). It serves as Houston based Continental Airlines's largest hub. IAH offers service to the most Mexican destinations of any U.S. airport.[174][175]

Ports

Over 1,000 seaports dot Texas's coast with over 1,000 miles (1,600 km) of channels.[176] Ports employ nearly one-million people and handle an average of 317 million metric tons.[177] Texas ports connect with the rest of the U.S. Atlantic seaboard with the Gulf section of the Intracoastal Waterway.[176] .The Port of Houston today is the busiest port in the United States in foreign tonnage, second in overall tonnage, and tenth worldwide in tonnage.^ Green, Thomas J. Replyto the Speech of General Sam Houston, in the Senate of the United States, August 1, 1854 , Washington?
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[178] The Houston Ship Channel currently spans 530 feet (160 m) wide by 45 feet (14 m) deep by 50 miles (80 km) long.[179]

Railroads

METRORail in Houston
Part of the state's tradition originates from cattle drives in which wranglers herded livestock to railroads in Kansas. .The first railroad to operate in Texas was the Buffalo Bayou, Brazos and Colorado Railway, opening in August 1853.[180].The first railroad to enter Texas from the north, completed in 1872, was the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad.^ The pamphlet on the first Texas railroad, No.
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^ Out of the 525 or so Texas imprints entered here of which copies are located, I list first the five imprints which I would choose as a book collector if my choice were so limited.
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^ This promotion pamphlet for the first railroad enterprise of Texas has an added interest from the fact that it seems also to be the first separate piece, wherever printed, outlining plans for a railroad to the Pacific.
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[181] Since 1911, Texas has led the nation in railroad length. Texas railway mileage peaked in 1932 at 17,078 miles (27,484 km), but declined to 14,006 miles (22,540 km) by 2000.[158] While the Railroad Commission of Texas originally regulated state railroads, in 2005 the state reassigned these duties to TxDOT.[182]
DART train in Dallas
Both Dallas and Houston feature light rail systems. .Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) built the first light rail system in the Southwest United States.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ Yoakum, Henderson K. History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846 , New York, 1856.
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^ Yoakum, Henderson K. History of Texas from Its First Settlement in 1685 to Its Annexation to the United States in 1846 , New York, 1855.
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[183] .The Trinity Railway Express (TRE) commuter rail service that links Fort Worth and Dallas is provided by the Fort Worth Transportation Authority (the T) and DART.[184] The Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (METRO) operates light rail lines in the Houston area.^ At the beginning of the year 1837, the only press operating in Texas seems to have been that of the Bordens at Columbia, and the important printing event of the year was the removal of that press to Houston in April.
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^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
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^ TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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Amtrak provides Texas limited intercity passenger rail service both in size and frequency. .Just three scheduled routes serve the state: the daily Texas Eagle (Chicago–San Antonio); the tri-weekly Sunset Limited (New Orleans–Los Angeles), with stops in Texas; and the daily Heartland Flyer (Fort Worth–Oklahoma City).^ Accordingly, except for documents of the Fifteenth and later Congresses, it has been intended to locate copies of items given main or sub-entry in the bibliography that are present in the following nine Texas libraries: University of Texas, Texas State Library, Baylor University, Rosenberg Library (Galveston), Houston Public, San Antonio Public, Southern Methodist University, Fort Worth Public, and Dallas Public; and in the following ten libraries situated outside of Texas: Library of Congress, New York Public, Yale, Harvard, New-York Historical Society, the Henry E. Huntington Library, Boston Public, the Newberry Library at Chicago, the Bancroft Library at the University of California, and the library of the writer.
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^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Included are the Houstonian , a tri-weekly and weekly published at Houston, and Harrisons daily and weekly Texian , already mentioned, at Austin.
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Culture

Big Tex has presided over every Texas State Fair since 1952
.Historically, Texas culture comes from a blend of Southwestern (Mexican), Southern (Dixie), and Western (frontier) influences.^ McMurtrie, Douglas C. Pioneer Printing in Texas , Austin, 1932; reprinted with additions from the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for January, 1932, Vol.
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^ "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1917, Vol.
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^ Charles A. Bacarisse had a good article on "The Texas Gazette, 1839-1831," in the Southwestern Historical Quarterly for October, 1952, Vol.
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A popular food item, the breakfast burrito, draws from all three influences, having a soft flour tortilla wrapped around bacon and scrambled eggs or other hot, cooked fillings. Adding to Texas's traditional culture, established in the 18th and 19th centuries, immigration has made Texas a melting pot of cultures from around the world.

Arts

Houston is one of only five American cities with permanent professional resident companies in all of the major performing arts disciplines: the Houston Grand Opera, the Houston Symphony Orchestra, the Houston Ballet, and The Alley Theatre.[185] .Known for the vibrancy of its visual and performing arts, the Houston Theatre District—a 17-block area in the heart of Downtown Houston—ranks second in the country in the number of theater seats in a concentrated downtown area, with 12,948 seats for live performances and 1,480 movie seats.^ The rest of the equipment was advertised for sale on February 17, 1840, and bought by A.H. Osborn and G.W. Lively, who began publication of the Daily Times at Houston on March 4, 1840.
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[185]
.Founded in 1892, Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, also called "The Modern", is Texas's oldest art museum.^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
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^ TxSangM: Fort Concho Museum, San Angelo, Texas.
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^ TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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Fort Worth also has the Kimbell Art Museum, the Amon Carter Museum, the National Cowgirl Museum and Hall of Fame, the Will Rogers Memorial Center, and the Bass Performance Hall downtown. The Arts District of Downtown Dallas has arts venues such as the Dallas Museum of Art, the Morton H. Meyerson Symphony Center, the Margot and Bill Winspear Opera House, the Trammell & Margaret Crow Collection of Asian Art, and the Nasher Sculpture Center.[186]
The Deep Ellum district within Dallas became popular during the 1920s and 1930s as the prime jazz and blues hotspot in the Southern United States. The name Deep Ellum comes from local people pronouncing "Deep Elm" as "Deep Ellum".[187] Artists such as Blind Lemon Jefferson, Robert Johnson, Huddie "Leadbelly" Ledbetter, and Bessie Smith played in early Deep Ellum clubs.[188]
Austin, the The Live Music Capital of the World, boasts "more live music venues per capita than such music hotbeds as Nashville, Memphis, Los Angeles, Las Vegas or New York City."[189] The city's music revolves around the nightclubs on 6th Street; events like the film, music, and multimedia festival South by Southwest; the longest-running concert music program on American television, Austin City Limits; and the Austin City Limits Music Festival held in Zilker Park.[190]
Since 1980, San Antonio has evolved into the "The Tejano Music Capital Of The World."[191] The Tejano Music Awards have provided a forum to create greater awareness and appreciation for Tejano music and culture.[192]

Sports

While American football has long been considered "king" in the state, Texans today enjoy a wide variety of sports.[193]
Texans can cheer for a plethora of professional sports teams. .Within the "Big Four" professional leagues, Texas has two NFL teams (the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans), two Major League Baseball teams (the Texas Rangers and the Houston Astros), three NBA teams (the Houston Rockets, the San Antonio Spurs, and the Dallas Mavericks), and one National Hockey League team (the Dallas Stars).^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Texas, I would suppose that, chronologically speaking, it, rather than Das Cajütenbuch , was one of the first four Texas novels.
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^ There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Houston, 1839, No.
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.The Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex is one of only thirteen American metropolitan areas that hosts sports teams from all the "Big Four" professional leagues.^ Necessary as the items are for a scholar interested in any one of the four enterprises, only one calls for special attention here.
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^ Extras of newspapers have been included since they usually relate to only one subject and were issued as broadsides or as four-page folders.
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.Outside of the "Big Four" leagues, Texas also has one WNBA team (the San Antonio Silver Stars) and two Major League Soccer teams (the Houston Dynamo and FC Dallas).^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe , Zacatecas, 1828 (No.
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^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
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Collegiate athletics have deep significance in Texas culture. The state has ten Division I-FBS schools, the most in the nation. .The four largest programs in the state, the Baylor Bears, Texas Longhorns, Texas A&M Aggies, and Texas Tech Red Raiders, belong to the Big 12 Conference.^ There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Houston, 1839, No.
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According to a survey of Division I-A coaches the rivalry between the University of Oklahoma and the University of Texas, the Red River Shootout, ranks the third best in the nation.[194] A fierce rivalry, the Lone Star Showdown, also exists between the state's two largest universities, Texas A&M University and the University of Texas.
2006 Lone Star Showdown football game at Darrell K. Royal-Texas Memorial Stadium
The University Interscholastic League (UIL) organizes most primary and secondary school competitions. Events organized by UIL include contests in athletics (the most popular being high school football) as well as artistic and academic subjects.[195]
Texans also enjoy the rodeo. The world's first rodeo was hosted in Pecos, Texas.[196] The annual Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo is the largest rodeo in the world. It begins with trail rides that originate from several points throughout the state that convene at Reliant Park.[197] .The Southwestern Exposition and Livestock Show in Fort Worth is the oldest continuously running rodeo incorporating many of the state's most historic traditions into its annual events.^ An Aviso at the end says, most incorrectly as events turned out, that the internal troubles of the state, set in motion by the gefe , of the comandancia militar , were happily settled.
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^ In this it is setting an example which historical societies in many other states might follow to the great benefit of all those using their publications.
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^ In recording the help given me in Texas, I would be remiss if I did not speak of the Handbook of Texas , Austin, 1952, and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly , both publications of the Texas State Historical Association.
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.Dallas hosts the State Fair of Texas each year at Fair Park.^ Texas State Library; the other was the Exposition of the Part Taken by T.J. Chambers, in the difficulties of Texas in the summer of the past year , Brazoria, 1833, No.
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[198]

Healthcare

The Commonwealth Fund ranks the Texas healthcare system the third worst in the nation.[199] Texas ranks close to last in access to healthcare, quality of care, avoidable hospital spending, and equity among various groups.[199] Causes of the state's poor rankings include politics, a high poverty rate, and the highest rate of illegal immigration in the nation.[109] .In May 2006, Texas initiated the program "code red" in response to the report that the state had 25.1% of the population without health insurance, the largest proportion in the nation.^ The Austin City Gazette of May 6, 1840, stated that the Red-Lander "diedabout the month of December [1839]."
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^ The controversy became more and more bitter and on May 25, 1835, as stated in the note to No.
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^ The Handbook of Texas is quite in error in reporting that the Red-Lander and the Journal and Advertiser , which it correctly states was started in May, 1840, at San Augustine were competing publications, and that the two papers were merged in 1841.
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[200] Texas also has controversial non-economic damages caps for medical malpractice lawsuits, set at $250,000, in an attempt to "curb rising malpractice premiums, and control escalating healthcare costs".[201]
The Trust for America's Health ranked Texas 15th highest in adult obesity, with 27.2% of the state's population measured as obese.[202] .The 2008 Men's Health obesity survey ranked four Texas cities among the top 25 fattest cities in America; Houston ranked 6th, Dallas 7th, El Paso 8th, and Arlington 14th.^ There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Houston, 1839, No.
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^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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[203] .Texas had only one city, Austin, ranked 21st, in the top 25 among the "fittest cities" in America.^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ The Texas Sentinel (Austin) of May 9, 1840, in commenting on the recent appearance of the Galvestonian and the Daily Courier remarks that "Galveston is perhaps the only city in the world which at two years old could boast of two daily papers and one semi-weekly paper."
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^ From an item in the Austin City Gazette of December 25, 1839, it appears that by that time Wallach had taken over the paper.
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[203] The same survey has evaluated the state's obesity initiatives favorably with a "B+".[203]

Medical research

Aerial of Texas Medical Center in Houston
Many elite research medical centers are located in Texas. .The state has nine medical schools,[204] three dental schools,[205] and one optometry school.^ U.S. and European Imprints Yale (including Law School) 217 Library of Congress 205 New York Public 204 Harvard (including Law School) 149 Bancroft 75 Streeter 449 Located in one or more copies 707 .
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[206] .Texas has two Biosafety Level 4 (BSL-4) laboratories: one at The University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) in Galveston,[207] and the other at the Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research in San Antonio—the first privately owned BSL-4 lab in the United States.^ Others privately owned 1833: No.
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^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe , Zacatecas, 1828 (No.
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[208]
.The Texas Medical Center in Houston, holds the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions, with 47 member institutions.^ The holdings, as at present recorded, of the six Texas institutions represented by the greatest number of entries are: .
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[209] Texas Medical Center performs the most heart transplants in the world.[210] The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston is a highly regarded academic institution that centers around cancer patient care, research, education and prevention.[211]
.San Antonio's South Texas Medical Center facilities rank sixth in clinical medicine research impact in the United States.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ Gutiérrez-Magee expedition of 1812-1813 across Texas and its capture of San Antonio de Bexar; the Puelles Informe , Zacatecas, 1828 (No.
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^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
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[212] The University of Texas Health Science Center is another highly ranked research and educational institution in San Antonio.[213][214]
.Both the American Heart Association and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center call Dallas home.^ There are copies at the Huntington Library, Harvard Law School (with some defects), Dallas Historical Society, University of Texas Law School, and in my collection.
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^ Alexander Moffit, Librarian, and Mr. Fred W. Folmer, Associate Librarian, University of Texas, have likewise personally aided the Universitys participation in the bibliography.
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^ Miss Nettie Lee Benson, Librarian, Latin American Collection, University of Texas Library, was helpful in calling to my attention various items in her charge as was Miss Mildred Stevenson, Reference Librarian of the Rosenberg Library.
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The Southwestern Medical Center ranks "among the top academic medical centers in the world".[215] The institution's medical school employs the most medical school Nobel laureates in the world.[215][216]

Education

The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, is the Father of Texas Education. .During his term, the state set aside three leagues of land in each county for equipping public schools.^ In this it is setting an example which historical societies in many other states might follow to the great benefit of all those using their publications.
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.An additional 50 leagues of land set aside for the support of two universities would later become the basis of the state's Permanent University Fund.^ In the issue of November 13, 1839, Jacob W. Cruger, who had become publisher on Humphreys death shortly before, stated that the paper would only do business with subscribers and advertisers on a cash basis.
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[217] Lamar's actions set the foundation for a Texas-wide public school system.[218] Texas ranked 26 in the American Legislative Exchange Council's Report Card on American Education. Texas students ranked higher than average in mathematics, but lower in reading. Between 2005–2006, Texas spent $7,584 per pupil ranking it below the national average of $9,295. The pupil/teacher ratio was 15.0, slightly below average. Texas paid instructors $38,130, below the national average. The state provided 89.22% of the funding for education, the federal government 10.8%.[219]
.The Texas Education Agency (TEA) administers the state's public school systems.^ In recording the help given me in Texas, I would be remiss if I did not speak of the Handbook of Texas , Austin, 1952, and the Southwestern Historical Quarterly , both publications of the Texas State Historical Association.
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^ It might be stated that there is hardly any Texas interest in the issues so far seen of this publication, which are listed below.
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^ Copies are located in the Sutro Branch of the California State Library, at Yale, New-York Historical, New York Public, Library Company of Philadelphia, the University of Texas Library, and my collection.
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Texas has over 1,000 school districts—all districts except the Stafford Municipal School District are independent from municipal government and many cross city boundaries.[220] School districts have the power to tax their residents and to assert eminent domain over privately owned property. Due to court-mandated equitable school financing for school districts, the state has a controversial tax redistribution system called the"Robin Hood plan". This plan transfers property tax revenue from wealthy school districts to poor ones.[221] The TEA has no authority over private or home school activities.[222]
Students in Texas take the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) in primary and secondary school. TAKS assess students' attainment of reading, writing, mathematics, science, and social studies skills required under Texas education standards and the No Child Left Behind Act. In spring 2007, Texas legislators replaced the TAKS for freshmen in the 2011–2012 school year and onward with End of Course exams for core high school classes.[223]

Colleges and universities

Texas's controversial alternative affirmative action plan, Texas House Bill 588, guarantees Texas students who graduated in the top 10 percent of their high school class automatic admission to state-funded universities. The bill encourages diversity while avoiding problems stemming from the Hopwood v. Texas (1996) case.
Texas has six state university systems and four independent public universities.[224][225] Discovery of minerals on Permanent University Fund land, particularly oil, has helped fund the rapid growth the state's largest university systems: University of Texas and Texas A&M. The PUF principal in fall 2005 was approximately $15 billion, second in size only to Harvard University's endowment.[217][226] .The other four university systems are the University of Houston, University of North Texas, Texas State, and Texas Tech.^ U.S. and European Imprints Located in one or more copies 707 University of Texas 304 Texas State Library 155 Grand Lodge at Waco 9 Houston Public 51 Baylor 73 Rosenberg at Galveston 50 .
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^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
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^ The located copies are at the Houston Public Library, the Masonic Library at Waco, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.
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The University of Texas at Austin and Texas A&M University are flagship universities of the state of Texas. Both were established by the Texas Constitution and hold stakes in the Permanent University Fund. The state is trying to expand the number of flagship universities by elevating some of its seven emerging research universities. The University of Houston, Texas Tech University, and The University of Texas at Dallas are generally considered in the upper echelon from which the next tier one research flagship university will emerge.[227][228][229]
Texas has many private institutions ranging from liberal arts colleges to a nationally recognized tier one research university. Rice University in Houston is one of the leading teaching and research universities of the United States and ranked the nation's 17th-best overall university by U.S. News & World Report.[230] While Texas did not form public universities until its statehood, the former republic chartered two private universities: Baylor University and Southwestern University.[231][232] .Other private institutions include Texas Christian University, Southern Methodist University, and Trinity University.^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
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^ University of Texas, all the other eighty-five or so surviving publications of the Texas press for the period 1830 through 1835 are broadsides or broadsheets.
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^ Other items directly relating to Texas and published while Texas was still a Mexican state include the Breve Apologia of Gutiérrez de Lara, Monterrey, 1827 (No.
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Universities in Texas currently host two presidential libraries: George Bush Presidential Library at Texas A&M University and the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum at The University of Texas at Austin. An agreement has been reached to create a third; the George W. Bush Presidential Library at Southern Methodist University.

See also

Footnotes

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  2. ^ a b c d "Facts". Texas Almanac. 2008. http://www.texasalmanac.com/facts/. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  3. ^ "Environment". Texas Almanac. 2008. http://www.texasalmanac.com/environment/. Retrieved 2008-04-29. 
  4. ^ "2009 Population Estimates" (xls). US Census. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  5. ^ a b c "Texas QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". US Census. 2006. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=&geo_id=04000US48&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US48&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US48&_zip=&_lang=en&_sse=on&ActiveGeoDiv=&_useEV=&pctxt=fph&pgsl=040&_submenuId=factsheet_1&ds_name=DEC_2000_SAFF&_ci_nbr=null&qr_name=null&reg=null%3Anull&_keyword=&_industry=. Retrieved 2007-04-28. 
  6. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://egsc.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-08. 
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References

  • Chipman, Donald E. (1992). Spanish Texas, 1519–1821. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0292776594. 
  • Davis, William C. (2006). Lone Star Rising. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 9781585445325.  originally published 2004 by New York: Free Press
  • Edmondson, J.R. (2000). The Alamo Story-From History to Current Conflicts. Plano, Texas: Republic of Texas Press. ISBN 1-55622-678-0. 
  • Hendrickson, Kenneth E., Jr. (1995). .The Chief of Executives of Texas: From Stephen F. Austin to John B. Connally, Jr..^ The map of Texas I most prize is the Map of Texas with Parts of the Adjoining States Compiled by Stephen F. Austin ,* Philadelphia, 1830 (No.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ TxNacT: Stephen F. Austin State Teachers College Library, Nacogdoches, Texas.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Three Manuscript Maps of Texas by Stephen F. Austin , Austin, 1930.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press.^ University of Texas, all the other eighty-five or so surviving publications of the Texas press for the period 1830 through 1835 are broadsides or broadsheets.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0890966419.
     
  • Hardin, Stephen L. (1994). Texian Iliad. Austin, Texas: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73086-1. 
  • Huson, Hobart (1974). Captain Phillip Dimmitt's Commandancy of Goliad, 1835–1836: An Episode of the Mexican Federalist War in Texas, Usually Referred to as the Texian Revolution. Austin, Texas: Von Boeckmann-Jones Co.. 
  • Lack, Paul D. (1992). The Texas Revolutionary Experience: A Political and Social History 1835–1836. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-497-1. 
  • Manchaca, Martha (2001). Recovering History, Constructing Race: The Indian, Black, and White Roots of Mexican Americans. The Joe R. and Teresa Lozano Long Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. .Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.^ Copies are located at the Texas Memorial Museum at Austin, the Baylor University Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ University of Texas, all the other eighty-five or so surviving publications of the Texas press for the period 1830 through 1835 are broadsides or broadsheets.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tx-Sc: Texas Supreme Court Library, Austin, Texas.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0292752539.
     
  • Todish, Timothy J.; Todish, Terry; Spring, Ted (1998). .Alamo Sourcebook, 1836: A Comprehensive Guide to the Battle of the Alamo and the Texas Revolution.^ Official Correspondence of the Texas Revolution, 1835-1836 .
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Including a view of the Texan Revolution, and an account of the Principle Battles ,* Greenfield, Massachusetts, 1836 (No.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ According to the Handbook of Texas , Slocums press was used in 1835 and 1836 in printing the Texean [ sic ] and Emigrants Guide at Nacogdoches.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Austin, Texas: Eakin Press.^ Data in the appendix and elsewhere indicate that at the close of the year 1845 there were presses operating in ten Texas towns, with three separate presses at Galveston and two at Austin.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 9781571681522.
     
  • report of President's Commission on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. (1992). The Warren Commission Report. Warren Commission Hearings. IV. National Archives. ISBN 0-31208-257-6. http://www.jfk-assassination.de/warren/index.php. 
  • Weber, David J. (1992). The Spanish Frontier in North America. Yale Western Americana Series. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300051980. 
  • Weddle, Robert S. (1995). Changing Tides: Twilight and Dawn in the Spanish Sea, 1763–1803. Centennial Series of the Association of Former Students Number 58. .College Station, Texas: Texas A&M University Press.^ University of Texas, all the other eighty-five or so surviving publications of the Texas press for the period 1830 through 1835 are broadsides or broadsheets.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ISBN 0890966613.
     
  • Winders, Richard Bruce (2004). Sacrificed at the Alamo: Tragedy and Triumph in the Texas Revolution. Military History of Texas Series: Number Three. Abilene, TX: State House Press. ISBN 1880510804. 

External links

State Government
  • The State of Texas
  • Texas State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Texas state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  • Texas Politics. An online textbook from the College of Liberal Arts, The University of Texas.
U.S. Government
Other
Preceded by
Florida
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 29, 1845 (28th)
Succeeded by
Iowa

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Friendship
.Texas is the second-largest U.S. state in both area and population, and the largest state in the contiguous United States.^ The currency in use in Texas at this time was for the most part notes of the various chartered state banks of the United States, with an exchange value of only a little under par.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. and European Imprints lists material relating to Texas printed during the same period in what is now the United States or in Europe.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

A Texan outside of Texas is a foreigner.
When a Texas team takes the field against a foreign state, it is an army with banners.
  • Friendship
    • Texas State Motto
  • One objection I have heard voiced to works of this kind—dealing with Texas—is the amount of gore spilled across the pages. It can not be otherwise. In order to write a realistic and true history of any part of the Southwest, one must narrate such things, even at the risk of monotony. .
  • When MacNab blanched, no more stunned than I, Rusk rose and put his arm about his shoulders: "Never forget, son, when you represent Texas, always go first class."
  • Texas is a state of mind.^ The pamphlet on the first Texas railroad, No.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A prospectus dated September 1, 1842, and signed by Samuel J. Durnett, in which it was proposed to publish the first number "on or about the first of October," was printed in the Texas Times (Galveston) November 6, 1842.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In the listing of locations, runs marked with a dagger are more specifically reported than in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1839 , referred to above, and runs or issues marked with an asterisk are reported here for the first time.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Texas is an obsession. .Above all, Texas is a nation in every sense of the word.^ Considerable thought has been given to the problem of what maps to include and what to exclude, for an entry for every map for the period showing all or part of Texas would result in utter confusion.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For the first edition, all of Streeters entries were checked in the major Texas libraries, the more important scholarly libraries throughout the country, and the National Union Catalogue.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    And there’s an opening convey of generalities. A Texan outside of Texas is a foreigner.
    • John Steinbeck, pt. .4, Travels With Charley: In Search of America (1962)
  • Sectional football games have the glory and the despair of war, and when a Texas team takes the field against a foreign state, it is an army with banners.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In September, 1845, the new owners, and not Fields as stated in the Handbook of Texas , made an urgent appeal for friends of the paper to contribute to its support.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Vicente Filisola, in Defence of His Honor, and Explanation of His Operations as Commander-in-Chief of the Army against Texas , Columbia, 1837.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • John Steinbeck, pt. 4, Travels With Charley: In Search of America (1962)
  • You don't get everything you want. A dictatorship would be a lot easier. .
    • George W. Bush, responding to the difficulties of governing Texas, "The Taming of Texas," Governing Magazine (July 1998); also cited in Is our Children Learning?: The Case Against George W. Bush (2000) by Paul Begala.^ In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      )
  • Whether they are sitting in the plush Driskill Hotel in Austin or some god-awful motel in Waco, Texans firmly maintain that they have the biggest-and-best-of-everything. This bragging does not always make other people love Texas, even in the West. .(When, back in the early 1980s, one of us broke down in a car with Texas plates in southern Colorado, nobody stopped to help for what seemed like an eternity; the man who eventually did explained: "You should have had a sign saying you weren't from Texas."^ I remarked that I only felt like paying enough for the manuscript to have the fun of studying it and trying to decide what importance should be given to it, for it seemed to me that if it developed that the manuscript was what might be called "official," I would be in duty bound to turn it over to the State of Texas, who would have legal title to it, if it was "official"; and if not "official," it was of no great commercial value.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Most of us who collect Americana enjoy reading a list of early imprints such as this and making a mental note of the pieces they would like to own.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This was finally put down at the battle of Saltillo late in October, 1840, though Colonel Jordan of Texas and his Texas troops made a brilliant escape back into Texas.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    )

Unsourced

.
  • Saskatchewan is much like Texas — except it's more friendly to the United States.^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
    • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Here, in Texas Imprints , legal forms, writs and the like are left out except for a few forms of the colonization period, Nos.
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    ^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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    • Attributed to Adlai Stevenson. This was attributed to Stevenson without reference in 1001 Greatest Things Ever Said About Texas (2006) by Donna Ingham, p. 92. It was also attributed without reference in "Reporters' Notebook", The Buffalo News, September 24, 1992. No closer connection to Stevenson has been found.
  • Some folks look at me and see swagger, which in Texas is called "walking." .
    • George W. Bush, accepting the Republican nomination for President in New York City (September 2004).^ The standard account is that of George Wilkins Kendall, Narrative of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition, comprising a description of a Tour through Texasand final Capture of the Texans, and their march, as prisoners, to the City of Mexico ,* New York, 1844 (No.
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      ^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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      ^ NNB: Association of the Bar of the City of New York Library, New York, New York.
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      .Reported in the New York Times.
  • Texas will again lift it's head and stand among the nations.^ The "new paper" was the Texas Times .
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    ^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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    ^ Still another picture of life in Texas in 1831 is by the anonymous author of A Visit to Texas ,* New York, 1834 (No.
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    it ought to do so, for no country upon the globe can compare with it in natural advantages. .
    • Sam Houston, first President of Texas.^ It announced support of Sam Houston, then president.
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      ^ The paper was for Sam Houston for president.
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      ^ Apparently it was a supporter of Sam Houston for president.
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      (Sam Houston Memorial Museum)
  • Texas has yet to learn submission to any oppression, come from what source it may. .
    • Sam Houston, first President of Texas.^ It announced support of Sam Houston, then president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The paper was for Sam Houston for president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Apparently it was a supporter of Sam Houston for president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .(Sam Houston Memorial Museum)
  • All new states are invested, more or less, by a class of noisy, second-rate men who are always in favor of rash and extreme measures, but Texas was absolutely overrun by such men.^ U.S. and European Imprints Located in one or more copies 707 University of Texas 304 Texas State Library 155 Grand Lodge at Waco 9 Houston Public 51 Baylor 73 Rosenberg at Galveston 50 .
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    ^ Secondly, it is intended to enter all separately published maps for the period 1795-1845, irrespective of their scale, that feature Texas and have "Texas" or such words as "City of Houston" in the title.
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    ^ Copies are located at the Texas Memorial Museum at Austin, the Baylor University Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.
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    .
    • Sam Houston, first President of Texas.^ It announced support of Sam Houston, then president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ The paper was for Sam Houston for president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Apparently it was a supporter of Sam Houston for president.
      • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      .(Sam Houston Memorial Museum)
  • If I owned Texas and Hell, I would rent Texas and live in Hell.^ TxAuTM: Texas Memorial Museum, Austin, Texas.
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    ^ Copies are located at the Texas Memorial Museum at Austin, the Baylor University Library, the University of Texas Library, and in my collection.
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    ^ TxHSJM: San Jacinto Museum of History, San Jacinto Monument, Houston, Texas.
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    • U.S. General Philip Henry Sheridan (1866)
  • Texas has four seasons: Drought, Flood, Blizzard and Twister

See also

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:
Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

For other places with the same name, see Texas (disambiguation).
The South Rim at Big Bend National Park
The South Rim at Big Bend National Park
Texas is the second largest and second most populous state in the United States of America. Owing to its remarkable size, distinctive culture and politics, and colorful history, many Texans maintain a fiercely independent attitude, with Texan identity often superseding American identity. Few other American states feature their flag so prominently in businesses, on the backs of cars and in advertisements. Originally a territory of Spain and, later, Mexico, Texas rebelled in 1836 and became its own nation for 10 years before being annexed by the United States in 1845. Despite having existed under the auspices of six different nations (France, Spain, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the United States of America, and the Confederate States of America), Texas has maintained its fascinating independent spirit, making for a unique and unrivaled exploration ground for any intrigued and intrepid adventurer.
.Known for their generosity, hospitality, unusual accent, and penchant for the larger-than-life, Texans are wonderful people to meet, and the variety of cultural experiences, from feasting on bratwurst with the Germans of the Hill Country to watching Flamenco dancers with the Tejanos of the Rio Grande valley, is seemingly unlimited.^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
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The large size of the state should not be underestimated. Texas measures over 267,000 square miles (695,673 sq. km) in area, making it slightly larger than France. Having a car is essential for travel between cities, and within most. The traveler should factor on long driving times between cities and destinations.
.Texas is bordered by the states of New Mexico, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Louisiana, and the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Chihuahua.^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
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^ It states with force and eloquence why Texas should be separated from Coahuila and have its own state government.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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State of Texas Regions
Panhandle (Lubbock, Amarillo, Wichita Falls)
  Great plains, cotton and the Llano Estacado
Prairies and Lakes (Dallas, Fort Worth)
  Recreational lakes and exciting nightlife
Piney Woods (Nacogdoches, Tyler)
  Pine forests, bayous, and Civil War and Civil Rights history
Gulf Coast (Houston, Galveston, Corpus Christi)
  Islands, beaches and port cities
South Texas Plains (San Antonio, Laredo)
  Border country along the Rio Grande, Spanish missions
Hill Country (Austin, Fredericksburg)
  Edwards Plateau, rolling hills, rivers and the State capital
Big Bend Country (El Paso, Odessa)
  Big Bend National Park, mountains, desert and canyons.
Cities of Texas
  • Austin - Live Music Capital of the World. State capital. Home to the University of Texas (5th largest in the USA by enrollment).
  • Beaumont - Home of Spindletop, birthplace of the modern oil industry.
  • Corpus Christi - Home of the Texas State Aquarium and gateway to Padre Island.
  • Dallas - One of the most popular visitor destinations in Texas.
  • El Paso - The largest city on the US/Mexico border.
  • Fort Worth - Fort Worth Stockyards. ."Where the West Begins."
  • Houston - Texas' largest city.^ Velasco was the eighth place at which printing was carried on in Texas, as printing did not begin at Houston until May, 1837.
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    ^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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    ^ At the beginning of the year 1837, the only press operating in Texas seems to have been that of the Bordens at Columbia, and the important printing event of the year was the removal of that press to Houston in April.
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    Home of NASA's Mission Control Center. Best dining scene in the state.
  • Laredo - The US's largest inland port.
  • San Antonio - Famous for the Alamo and the "River Walk" nightlife district.

Understand

History

.France, Spain and Mexico have all laid claim to Texas at one point or another.^ In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
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.However in 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and became the Republic of Texas.^ Secret Journals of the Senate, Republic of Texas, 1836-1845 , Editedby Ernest William Winkler, Austin, 1911.
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^ This declaration of November 7, 1835, that the people of Texas have taken up arms in defense of the Constitution of 1824 is second only in importance to the Declaration of Independence of March, 1836.
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^ It was in March, 1836, that the press printed at San Felipe that great Texas document, the Declaration of Independence .
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The most famous battle of the fight for independence was the stand at the Alamo. .Although tragic, the sacrifice allowed the main army of Texas time enough to gather their strength and defeat the formidable Mexican army, led by General Santa Anna.^ Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it.
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^ In Texas Imprints , Mexican Imprints , and U.S. and European Imprints , there are a total of 1,661 main entries and 252 sub-entries.
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^ Filisolas Manifesto of July 12, 1836, telling of the defeat and capture of Santa Anna at San Jacinto, an event which made the independence of Texas a reality.
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.Nine years later Texas agreed to be annexed by the United States and became the 28th state of the Union.^ It has seemed to me a worth-while task to attempt a bibliography of the significant fifty years preceding the entry of this great State into the Union.
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^ Texas State Library; the other was the Exposition of the Part Taken by T.J. Chambers, in the difficulties of Texas in the summer of the past year , Brazoria, 1833, No.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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People

The ethnic background of Texas is extremely diverse. Fully one-third of the population has some sort of Hispanic background. There are also many German settlements (Fredericksburg, New Braunfels, et. al.), as well as Norwegian, Polish, Czech, Swedish and French settlements. Also a sizeable number of African-Americans (mainly in East and Southeast Texas) and Asian-Americans (usually found in metropolitan areas of Texas) can be found.

Climate

Texas is a huge state and thusly experiences an extreme variety of weather. The state is very warm in the summer months, with temperatures often above 100ºF (38ºC). In West Texas and the Panhandle, summers are usually dry with fits of stormy weather. .North (Dallas/Fort Worth region) and coastal (Houston region) areas have unstable climates (hence the oft-repeated saying about Texas weather: "If you don't like the weather, wait 10 minutes" – though 10 minutes later you might not like the change).^ The Handbook of Texas is obviously wrong in saying that Anthony began publication of the Texas Gazette and Brazoria Commercial Advertiser "about 1830."
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^ Das Cajütenbuch , though later, has perhaps more of the real Texas flavor.
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^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
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Thunderstorms are common, sometimes generating tornadoes and hailstorms. It is often warmer near the coast, though humidity can be unbearable in the summer. Conversely, the spring, autumn and winter are relatively pleasant for most of the state. .It rarely dips below the freezing point in winter, except in the Panhandle region where the winters can get quite cold (Lubbock and Amarillo have suffered devastating blizzards in the past), and though it is quite rare, even points as far south as Corpus Christi and Brownsville have seen snow.^ The Handbook of Texas points out that it must have ended in December, 1845, since Bangs was printing the Corpus Christi Gazette on January 1, 1846.
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Size

As stated before, the sheer size of the state is not to be underestimated. Brewster County in West Texas is larger in land area than Rhode Island and Delaware combined; Texarkana is closer to Chicago than it is to El Paso, and Brownsville is closer to Mexico City than it is to Dallas. If you are wanting to take in the full Texas experience, you will need ample time to do so.

Talk

Texas has no official language. However, as with the rest of the United States, English is the predominant language of the state. Spanish is also widely spoken by approximately one-third of the population. .(Don't assume that all people of Mexican origin speak Spanish; some families have been in Texas for longer than Texas has been part of the U.S.) Texas also has small numbers of Chinese, Tagalog, and Vietnamese speakers as well.^ Considerable thought has been given to the problem of what maps to include and what to exclude, for an entry for every map for the period showing all or part of Texas would result in utter confusion.
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^ One of her assignments was making the preliminary check of the Yale University Library and all the checking for Texas Imprints at the Harvard University Library, the Boston Public Library, the Boston Anthenæum, the Massachusetts State Library, and the New York Public Library, with some checking on Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints at all these libraries.
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^ By the time U.S. and European Imprints was published in 1960, Streeter had already received a number of additions and corrections to Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints .
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Don't assume that the majority people are going to have a "Texan" accent. While you will run into many that do, the majority of Texans, especially in the cities, lack the "Texan twang" we associate with the state's residents.

Get in

Texas shares an international border with Mexico as well as a 600 mile coastline. It is bordered on the north by the state of Oklahoma, on the west by the state of New Mexico, and on the east by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana. As a state of the United States, all visa and passport rules of the USA apply.

By plane

.Texas has several international airports, including the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), the largest and busiest airport in Texas and 2nd busiest airport in the United States.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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It is a major airline hub and is relatively cheap to fly into. George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH) is also a major hub and has the most international connections in the state. .Other major airports can be found in, San Antonio, El Paso, and Austin, though almost every reasonably sized city in the state is served by some kind of air transportation.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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^ The Austin City Gazette of May 6, 1840, stated that the Red-Lander "diedabout the month of December [1839]."
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^ Though, as previously stated, there is some question as to whether printing began at Richmond in 1838, there is no question but that there was printing there in the year 1839 as the Richmond Telescope began publication in April.
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By train

Three Amtrak trains serve the state: The Texas Eagle, Sunset Limited, and Heartland Flyer. Fares are high and ride times are long, but the Amtrak offers a unique perspective for those who are interested.

By car

.Texas is well-served from other points in the U.S. by the United States Interstate Highway system, the quality and condition of which is generally very good.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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.There are many roads which cross into Texas from Mexico, most notably in Laredo and El Paso.^ There is no reference to any other press operating in Texas until the Bordens brought a press into Texas in the summer of 1835.
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^ For the first prospectus for a Texas railroad there is the short pamphlet, Brazos and Galveston Rail Road ,* New Orleans, [1839] (No.
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^ Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.
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.Due to the enormous amount of traffic from Mexico and Central America, Laredo is the country's largest inland port, and wait times at this and all border stations can often be tremendous.^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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In all, Texas boasts over 72,000 miles of state and federal highways.
.Note: If you are not a U.S. citizen and you are driving into the U.S. from Mexico, you must have a visa or valid permit beforehand, as they are not issued at the bridges across the Rio Grande.^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
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^ The Mexicans were as fond of publishing extras of newspapers as they were of issuing proclamations and there must be many not here entered which will come to light from time to time.
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If you are a U.S. citizen, you must present a passport to customs at the border crossings to re-enter the United States. Otherwise, your vacation in Mexico just got longer!

By boat

Major ports in Texas include Houston, Corpus Christi, Galveston, Beaumont, Port Arthur and Brownsville. Both the Port of Houston and the Port of Galveston are home ports for Cruise ships.
Major Roads of Texas

By car

The road system is almost universally excellent, and even the most remote points in the state can be accessed with an average sedan. Gas stations are numerous, however in West Texas do not press your luck. Texan highways are often built with parallel frontage roads and turnarounds at most exits. .Speed limits are very strictly enforced in rural areas of the state; Texas state troopers will pull you over for an infraction as small as five miles per hour over the speed limit, as traffic fines are often an important source of income for many smaller towns.^ This now rare volume is one of the important sources on the Texas Revolution and the beginnings of the Republic.
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^ Though with less Texas material their opportunities to help have not been as extensive, my thanks are also due to the librarians and staffs of five other important Texas libraries, the Texas State Library, the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston and San Antonio Public Libraries, and the San Jacinto Museum.
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^ The important collections in Texas are at the University of Texas, the Texas State Library, and the Texas Masonic Grand Lodge Library at Waco.
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However, when traveling through larger cities, observing the "common speed" of traffic around you is much safer. .Texas Map features a detailed scrollable road map which can be printed in sections.^ This requirement of separate publication of maps featuring Texas excludes maps in atlases, unless such atlas maps were also separately published.
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^ It aims to record and give a descriptive account of books, broadsides, and maps relating to Texas, printed in the United States and Europe from 1795 through 1845.
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^ This is the earliest separately printed map of Texas to be entered in any of the three parts of this bibliography.
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The rural speed limit in Texas is generally 70 MPH, though it increases to 80 MPH on Interstates 10 and 20 in the sparsely populated far western portion of the state.
On the down side, Texas has one of America's worst traffic safety records. According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Texas had the nation's highest number of alcohol-related traffic fatalities in 1997.

By plane

.Texas is home to several major airlines: American Airlines [1] (Dallas/Ft Worth Airport), Southwest Airlines [2] (Houston Hobby Airport and Dallas Love Field), and Continental Airlines [3] (Houston George Bush Intercontinental Airport).^ Only seven seem to be located at the New York Public Library and if there are locations at the public libraries of such important Texas cities as Houston and Dallas they have been missed here.
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^ Life and Times of Henry Smith, the First American Governor of Texas , Dallas, 1887.
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American and Continental fly to many national and international destinations. .Southwest is the no-frills discounter granddad and flies throughout Texas and most of the United States.^ This was the basis for the establishment of the first Texas colony of settlers from the United States and the authorization for Iturbides granting of Austins petition on February 18, 1823.
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^ The outstanding Texas event in 1845 was the assent by the Constitutional Convention, which assembled in July, to the joint resolution of the Congress of the United States on annexation, and the adoption of a constitution for the state of Texas.
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^ One of the most interesting of the 1840 imprints is Bonnells Topographical Description of Texas , No.
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Travel to any destination world-wide is quite painless from the larger Texas airports. Direct flights to and from Houston's IAH include London, Paris, Amsterdam, Dubai, Doha, and Tokyo. Direct flights to and from Dallas/Fort Worth's DFW include Buenos Aires, Frankfurt, London, Paris, Tokyo, Toronto, and Vancouver.

By train

.Since Texas cities are geographically dispersed, travel by train is expensive and often inconvenient, though Amtrak [4] does provide several lines.^ Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.
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.Passenger service is no longer an option for cities in the Panhandle or southern Texas.^ [Austin] LONGERS ADVANCE Although this newspaper is listed in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 , as having been published in 1840, no references to it have been found in contemporary newspapers or elsewhere.
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^ An important entry for 1841 is for a certificate of capital stock of the "City of Portland Matagorda Co., Republic of Texas," No.
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.Again, the size of the state is startling; traveling across the width of Texas (from Orange, in the eastern extremity, near Houston, to El Paso in the western extremity) is roughly the same distance as one would encounter while traveling from El Paso to Los Angeles or from Houston to Jacksonville, Florida.^ By the same token, laws on elections of the four Internal Provinces of the East, of which Texas was one, are included; while election laws of the Central Government relating to Mexico as a whole have been excluded, though Texas may be one of the states mentioned.
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^ Western Americana, is in part an account of an actual journey across south Texas to the Beales colony.
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^ In 1824, the two Mexican states of Texas and Coahuila were joined into one state of the same name with its capital at Saltillo (or Leona Vicario as it was called for a few years), and then at Monclova, both in what is now the Mexican state of Coahuila.
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Texarkana, in the northeast corner of the state, is closer to Chicago than it is to the extreme southern tip of Texas.

By bus

Greyhound [5] provides intercity bus service. Other bus carriers include TNM&O, Kerrville Bus Co. & Americanos. .There are increasing number of bus lines that serve Texas' Mexican population, running routes across the border to regions such as Mexico City and Chihuahua.^ Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it.
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^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
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^ In a regional bibliography such as this, there is always a question as to what to include and what to omit.
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  • The Alamo in San Antonio, where the erstwhile Republic of Texas saw its most tragic hour.
  • San Jacinto Battleground State Historical Park, Houston. .This state park commemorates the decisive 1836 battle between Sam Houston's army and the Mexican army in which Texas gained independence.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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    ^ Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of the North Mexican States and Texas , 2 vols., San Francisco, 1884-1889, Vol.
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    ^ This gives the essential and little known facts of the last two years of the Texas Navy and of the bitter controversy between President Houston and Moore.
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    .The San Jacinto Monument, the park's 570 foot tall centerpiece, is fifteen feet taller than the Washington Monument and is visible for miles.^ There were also three newspapers at Galveston, one at Houston, one at Matagorda and one at San Augustine, as well as newspapers at San Luis and Washington, whose presses are not credited with imprints other than newspapers.
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    ^ TxHSJM: San Jacinto Museum of History, San Jacinto Monument, Texas.
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    ^ TxHSJM: San Jacinto Museum of History, San Jacinto Monument, Houston, Texas.
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    .Don't forget to make time to visit the Battleship Texas, permanently moored nearby.
  • Fort Davis National Historic Site - Partially restored fort, home of the Buffalo soldiers -- located in the town of Ft.^ The prospectus, dated October 16, 1845, announcing the purchase of the press of the Harrison Times , was reprinted in the Texas National Register (Washington) of December 6, 1845.
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    Davis north of Big Bend Nat Park. Also in Ft. Davis is MacDonald Observatory, Ft. .Davis State Park and a scenic loop drive that goes through the Davis Mountains and down on the prairie where you can see deer, pronghorn (also called antelope), eagles and some very beautiful scenery.
  • The Fort Worth Stockyards offer a look into the past, when cattle drives and cowboys were all the rage.
  • Lubbock Lake Landmark State Historical Park, Lubbock.^ In this it is setting an example which historical societies in many other states might follow to the great benefit of all those using their publications.
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    .Evidence of human occupation dating back several millennia is strewn across this South Plains park.^ Where the first issue of a newspaper has not been located, and there is no other evidence of the date of beginning, the date is figured back from the earliest issue located.
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    Archaeologists even today frequently discover new artifacts.
  • Dealey Plaza, Dallas. .One of the top tourist attractions in the state, this is where the assassination of John F. Kennedy occurred on 22 November 1963. Visit the Sixth Floor Museum in the infamous Texas School Book Depository building, and the equally patronized Conspiracy Museum nearby.
  • As the largest city on the US/Mexico border, El Paso is a hotbed of Hispanic culture in America with a flavor that is more Mexican than Texan.
  • Not to be missed is the extraordinary Hill Country, with its fields of wildflowers covering sprawling cattle ranches.
  • Big Bend National Park is mountains, desert, wilderness, and river (Rio Grande) scenery.^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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    ^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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    ^ In the University of Texas photostat of the Grand Lodge copy are photostats from the Harvard Law School copy of pages 35-42, 75-90 of the original printed Journals , but for some reason there is no photostat of Harvards printed pages 19-26.
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    There are snakes, deer, javelina (wild pigs) plus many other types of wildlife. At the western entrance is Terlingua (an old ghost town) which is the home to the annual International Chili Cookoff. .Farther down the road to the west along the El Camino Real (The River Road) scenic drive to Presidio is the town of Lajitas whose mayor is a goat (a real goat) that guzzles beer like water -- put a bottle or can near his mouth and he will grab it right out of your hand in his teeth and turn it up until it all drains into his mouth.
  • Guadalupe Mountains National Park, at the New Mexico state line in the far western part of the state, is home to 8,749 foot Guadalupe Peak, the highest point in Texas.^ The prospectus of his New Era , dated October 20 and signed by him as "Editor and Proprietor," appeared in the Texas National Register (Austin) of November 22.
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    ^ Entries from July, 1835, through the year 1837 primarily relate to the Mexican reaction to the Texas revolution and Mexicos efforts to defeat it.
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    ^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
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    .Another point of interest in the park is McKittrick Canyon, a rather startling oasis of maple trees and other flora and fauna that stands out in stark contrast to the aridness of the surrounding desert.
  • Palo Duro Canyon, the second largest canyon in the country, was cut across the High Plains near Amarillo by a branch of the Red River, providing some really breathtaking scenery and plenty of trails to follow.
  • Take a leisurely inner tube trip, floating down the Comal, Guadalupe, San Marcos, or Frio rivers.
  • Spend the weekend living the Old West at a Dude Ranch
  • Barbecue is the mainstay of any true Texan's diet (most Texans will frown at you if you call it B-B-Q).^ Field served in the Texas army and was present at the taking of San Antonio by the Texans in December, 1835, and at the massacre of Fannins men at Goliad in March, 1836.
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    ^ The Mexican imprints provide an interesting supplement and contrast to the Texan material and a comparison of specific accounts of the same event written from the two opposing viewpoints is often illuminating.
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    ^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
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    The International Barbecue Cookoff is held annually in Taylor, TX (northeast of Austin). .The number one barbecue restaurant is the Kreuz Market in Lockhart (also near Austin), although there are several excellent places all around Texas.^ [Nacogdoches] EL MEXICANO Although there is an entry for this newspaper under Nacogdoches in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 , it, like the Gaceta de Texas which it followed, was printed in Natchitoches, Louisiana.
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    ^ [Austin] LONGERS ADVANCE Although this newspaper is listed in Texas Newspapers, 1813-1939 , as having been published in 1840, no references to it have been found in contemporary newspapers or elsewhere.
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    ^ Various newspapers were started in 1839 in places where there had already been printing in Texas.
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    A Texas specialty is chopped or thinly sliced beef brisket, usually served with a slice of white bread, pickles, onions, and sauce in a separate container (although Central European-style sausage is also common). Classic sides are coleslaw, beans, and potato salad.
  • Chili is the official state dish of Texas. .There are many varieties of chili, but original Texas-style chili contains no beans.^ In the University of Texas photostat of the Grand Lodge copy are photostats from the Harvard Law School copy of pages 35-42, 75-90 of the original printed Journals , but for some reason there is no photostat of Harvards printed pages 19-26.
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    ^ There are many pamphlets entered here relating to the annexation of Texas.
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    ^ As might be expected there are many entries that deal either directly or indirectly with the Texas Revolution.
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    .The place to try all the varieties is the International Chili Cookoff, held on the first weekend in November in Terlingua, TX.
  • Tex-Mex is Mexican cuisine with Texas flair.^ A prospectus dated September 1, 1842, and signed by Samuel J. Durnett, in which it was proposed to publish the first number "on or about the first of October," was printed in the Texas Times (Galveston) November 6, 1842.
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    ^ There are of course several items relating to the Austin colonies in Texas Imprints and Mexican Imprints , but they are all of later date.
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    ^ This is the account of the first popular convention held in Texas and is the second pamphlet of more than a few pages printed in Texas.
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    Take ancient traditions (such as filled tortillas) and add beef, sauces, cheeses and spices, and Tex-Mex is born. Nachos, crispy tacos, crispy chalupas, chili con queso, chili con carne, chili gravy, and fajitas are all Tex-Mex inventions. Serving tortilla chips and a hot sauce or salsa as an appetizer is also an original Tex-Mex combination, and one that Texan diners insist on. .While Texans are generally nice people, and won't be easily offended, it's worth repeating: Tex-Mex food is most definitely not the same as Mexican food, a point locals will be all-too-happy to point out.
  • Down Home Cookin' is a blend of American and German cuisine brought about by the necessity of cooking from the back of a chuck wagon.^ All these presses were carried out of Texas soon after they were brought in, the first apparently without having produced an imprint.
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    ^ Over forty years ago, interests in Mexican oil brought about my first visit to Texas.
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    Meals include steaks, stews, casseroles, breads and pies. .There are many steakhouses around the state, notably the Big Texan Steak Ranch in Amarillo, Bob's Steak and Chophouse in Dallas, Fort Griffin General Merchandise in Albany and Taste of Texas steak house in Houston's west side.
  • Chicken Fried Steak is cube steak pounded until tender, breaded, and fried in a pan, usually topped with a peppery, creamy white gravy and served with a side of mashed potatoes and beans.^ Velasco was the eighth place at which printing was carried on in Texas, as printing did not begin at Houston until May, 1837.
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    ^ The Handbook of Texas states that because of his editorial support of Houston he was called "Ramrod Johnson."
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    ^ There were thirty-four locations for Kimballs Laws and Decrees of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Houston, 1839, No.
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    CFS (as it's sometimes known) can be found everywhere from school cafeterias, to fast food joints, where it may be served on a sandwich, to upscale eateries (with a creative twist, of course). Its presence on the menu is a sure-fire way to tell if you're in Texas - just don't ask for it "rare" or "well done"; it's not that kind of steak!

Drink

Texas has many cities with fabulous nightlife. Some of the more notable include:
.
  • Dallas: Uptown, Deep Ellum, and Greenville Avenue districts.
  • Fort Worth: the Historic Fort Worth Stockyards including the world-famous Billy Bob's Texas, which claims to be the largest Honky-Tonk in the world (it even has its own rodeo arena).^ In the case of the University of Texas, Library of Congress, New York Public, Rosenberg, and Fort Worth, U.S. and European Imprints as a whole has been rechecked.
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    ^ TxFwSB: Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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    ^ TxFw: Carnegie Public Library, Fort Worth, Texas.
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    Also, in Fort Worth's surprisingly clean and vibrant downtown area, there is Sundance Square, where one can find food, drink, and entertainment ranging from live music to first-run movies.
  • Houston: Downtown or Montrose.
  • Austin: 6th Street and the Warehouse District.
  • San Antonio: the River Walk
  • Lubbock: Depot District.
The maximum legal Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) limit for adults is 0.08.
.In early 2006, the controversial Texas Alcohol and Beverage Commission (TABC) program that allows for "public intoxication" arrests in any public area or business establishment, including bars, drew national attention.^ This paper was started at Montgomery in April, 1845, and moved to Huntsville in July or early August, certainly before August 21, 1845, when the move was mentioned in the Texas National Register (Washington).
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^ The paper was moved to Huntsville in July or early August, certainly before August 21, 1845, when the move was mentioned in the Texas National Register (Washington).
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^ Marshall, which had been without a press since the Marshall Review had ceased publication in the fall of 1843, now had a paper called the Harrison Times , about which little is known, and in the fall of 1844 Miller & Cushney established the Texas National Register at Washington.
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This was due to an unfortunate incident where people staying in a hotel were arrested for being intoxicated in that hotel's bar. There has been enough negative feedback from the public regarding the TABC program that it has been suspended for review.

Texas beers

Texas produces a number of famous beers, particularly German-style beers, which are available throughout the state and beyond.
  • The Spoetzl Brewer [6] in Shiner is famous for producing Shiner Bock, the best selling specialty beer in the state.
  • Anheiser-Busch's Houston brewery produces Ziegen Bock, sold only in Texas.
  • Lone Star Beer [7], brewed in San Antonio, is billed as the "national beer of Texas", but is sold as far away as New York — and reportedly even spotted in Tallinn, Estonia.
.There are also several important regional breweries, such as Saint Arnold and Southern Star in Houston and Real Ale near San Antonio.^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
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^ In a regional bibliography such as this, there is always a question as to what to include and what to omit.
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^ Though with less Texas material their opportunities to help have not been as extensive, my thanks are also due to the librarians and staffs of five other important Texas libraries, the Texas State Library, the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston and San Antonio Public Libraries, and the San Jacinto Museum.
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Stay safe

The crime rate in Texas is relatively low. In the larger cities, if you stay in the tourist areas you will be generally safe (talk to your hotel concierge or manager if you aren't sure about a certain area). The rural areas have a very low crime rate. .Texans have a reputation for carrying firearms or resolving disputes with gunfire, but such actions are not significantly more common here than in other parts of the US. Concerns about crime spilling over from Juarez across the border into El Paso have waned, as El Paso remains a very safe city.^ Johnson again in 1844, as in 1843, is credited with the printing of more of the years entries than any other printer.
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^ As most of us think in inches, scales are given in inches, but as dimensions can be recorded more easily and accurately in centimeters than in fractions of an inch, they are given in centimeters.
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^ It would be interesting to learn more about such a prominent figure in the history of Texas printing in the time of the Republic.
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The startling heat of a Texas summer is not to be underestimated. The state has experienced temperatures as high as 120ºF (49ºC), and though this extreme is rare, it is a good indicator of how hot things can get. .Areas from north central Texas down to the coast also tend to experience stifling humidity during the spring and summer months, so pack accordingly with plenty of loose, light colored clothing.^ Barker in his "Notes on Early Texas Newspapers, 1819-1836," cited above, says that Anthony died of the cholera "during the summer of 1833."
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.The western portion of the state tends to experience higher temperatures and lower humidity, and although Texas deserts are beautiful, the heat can be dangerous without the proper precautions.^ Travelers guides to our western states published after 1826 for the benefit of European emigrants are apt to have short sections on Texas.
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Bring plenty of water and sunscreen. .Be aware of the weather during hurricane season on the coast (June through November, though hurricanes move slow and provide days to weeks of warning), and of tornado season (spring and summer) if you're planning a trip from the Dallas/Fort Worth area and points west.^ Texas Imprints though through the summer Texas opinion was still divided.
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^ That printing office was moved to Brazoria in the spring of 1832 and continued there, first under Cotten, and then in the summer of 1832 under D.W. Anthony.
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Texas is in "Tornado Alley". Check the Tornado safety page if you are visiting Texas.
.Texas is generally safe for gays and lesbians, as the laws against homosexuality were struck down by the Supreme Court (via Lawrence v.^ In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole.
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^ Tx-Sc: Texas Supreme Court Library, Austin, Texas.
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^ Constitution of the United Mexican States; the General Colonization Law and the Colonization Law of the State of Coahuila and Texas , Natchez, 1826.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Texas court case in 2003).^ Peeler, Anderson J., and Maxey, Samuel B. History and Statement of Mercer Colony Case (Preston V. Walsh), in U.S. Circuit Court at Austin, Texas, as prepared by Messrs.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some Texans do hold some negative views towards public displays of homosexuality, but this varies by where one travels, with homophobic views usually being found in the more rural parts Texas.^ With her background as one of the editors of Sabin, she was an invaluable aid in assembling the material for this bibliography, the greater part of the entries for Texas Imprints being in printed proof when she retired.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ U.S. and European Imprints Located in one or more copies 707 University of Texas 304 Texas State Library 155 Grand Lodge at Waco 9 Houston Public 51 Baylor 73 Rosenberg at Galveston 50 .
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The publication of a bibliography also usually brings into the antiquarian book market a more or less steady flow of copies of the titles listed therein.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Regardless, violence against gays is very rare. .The cities of Austin, Dallas, Houston and San Antonio contain large gay scenes, and attitudes towards homosexuals are more positive in those cities than in any other parts of the state.^ These libraries and the libraries of the Southern Methodist University at Dallas, and of the San Jacinto Museum at Houston, as well as the Rosenberg Library at Galveston, the Houston Public Library, and the San Antonio Public Library have been carefully searched, not only for material entered in Texas Imprints , but in Mexican Imprints and U.S. and European Imprints as well.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to these, there were other newspapers at Austin and Galveston, and there was a newspaper at Matagorda, at San Augustine, and at Washington.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In October, 1839, part of the equipment of the office was moved to Austin, where Whiting began the publication of the Austin City Gazette on October 30, 1839.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Get out

To the east is the South region of the United States, specifically the bordering states of Louisiana and Arkansas. .Oklahoma is to the north, and the state of New Mexico is to the west.^ Texas is only a part of the whole, such as maps of the Gulf of Mexico, New Spain, or of the United States.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The United States and Mexico 1821-1848 , New York, 1913.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NWM: United States Military Academy Library, West Point, New York.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a completely different perspective, and source of much talk in Texas, Mexico is to the south.^ In the case of laws of Spain and later of the different governments of Mexico, the general theory has been to include laws which directly relate to Texas and exclude those relating to Mexico as a whole.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Out of Dallas/ Houston, it's easy to fly to any worlwide destination. Both cities host regular flights to Europe, Asia, and South America. .From San Antonio, Austin, Corpus Christi, connecting to one of these cities is not a big hassle.^ In addition to these, there were other newspapers at Austin and Galveston, and there was a newspaper at Matagorda, at San Augustine, and at Washington.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This tells the story of one of the dramatic events in Texas history, the capture of San Antonio de Bexar from the Mexicans by the Texans in December, 1835.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These are the first published regulations for the government of what is now one of the great cities of Texas.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From El Paso, it may be easier to fly to Los Angeles and then to other points worldwide. .Many deep south Texas residents sometimes cross the border and take flights from Monterrey now that it has non-stops to New York and other cities north.^ Still another picture of life in Texas in 1831 is by the anonymous author of A Visit to Texas ,* New York, 1834 (No.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thomas Freeman went up the Red River for thirty miles or so west of the present north-south boundary of Texas and Arkansas, where he was turned back by the Spaniards.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sam Acheson in his 35,000 Days in Texas, A History of the Dallas News and Its Forebears , New York, 1938, falls into the same error.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For the braver, more adventurous (and more frugal) passengers, the Greyhound bus may be another option. Please take into consideration that this mode of transportation is used by those who cannot afford air travel and you may be riding with migrant workers, and very low income Americans. Even so, conditions in stations and on the buses are first class. .The Greyhound takes you to remote cities within Texas, and can take you as far as Mexico City and all points in Canada.^ At times, proclamations, laws and the like relating to Texas which were published by the Central Government at Mexico City, were republished in one or more of the state capitals.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Items on colonization, which though general in form were intended for Texas, constitute most of the Mexico City printing on Texas at this time.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Copies have been located at the Bancroft, Yale, and University of Texas libraries, at the Biblioteca Nacional at Mexico City, and in the collection of Mr. Everett D. Graff.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Passengers on Greyhound going to Mexico must have a valid passport.
This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Texas
by John Greenleaf Whittier

Contents

Voice of New English

.The five poems immediately following indicate the intense feeling of the friends of freedom in view of the annexation of Texas, with its vast territory sufficient, as was boasted, for six new slave States.^ An educated man named Professor C. H. Davis had wandered down to this part of Texas from New York state.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Houston said that as governor of the state he felt it his duty to inform the citizens of Texas his views on secession and what the results would be.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ My selection of the first five Texas imprints follows, arranged, I should add, in chronological order and not in the order of their supposed importance.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]


.Up the hillside, down the glen,
Rouse the sleeping citizen;
Summon out the might of men!
^ You may also fill up dug-outs and ditches and make mortar and carry bricks to rebuild the houses you have torn down.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Like a lion growling low,
Like a night-storm rising slow,
Like the tread of unseen foe;
It is coming, it is nigh!
Stand your homes and altars by;
On your own free thresholds die.
.Clang the bells in all your spires;
On the gray hills of your sires
Fling to heaven your signal-fires.
^ When the first gun is fired away goes all your slaves.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Sam raised a company of about thirty men at Sparta, in Bell County, and with all available fire arms rushed toward Austin to get into the fray.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

From Wachuset, lone and bleak,
Unto Berkshire's tallest peak,
Let the flame-tongued heralds speak.
Oh, for God and duty stand,
Heart to heart and hand to hand,
Round the old graves of the land.
Whoso shrinks or falters now,
Whoso to the yoke would bow,
Brand the craven on his brow!
Freedom's soil hath only place
For a free and fearless race,
None for traitors false and base.
.Perish party, perish clan;
Strike together while ye can,
Like the arm of one strong man.
^ One man in the party, whose name I do not know, decided to stop there and establish a home.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Like that angel's voice sublime,
Heard above a world of crime,
Crying of the end of time;
With one heart and with one mouth,
Let the North unto the South
Speak the word befitting both.
"What though Issachar be strong
Ye may load his back with wrong
Overmuch and over long:
"Patience with her cup o'errun,
With her weary thread outspun,
Murmurs that her work is done.
"Make our Union-bond a chain,
Weak as tow in Freedom's strain
Link by link shall snap in twain.
"Vainly shall your sand-wrought rope
Bind the starry cluster up,
Shattered over heaven's blue cope!
"Give us bright though broken rays,
Rather than eternal haze,
Clouding o'er the full-orbed blaze.
"Take your land of sun and bloom;
Only leave to Freedom room
For her plough, and forge, and loom;
"Take your slavery-blackened vales;
Leave us but our own free gales,
Blowing on our thousand sails.
"Boldly, or with treacherous art,
Strike the blood-wrought chain apart;
Break the Union's mighty heart;
"Work the ruin, if ye will;
Pluck upon your heads an ill
Which shall grow and deepen still.
"With your bondman's right arm bare,
With his heart of black despair,
Stand alone, if stand ye dare!
"Onward with your fell design;
Dig the gulf and draw the line
Fire beneath your feet the mine!
"Deeply, when the wide abyss
Yawns between your land and this,
Shall ye feel your helplessness.
"By the hearth, and in the bed,
Shaken by a look or tread,
Ye shall own a guilty dread.
."And the curse of unpaid toil,
Downward through your generous soil
Like a fire shall burn and spoil.
^ The researcher should be aware that most of the rolls for the Revolution were destroyed in the 1855 fire which swept through the Adjutant General's office.
  • Texas Adjutant General's Department: An Inventory of Republic of Texas Military Rolls at the Texas State Archives, 1835-1846, undated 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

"Our bleak hills shall bud and blow,
Vines our rocks shall overgrow,
Plenty in our valleys flow;--
"And when vengeance clouds your skies,
Hither shall ye turn your eyes,
As the lost on Paradise!
"We but ask our rocky strand,
Freedom's true and brother band,
Freedom's strong and honest hand;
"Valleys by the slave untrod,
And the Pilgrim's mountain sod,
Blessed of our fathers' God!"

To Faneuil Hall

Written in 1844, on reading a call by "a Massachusetts Freeman" for a meeting in Faneuil Hall of the citizens of Massachusetts, without distinction of party, opposed to the annexation of Texas, and the aggressions of South Carolina, and in favor of decisive action against slavery.

Men! if manhood still ye claim,
If the Northern pulse can thrill,
Roused by wrong or stung by shame,
Freely, strongly still;
Let the sounds of traffic die
Shut the mill-gate, leave the stall,
Fling the axe and hammer by;
Throng to Faneuil Hall!
.Wrongs which freemen never brooked,
Dangers grim and fierce as they,
Which, like couching lions, looked
On your fathers' way;
These your instant zeal demand,
Shaking with their earthquake-call
Every rood of Pilgrim land,
Ho, to Faneuil Hall!
^ These animals have long sharp tusks and when attacked are very fierce and dangerous.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ All these thrilling experiences and pleasures of your early lives we know nothing of and can never enjoy.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

From your capes and sandy bars,
From your mountain-ridges cold,
Through whose pines the westering stars
Stoop their crowns of gold;
Come, and with your footsteps wake
Echoes from that holy wall;
Once again, for Freedom's sake,
Rock your fathers' hall!
.Up, and tread beneath your feet
Every cord by party spun:
Let your hearts together beat
As the heart of one.
^ Every normal person reaching the age of twenty-one has experienced that throbbing of the heart we call love.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]


Banks and tariffs, stocks and trade,
Let them rise or let them fall:
Freedom asks your common aid,--
Up, to Faneuil Hall!
Up, and let each voice that speaks
Ring from thence to Southern plains,
Sharply as the blow which breaks
Prison-bolts and chains!
.Speak as well becomes the free
Dreaded more than steel or ball,
Shall your calmest utterance be,
Heard from Faneuil Hall!
^ At night you shall have a fifty pound ball and chain locked around your leg and be placed in a strong cell.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Have they wronged us? Let us then
Render back nor threats nor prayers;
Have they chained our free-born men?
Let us unchain theirs!
Up, your banner leads the van,
Blazoned, "Liberty for all!"
Finish what your sires began!
Up, to Faneuil Hall!

To Massachusetts

What though around thee blazes
No fiery rallying sign?
.From all thy own high places,
Give heaven the light of thine!
^ After a short time Sam found a place that he could acquire which would give him perfect seclusion from all mankind.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]


What though unthrilled, unmoving,
The statesman stand apart,
And comes no warm approving
From Mammon's crowded mart?
Still, let the land be shaken
By a summons of thine own!
By all save truth forsaken,
Stand fast with that alone!
Shrink not from strife unequal!
With the best is always hope;
And ever in the sequel
God holds the right side up!
But when, with thine uniting,
Come voices long and loud,
And far-off hills are writing
Thy fire-words on the cloud;
When from Penobscot's fountains
A deep response is heard,
And across the Western mountains
Rolls back thy rallying word;
Shall thy line of battle falter,
With its allies just in view?
Oh, by hearth and holy altar,
My fatherland, be true!
Fling abroad thy scrolls of Freedom
Speed them onward far and fast
Over hill and valley speed them,
Like the sibyl's on the blast!
Lo! the Empire State is shaking
The shackles from her hand;
With the rugged North is waking
The level sunset land!
On they come, the free battalions
East and West and North they come,
And the heart-beat of the millions
Is the beat of Freedom's drum.
"To the tyrant's plot no favor
No heed to place-fed knaves!
Bar and bolt the door forever
Against the land of slaves!"
Hear it, mother Earth, and hear it,
The heavens above us spread!
The land is roused,--its spirit
Was sleeping, but not dead!

New Hampshire

God bless New Hampshire! from her granite peaks
Once more the voice of Stark and Langdon speaks.
The long-bound vassal of the exulting South
For very shame her self-forged chain has broken;
Torn the black seal of slavery from her mouth,
And in the clear tones of her old time spoken!
.Oh, all undreamed-of, all unhoped-for changes
The tyrant's ally proves his sternest foe;
To all his biddings, from her mountain ranges,
New Hampshire thunders an indignant No!
^ When told that Texas was his destination, the youngster begged to ride with him all the way and no amount of persuasion would change him from his course.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]


Who is it now despairs? Oh, faint of heart,
Look upward to those Northern mountains cold,
Flouted by Freedom's victor-flag unrolled,
And gather strength to bear a manlier part
All is not lost. The angel of God's blessing
Encamps with Freedom on the field of fight;
Still to her banner, day by day, are pressing,
Unlooked-for allies, striking for the right
Courage, then, Northern hearts! Be firm, be true:
What one brave State hath done, can ye not also do?

The Pine-Tree.

Written on hearing that the Anti-Slavery Resolves of Stephen C. Phillips had been rejected by the Whig Convention in Faneuil Hall, in 1846.

.Lift again the stately emblem on the Bay State's rusted shield,
Give to Northern winds the Pine-Tree on our banner's tattered field.
^ All night long the wind whistled through the tall thick pine trees.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]


Sons of men who sat in council with their Bibles round the board,
Answering England's royal missive with a firm, "Thus saith the Lord!"
Rise again for home and freedom! set the battle in array!
.What the fathers did of old time we their sons must do to-day.^ This was the first time the father had seen his son.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The writer, who was six years old at the time, went with his father to bring the furniture home.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

Tell us not of banks and tariffs, cease your paltry pedler cries;
Shall the good State sink her honor that your gambling stocks may rise?
Would ye barter man for cotton? That your gains may sum up higher,
Must we kiss the feet of Moloch, pass our children through the fire?
Is the dollar only real? God and truth and right a dream?
Weighed against your lying ledgers must our manhood kick the beam?
O my God! for that free spirit, which of old in Boston town
Smote the Province House with terror, struck the crest of Andros down!
For another strong-voiced Adams in the city's streets to cry,
"Up for God and Massachusetts! Set your feet on Mammon's lie!
Perish banks and perish traffic, spin your cotton's latest pound,
But in Heaven's name keep your honor, keep the heart o' the Bay State sound!"
Where's the man for Massachusetts! Where's the voice to speak her free?
Where's the hand to light up bonfires from her mountains to the sea?
Beats her Pilgrim pulse no longer? Sits she dumb in her despair?
Has she none to break the silence? Has she none to do and dare?
O my God! for one right worthy to lift up her rusted shield,
And to plant again the Pine-Tree in her banner's tattered field

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
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From LoveToKnow 1911

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Contents

English

Map of US highlighting Texas

Etymology

.From Spanish Texas (also Tejas), from Hasinai Caddo táyshaʔ (friend, ally), used to refer to the Caddo nation.^ By November 2, 1844, the press had been sold to Miller & Cushney and was on its way to Washington, Texas, where it was used in publishing the Texas National Register , beginning December 7, 1844.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Texas
Plural
-
Texas
  1. A state of the United States of America. Capital: Austin.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of aestx
  • taxes

Spanish

Alternative spellings

Etymology

From Hasinai Caddo táyshaʔ (friend, ally), used to refer to the Caddo nation.

Proper noun

Texas f.
  1. Texas

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Texas
Flag of Texas State seal of Texas
Flag of Texas SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Lone Star State
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Friendship.
Map of the United States with Texas highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif No official language
See languages of Texas
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Austin
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Houston
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 2ndImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 261,797 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(678,051 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 773 miles (1,244 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)
 - % water 2.5
 - Latitude 25° 50′ N to 36° 30′ N
 - Longitude 93° 31′ W to 106° 39′ W
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 2ndImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 20,851,820
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 79.6/sq mi 
30.75/km² (28th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Guadalupe Peak[1]
8,749 ft  (2,667 m)
 - Mean 1,700 ft  (520 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico coast[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  December 29, 1845 (28th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Rick Perry (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Kay Bailey Hutchison (R)
John Cornyn (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - most of state Central: UTC-6/-5
 - tip of West Texas Mountain: UTC-7/-6
Abbreviations TXImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Tex.Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-TXImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.texas.gov
.Texas (IPA: /ˈtɛksəs/) is a state located in the American South and Southwest regions of the United States of America.^ United States - South Dakota (western) .
  • Texas, United States Time Converter Calculator 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - South Dakota (eastern) .
  • Texas, United States Time Converter Calculator 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - Texas (far west) .
  • Texas, United States Time Converter Calculator 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]
  • (UTC/GMT) and World Meeting Planner with comparative time table 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

.With an area of 261,797 square miles (678,051 km2) and a population of 23 million in 254 counties, the state is second-largest in both area and population.^ Texas is the second largest state in the country, with over 268,800 square miles, and a population of more than 24 million residents.
  • Texas Tourist Information | Best of Texas | Visit Texas - Texas Best 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC bestoftexas.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the second largest state in land mass and the third largest in population.

^ In the 20th century, it grew rapidly, becoming the second largest state in population 1994, and became economically highly diversified, with a growing base in high technology.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.About half the state's population resides in Dallas–Fort Worth and Houston metropolitan areas.^ The destruction caused by Doomsday led to an influx of refugees not only from Texarkana, Longview and other military targets, but from the destroyed cities of Dallas and Fort Worth in the north and Houston and Galveston from the south.
  • Eastern Texas (1983: Doomsday) - Alternative History 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC althistory.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texas is the second largest state in the country, with over 268,800 square miles, and a population of more than 24 million residents.
  • Texas Tourist Information | Best of Texas | Visit Texas - Texas Best 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC bestoftexas.com [Source type: General]

^ Top San Antonio Hotels Top Austin Hotels Top Houston Hotels Top Dallas Hotels Top Amarillo Hotels Top Galveston Hotels Top Fort Worth Hotels Top Texas Restaurants Texas' food is as varied as its culture, carrying a wide selection of restaurants offering everything from steakhouses to ethnic fusion.
  • Texas.com can help you find an apartment, search jobs, plan a trip or search upcoming events across every city in Texas. 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.texas.com [Source type: News]

[2]
.The state's name derives from táyshaʔ, a word in the Caddoan language of the Hasinai, which means "friends" or "allies".[3][4][5] Texas declared its independence from Mexico in 1836 and existed as the independent Republic of Texas for nearly a decade.^ Constitution of the Republic of Texas 1836 .
  • Constitution of the Republic of Texas 1836 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tamu.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Texas Declaration of Independence (1836).
  • Texas History|Republic of Texas becomes a State 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.forttumbleweed.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Auditor of the Republic of Texas from 1836-1839 .
  • Texas History Page - John Wyatt Moody 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC texashistorypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1845, it joined the United States as the 28th state.^ Section 3: Statehood and Beyond 29 December 1845 -- U. S. President James Polk followed through on a campaign platform promising to annex Texas, and signed legislation making Texas the 28th state of the United States.
  • Texas Timeline (Key Events in early Texas) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lsjunction.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lasted until 1845, when the ROT was supposedly brought into the union by a joint resolution of the United States Congress.
  • Texas Republic 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC chiefacoins.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1836, Texans voted for annexation by the United States; approval by the U.S. Congress was delayed until 1845, however, because of the northern states' opposition to the extension of slavery.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Texas is one of only four states that was an independent nation before becoming a constituent state of the U.S.
.Texas is internationally known for its energy and aeronautics industries, and for the ship channel at the Port of Houston—the largest in the U.S. in international commerce and the sixth-largest port in the world.^ Houston, a city known as the Energy Capital of the World, is also a progressive city where environmental initiatives abound.
  • Visit Houston Texas - Tourism, Houston Events, Special Offers, Info & More! - Greater Houston CVB 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.visithoustontexas.com [Source type: General]

^ At M. D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, the world's largest stand-alone cancer hospital, patients and caregivers exist in a parallel universe where nothing but conquering cancer matters.
  • Texas News - Breaking Local Texas News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC topics.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Energy-intensive industries in Texas include aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, and petroleum refining.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .The state is home to the most Fortune 500 companies and has the second-largest economy in the U.S.[7][8] The Texas Medical Center in Houston contains the world's largest concentration of research and healthcare institutions.^ Texas contains 158 nations , the 29th most in the world.

^ Texas is now the second largest State in the Union, after California.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.friesian.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Training and experience garnered by graduates of UT-Austin, which has one of the largest and most diverse university semiconductor research programs in the world, puts the school among the industry's most well regarded workforce pipelines.
  • Semiconductor Industry | The Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce :: Austin, Texas 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.austinchamber.com [Source type: News]

[9]

Contents

History

Main article: History of Texas
.In addition to its own state flag, Texas boasts that "Six Flags" have flown over its soil: the national flags of Spain, the Fleur-de-lis of France, Mexico, the Republic of Texas, the Confederate States of America, and the United States of America.^ During its history, Texas has had eight changes of sovereignty, and six flags have flown over the state.

^ Flag-Six Flags Texas w/stand/box .
  • Republic of Texas Museum ~ Daughters of the Republic of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.shop.drtmuseum.org [Source type: General]

^ Trade grew between Texas and the United States, alarming Mexico.

[10]
.American Indian tribes who once lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include Apache, Atakapan, Bidai, Caddo, Comanche, Cherokee, Kiowa, Tonkawa, Wichita, Hueco and the Karankawa of Galveston.^ Native American tribes that lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama , Apache , Atakapan , Bidai , Caddo , Coahuiltecan , Comanche , Cherokee , Choctaw , Coushatta , Hasinai , Jumano , Karankawa , Kickapoo , Kiowa , Tonkawa , and Wichita .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, there are three federally-recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribes of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Evidence of a meeting in eastern Texas between Middle American prehistoric cultures and temple Mound Builders from the eastern part of what is now the United States has been discovered in an Indian mound on the Neches River, and many tribal groups--including the Apache, Caddo, and Comanche--inhabited what is now Texas.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Currently, there are three federally recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.^ Currently, there are three federally-recognized Native American tribes which reside in Texas: the Alabama-Coushatta Tribes of Texas, the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas, and the Ysleta Del Sur Pueblo of Texas.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Native American tribes that lived inside the boundaries of present-day Texas include the Alabama , Apache , Atakapan , Bidai , Caddo , Coahuiltecan , Comanche , Cherokee , Choctaw , Coushatta , Hasinai , Jumano , Karankawa , Kickapoo , Kiowa , Tonkawa , and Wichita .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am a proud resident of Texas, an educated and informed American, a proud father of four, and a veteran of this nation’s fine Air Force.
  • What’s Left of Texas : MooreThink.com 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.moorethink.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
On 6 November 1528, shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first known European in Texas.^ This was the first European colony in Texas.

^ Spanish explorer Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and his companions were the first Europeans in the area in 1529.

^ Affectionately known as the "Stephen F" by native Austinites, the InterContinental Stephen F. Austin has been part of the city scene for more than 60 years.
  • Austin Hotels - Hotels in Austin - AustinTexas.org - Homepage - Web 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC reservations.austintexas.org [Source type: General]

[12] .Most of Texas was immediately claimed by Spain as part of the Spanish dominions of New Spain.^ In 1850, as part of the Compromise of 1850, Texas relinquished its claim to half of what today is New Mexico and portions of Colorado, Wyoming, Oklahoma, and Kansas in exchange for the sum of $10 million.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Spanish crown had considered Texas part of the interior of New Spain, or really part of New Spain at all, the viceroys would never have granted Protestant American settlers the right to found colonies there.
  • 04/20/01 - Lone Star Setting? San Jacinto Undone, By Howard Sutherland 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.vdare.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Texas was originally part of New Spain, in the province of Nueva Felipinas (New Philippines), and later part of Mexico, first in the Internal Eastern State (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Texas), and second in the State of Coahuila and Texas.
  • State Seal of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.sos.state.tx.us [Source type: Original source]

[13] France took advantage of Spain's failure to settle the land and, in 1685, established Fort St. Louis, also claiming most of Texas. The French colony at Fort St. Louis failed, however, due to harsh conditions and hostile natives.[14] The first Spanish colonization did not come until a few years after the establishment of Fort St. Louis, as Spain was spurred by France to enforce its claims. .The French claim was inherited by the United States as they bought the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Spanish claim was later inherited by Mexico during the Mexican War of Independence of 1821, setting the stage for the Mexican–American War.^ War had been declared by the United States against Mexico.
  • The Republic Of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.thehewitt.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The United States later paid for the arms they had taken from the Texans.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They got Mexico to agree to recognize the independence of Texas, but only if Texas agreed not to join the United States.
  • American History Series: In 1845, Republic of Texas Faces a Choice 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American History Series: In 1845, Republic of Texas Faces a Choice 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the 1800s, two main ethnic groups settled the land: Tejanos and Anglo Americans.^ P.16: Multiculturism - "We favor strengthening our common American identity and loyalty over the ideology of multiculturism that emphasizes the differences between racial and ethnic groups."
  • Texas Republican Party Platform 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.theocracywatch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1822, the schooner Only Son landed Anglo American settlers for Stephen F. Austin's colony at the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda Bay.

^ The early Anglo Americans, Germans, Austrians, Czechs and Scots with farming and ranching interests played an important role in developing and settling this area.

.By 1830, the 30,000 Anglo settlers in Texas outnumbered the Tejanos two to one.^ He estimated the population at 30,000 Anglo-Americans, 3,478 Tejanos, 14,200 Indians, of which 8,000 belonged to civilized tribes that had migrated from the United States, and a slave population of 5,000, plus a few free blacks.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two nuclear plants, Comanche Peak and South Texas Project, typically account for about one-tenth of the State’s electric power production.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The new government's efforts to tighten political and economic control over the territory of Texas roused emotions in the Texian settlers and local Tejanos , leading to the Texas Revolution .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Smaller numbers of Europeans also came. .Moses Austin bought 200,000 acres (810 km2) of land of his choice, and moved to San Antonio in August of 1821.[15] His son, Stephen F. Austin, joined him.^ Austin vs. San Antonio?
  • Austin Forum - Relocation, Moving, Local City Discussions - City-Data Forum 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.city-data.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Austin is strategically located between the east and west coasts and centrally located relative to the major Texas metros of San Antonio, Dallas and Houston.
  • Semiconductor Industry | The Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce :: Austin, Texas 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC www.austinchamber.com [Source type: News]

^ In 1820 Moses Austin, then living in Missouri, received from the Spanish authorities of Mexico a grant of land in Texas, and dying, his son, Stephen F., received a confirmation of the grant in 1823.

.In 1821, Texas became part of the newly independent Republic of Mexico and, in 1824, became the northern section of Coahuila y Tejas.^ Eventually, Tejas became Texas.

^ The Coahuila y Tejas Flag about 1824 .
  • Texas History Page - Origin of the Lone Star Flag 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC texashistorypage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Texas declared  independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, to become the Republic of Texas.

.On 3 January 1823, Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 300 Anglo American families known as the "Old Three Hundred" along the Brazos River, after Austin was authorized to do so by Governor Antonio María Martínez and then successive Mexican officials as Mexico went through tumultuous political regime changes.^ In December, 1821 the schooner Lively landed Stephen F. Austin's "Old 300", the first Anglo-American settlers at the mouth of the Brazos River.

^ January 1823 : Stephen F. Austin began a colony of 300 families along the Brazos River in present-day Fort Bend County and Brazoria County , centered primarily in the area of what is now Fort Bend County.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group became known as the Old Three Hundred .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Austin soon organized even more groups of immigrants, with authorization from the Mexican government.^ The Mexican government had grown even weaker.
  • American History Series: In 1845, Republic of Texas Faces a Choice 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As a colonist with Austin's Old Three Hundred, or any colonies authorized under the Spanish or Mexican governments before the Texas Revolution or those authorized by the Congress of the Republic of Texas.
  • Daughters of the Republic of Texas 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.sanjacintodrt.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1820, Moses and Stephen F. Austin started the Anglo-American colonization that culminated in the organization of a provisional government at San Felipe on Nov.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, more Tejanos were also settling in Texas, and as Antonio Menchaca writes in "Memoirs" in 1907, many Tejanos were already desirous of joining the United States.^ Texas into the United States).
  • Texas Secretary of State, Elections Division: An Inventory of Republic of Texas Election Returns at the Texas State Archives, 1835-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.lib.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ United States - Texas (far west) .
  • Texas, United States Time Converter Calculator 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.worldtimeserver.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States notes also circulated in Texas.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.Tejanos were mostly full-blooded Spanish immigrants, few partly or entirely of American Indian heritage as most Mexicans south of the Rio Grande were.^ The Rio Grande valley is mostly covered by brush, mesquite, cedar, post oak, and in places a dense growth of prickly pear.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Policies that most irritated the Texians included the Mexican ban on slavery, the forcible disarmament of Texan settlers, and the expulsion of illegal immigrants from the United States of America .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He estimated the population at 30,000 Anglo-Americans, 3,478 Tejanos, 14,200 Indians, of which 8,000 belonged to civilized tribes that had migrated from the United States, and a slave population of 5,000, plus a few free blacks.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.The "Conventions" of 1832 and 1833 were a response to rising unrest at the policies of the ruling Mexican government, which included the end of duty free imports from the United States and the potential end to the special allowance for slavery in the state.^ The "Conventions" of 1832 and 1833 responded to rising unrest at the policies of the ruling Mexican government.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be it further resolved, That the President of Texas is hereby requested, immediately, to furnish the Government of the United States, through their accredited Minister near this Government, with a copy of this Joint Resolution, also to furnish the Convention to assemble at Austin on the fourth of July next a copy of the same.
  • Texas History|Republic of Texas becomes a State 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.forttumbleweed.net [Source type: Original source]

^ In September 1836, Texans voted for annexation by the United States; approval by the U.S. Congress was delayed until 1845, however, because of the northern states' opposition to the extension of slavery.
  • Texas Information, history, demographics, and statistics -(A Texas Primer part 2) 28 January 2010 0:59 UTC www.lone-star.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Slavery had been abolished in Mexico with the independence.^ When Mexico abolished slavery nationwide, some immigrants from the U.S. refused to comply with the law.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Spain's policy of allowing only full-blooded Spaniards to settle Texas also ended with independence.^ They talked of a " resumption of sovereign powers " with some plausibility, for Texas was the only State in the Union that had ever possessed them, as an absolutely independent State.

^ They got Mexico to agree to recognize the independence of Texas, but only if Texas agreed not to join the United States.
  • American History Series: In 1845, Republic of Texas Faces a Choice 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American History Series: In 1845, Republic of Texas Faces a Choice 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.voanews.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our hotel in downtown Austin is the closest full-service hotel to the Texas State Capitol and only 1 block away.
  • Austin Hotels - Hotels in Austin - AustinTexas.org - Homepage - Web 10 February 2010 11:45 UTC reservations.austintexas.org [Source type: General]

.In 1835, Antonio López de Santa Anna, President of Mexico, proclaimed a unified constitution for all Mexican territories, including Texas.^ The dictatorship of President Antonio López de Santa Anna , supported by rich landowners, had seized control of the governments and subverted the constitution.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Is very critical of Mexican President Santa Anna.
  • TSHA Online - Lone Star History Links - Selected Texas History Documents - The Republic of Texas: (1840-1843) 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC tshaonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Louisiana, which included the territory of Texas.

[15] .The new Constitution ended the republic and the federation, imposed a central style of government with power concentrated in the President, and turned states into provinces with governors appointed from Mexico City.^ The President appoints and dismisses the ministers of state.
  • Constitution of Indonesia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC asnic.utexas.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The reins of power for the new state of Texas were turned over to Governor elect of the State of texas, J. Pinckney Henderson.
  • Texas History|Republic of Texas becomes a State 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.forttumbleweed.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Federalism, the binding together loosely of the several states, would serve to prevent the concentration of power in a central government and was a crucial element in the new Republic.
  • A Republic, If You Can Keep It 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.house.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Some states around Mexico rebelled against this imposition, including Chihuahua, Zacatecas and Yucatan.^ In 1845, the annexation of Texas by the United States led to the declaration of war against Mexico.
  • History of Laredo, Texas - Laredo CVB 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.ci.laredo.tx.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main theme of the entries for the 1838-1840 period is the Federalist revolt against Mexico in the states along the lower Rio Grande in which many Texans were engaged.
  • Texas As Province and Republic, 1795-1845 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC microformguides.gale.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ France, Great Britain, and the United States were clamoring for the payment of claims of their citizens against Mexico.
  • Handbook of Texas Online - REPUBLIC OF TEXAS 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.tshaonline.org [Source type: Original source]

.Texans were also irritated by other policies including the forcible disarmament of Texan settlers, and the expulsion of immigrants and legal land owners originally from the United States.^ Policies that most irritated the Texians included the Mexican ban on slavery, the forcible disarmament of Texan settlers, and the expulsion of illegal immigrants from the United States of America .
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He offers several hypotheses as to the influences that cause the American culture to accept originalism much more readily than other nations, ultimately concluding that the debate over originalism in the United States should be approached in ethical terms.

^ However, United States policy towards Latin America must promote growth that is sustainable, just and inclusive, regardless of socio-economic status...
  • Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Implementation Act of 2005 | TheMiddleClass.org 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC themiddleclass.org [Source type: Original source]

.The example of the Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government.^ The example of the Centralista forces' suppression of dissidents in Zacatecas also inspired fear of the Mexican government.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We are, therefore, forced to the melancholy conclusion, that the Mexican people have acquiesced in the destruction of their liberty, and the substitution therfor of a military government; that they are unfit to be free, and incapable of self government.
  • The Texas Declaration of Independence - Gold & Silver Forum 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC goldismoney.info [Source type: Original source]

[16]
Republic of Texas. The present-day outlines of the U.S. states are superimposed on the boundaries of 1836–1845
.On 2 March 1836, the Convention of 1836 signed a Declaration of Independence,[17] declaring Texas an independent nation.^ Texas Declaration of Independence (1836).
  • Roster of the Republic of Texas Army 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.forttumbleweed.net [Source type: Academic]
  • Texas History|Republic of Texas becomes a State 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC www.forttumbleweed.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Texas declared  independence from Mexico on March 2, 1836, to become the Republic of Texas.

^ March 1836 : The "Convention of 1836" signed the Texas Declaration of Independence , making an attempt at a clear break from Mexican rule.
  • History of Texas - Familypedia 2 February 2010 16:19 UTC familypedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .On 21 April 1836, the Texans—led by General Sam Houston—won their independence when they defeated the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto.^ On April 21, 1836, Sam Houston and his Texas forces defeated Mexican troops at the Battle of San Jacinto.
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