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Texas's 1st congressional district
TX01 109.gif
Current Representative Louie Gohmert (R)
Population (2000) 651,619
Median income $33,461
Ethnicity 74.4% White, 18.4% Black, 0.4% Asian, 9.3% Hispanic, 0.5% Native American, 0.2% other
Cook PVI R+21

Texas's First congressional district in the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the northeastern portion of the state of Texas. As of the 2000 census, the First District represents 651,619 people. It consists largely of three small East Texas metropolitan areasLufkin-Nacogdoches, in the south, Longview-Marshall, and Tyler.

Boundaries of Texas District 1 as they appeared before redistricting in 2004.

The First District once encompassed large parts of North Texas and Central Texas, but as the population of Texas grew, the district got smaller until it only encompassed about half of Northeast Texas.

For most of its history, the district was based in Texarkana. However, in a controversial 2003 redistricting orchestrated by then-House Majority Leader Tom DeLay, Texarkana was drawn out of the district and moved to the neighboring Fourth congressional district. Lufkin, Tyler and Longview were added in its place.

The district was predominantly rural for much of its history, and thus was far friendlier to electing Democrats to Congress even as most of Texas swung toward the Republicans. The district's four-term Democratic incumbent, Max Sandlin, was a particularly severe critic of the DeLay-led redistricting effort, claiming that lumping rural areas with urban ones stifled the voice of rural voters. Indeed, the 2003 redistricting made the district more urban and Republican, especially with the addition of the Republican strongholds of Tyler and Longview. Sandlin was heavily defeated in November 2004 by Republican Louie Gohmert, a longtime judge in the Tyler area. Gohmert is the first Republican to represent the district since Reconstruction.

The district's best-known congressman, Wright Patman, represented the district for 47 years — the second-longest tenure of anyone in Congress from Texas. He was an early supporter of the New Deal, and later chaired the House Banking Committee for 12 years.

Demographics

Population: 651,619 (2000 Census) Under 18: 26.2% Over 65: 14.1% Married 58.7% Non-Hispanic White:71% Black:18% Hispanic:9% Asian:1% Foreign Born: 5.3% Language Other than English:9.8% Median Household Income:$33,461 Owner Occupied Housing:71.9% Income Above $200K:1.4%

Representatives from Texas's First congressional district

Name Took Office Left Office Party District Residence
David Spangler Kaufman 1846 1851 Democrat Nacogdoches
Richardson A. Scurry 1851 1853 Democrat San Augustine
George Washington Smyth 1853 1855 Democrat Jasper
Lemuel D. Evans 1855 1857 American (Know-Nothing) (K-N) Marshall
John Henninger Reagan 1857 1861 Democrat Palestine
American Civil War/Reconstruction
George W. Whitmore 1869 1871 Republican Tyler
William S. Herndon 1871 1875 Democrat Tyler
John H. Reagan 1875 1883 Democrat Palestine
David B. Culberson 1883 1897 Democrat Jefferson
John W. Cranford 1897 1899 Democrat Sulphur Springs
John Levi Sheppard 1899 1902* Democrat Texarkana
John Morris Sheppard 1902 1913 Democrat Texarkana
Horace Worth Vaughan 1913 1915 Democrat Texarkana
Eugene Black 1915 1929 Democrat Clarksville
Wright Patman 1929 1976* Democrat Texarkana
Sam B. Hall 1976 1985 Democrat Marshall
Jim Chapman 1985 1997 Democrat Sulphur Springs
Max Sandlin 1997 2005 Democrat Marshall
Louie Gohmert 2005 present Republican Tyler

(*)Died in office.

Election results

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