Thai solar calendar: Wikis

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The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (Thai: สุริยคติ: Suriya plus kati : way) was adopted by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1888 as the Siamese version of the Gregorian calendar. It is the official calendar in Thailand, though Thai lunar calendar dates continue in use. Years are counted in the Buddhist Era (póota sàk-gà-râat พุทธศักราช พ.ศ.) that is 543 years greater than the Christian Era (krít sàk-gà-râat คริสต์ศักราช ค.ศ.) As a convenience, calendars typically include the Christian Era (AD) in both Chinese and Arabic numerals.

August 2004: ๒๕๔๗ = 2547 BE in Thai numerals, 二〇〇四年 = 2004 Year in Chinese
August 2004/2547BE

Contents

Calendar

Birthdays

Thai birth certificates record the date, month, year and time of birth, followed by the day of the week, lunar date, and Chinese astrology animal. Thai traditionally reckon their ages by the 12-year animal-cycle names, with the twelfth and sixtieth anniversaries being of special significance; but the official calendar determines age at law.

For instance, August 12, 2004 was observed without regard to the lunar date as Queen Sirikit's birthday, a public holiday also observed as Thai Mothers' Day. Her zodiacal animal is the monkey and her traditionally significant sixtieth anniversary year was 1992. Born on a Friday, her auspicious birthday colour is blue. Thai auspicious colours of the day are given in the table of weekdays, below, followed by a link to the Buddha images for each day of the week.

Years

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Rattanakosin Era

The Rattanakosin Era (RE) (รัตนโกสินทรศก Rattanakosin Sok) Year 1 began April 6, 1782, with the accession of Rama I, the foundation of the Chakri Dynasty and the founding of Bangkok as capital (Rattanakosin). King Chulalongkorn decreed this as the epoch (reference date) for the counting of years in 106 RE, AD 1888.

Buddhist Era

In Thailand the Buddhist Era is reckoned to have an epochal year 0 from 11 March 545 BC, believed to be the date of the death of Gautama Buddha. King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) changed year counting to this Buddhist Era (BE) and moved the start of the year back to April 1 in 2455 BE, AD 1912.

In 1941, Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram decreed January 1 as the start of the year 2484 BE, so year 2483 BE had only nine months. To convert dates from January 1 to March 31 prior to that year, the number to add or subtract is 542; otherwise, it is 543. Example:

This chart shows changed Thai new year day in 2484 BE compared with AD.

Today, both the Common Era New Year's Day (January 1) and the traditional Thai New Year (สงกรานต์ Songkran) celebrations (April 13-15) are public holidays in Thailand. Buddhist feasts that are public holidays are calculated according to the lunar calendar, so their dates change with respect to the solar calendar every year.

Chinese New Year dates determine the change of zodiacal animal.

The months and days of the week are the same as those used in the Gregorian calendar.

Months

Names of the months derive from Hindu names of the signs of the zodiac. Thirty-day-month names end in -ayon (-อายน), from Sanskrit root -āyana : the arrival of; 31-day-month names end in -akhom (-อาคม), from Sanskrit -āgama that also means the arrival of.

February's name ends in -phan (-พันธ์), from Sanskrit bandha : "fettered" or "bound". The day added to February in a solar leap year is Athikasuratin (อธิกสุรทิน, respelled to aid pronunciation (อะทิกะสุระทิน from Sanskrit adhika : additional; sura : move).[1])

Months
English name Thai name Abbr. Transcription Sanskrit word Zodiac sign
January มกราคม ม.ค. makarakhom makara "sea-monster" Capricorn
February กุมภาพันธ์ ก.พ. kumphaphan kumbha "pitcher, water-pot" Aquarius
March มีนาคม มี.ค. minakhom mīna "(a specific kind of) fish" Pisces
April เมษายน เม.ย. mesayon meṣa "ram" Aries
May พฤษภาคม พ.ค. phruetsaphakhom vṛṣabha "bull" Taurus
June มิถุนายน มิ.ย. mithunayon mithuna "a pair" Gemini
July กรกฎาคม ก.ค. karakadakhom karkaṭa "crab" Cancer
August สิงหาคม ส.ค. singhakhom siṃha "lion" Leo
September กันยายน ก.ย. kanyayon kanyā "girl" Virgo
October ตุลาคม ต.ค. tulakhom tulā "balance" Libra
November พฤศจิกายน พ.ย. phruetsachikayon vṛścika "scorpion" Scorpio
December ธันวาคม ธ.ค. thanwakhom dhanu "bow, arc" Sagittarius

Weeks

A week (สัปดาห์ sàb-da or สัปดาหะ sàb-da-hà from Sanskrit "seven") is a 7-day period beginning on Sunday and ending Saturday.[2]

Days of the week are named after the Sun and Moon, and Sanskrit names of the five classical planets.

Weekdays
English name Thai name Transcription Colour Sanskrit word Planet
Sunday วันอาทิตย์ wan athit red Aditya Sun
Monday วันจันทร์ wan chan yellow Chandra Moon
Tuesday วันอังคาร wan angkhan pink Angaraka Mars
Wednesday วันพุธ wan phut green Budha Mercury
Thursday วันพฤหัสบดี wan pharuehat (sabodi) orange Brihaspati Jupiter
Friday วันศุกร์ wan suk blue Shukra Venus
Saturday วันเสาร์ wan sao purple Shani Saturn

Note: The colours are those considered auspicious for the given days of the week. There are also Buddha images for each day of the week, with three options for Monday; and a different image for Wednesday day (colour green) and Wednesday night (colour light green.) [3]

Notes

  1. ^ thai2english dictionary
  2. ^ Royal Institute Dictionary 1999
  3. ^ "THAI BIRTH DAY COLORS AND BUDDHA IMAGE". United States Muay Thai Association Inc. 16 October 2004. http://www.usmta.com/Thai-Birthday.htm. Retrieved 14 November 2009. "An innovation of the Ayutthaya period."  

See also

References

  • Eade, John Christopher. 1995. The Calendrical Systems of Mainland South-East Asia. Handbuch der Orientalistik: Dritte Abteilung, Südostasien 9. Leiden and New York: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10437-2
  • na Nakorn, Bleung (comp.). [1971]. นายเปลื้อง ณ นคร ผู้รวบรวม ปทานุกรมนักเรียน ไทยวัฒนาพานิช กทม. Student's Handbook. Bangkok: Thai Wattana Panit, 2514.
  • Sethaputra, So. 1999. New Model English - Thai Dictionary. [Krung Thep Maha Nakhon?: Thai Watthana Phanit?]. ISBN 974-08-3253-9
  • Thai calendar for August 2004.
  • Web dictionary Thai-English English-Thai

External links


Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Calendars
</div>
Common use Astro · Gregorian · Islamic · ISO · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Bikram Samwat · Buddhist · Chinese · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Korean · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (Lunar – Solar) · Tibetan · Turkish · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

The Thai solar calendar, Suriyakati (Thai: สุริยคติ), has been the official and prevalent calendar in Thailand since it was adopted by King Chulalongkorn in 1888, although the Western calendar year is sometimes used in business, and quite often in banking.

August 2004/2547BE
Label
Thai calendars show both the Buddhist Era (BE, Thai: พุทธศักราช
Phuttasakarat), abbreviated Pho So (Thai: พ.ศ.

); and the Christian Era (Thai: คริสต์ศักราช , kritsakarat) , abbreviated Kho So (Thai: ค.ศ. ). They also show Chinese numerals for the Common Era and Chinese Lunar dates. As lunar dates determine Buddhist Sabbaths (Thai: วันพระ

Wan Phra), as well as many Chinese traditional festivals, both lunar calendar and Chinese lunar dates are shown.
Thai (left) and Chinese (right) holy days.
  • Wan Pra are marked with a Buddha image, and Chinese holidays with red Chinese characters.
  • Scrawled blue figures (in this example 078 on the 15th and, above left, 538 on the 19th and 2576 on the 31st) mark dates national lottery numbers were drawn.
  • Lunar dates and the year's Animal are recorded on Thai birth certificates after the official date. The Thai reckon their ages by the Twelve-Animal sequence, though the official calendar determines age at law; as, for instance, the Queen's Birthday, August 12, a public holiday also celebrated as Thai Mothers' Day.

The months and days of the week are the same as those used in the western Gregorian calendar. Names of the months derive from Hindu names of the signs of the zodiac. Days of the week are named after the Sun and Moon, and translations of the names of the five classical planets. The year is counted from the Buddhist Era (B.E.), which is 543 years earlier than the Christian Era (A.D.). For example, A.D. 2007 is equivalent to 2550 B.E. The era is based on the passing away (Parinibbana) of Gautama Buddha, which is dated to 543 BC by the Thai (although some sources state that Buddha died in 483 BC). It is important to remember that only from January 1, 1941 onwards does this 543 addition/subtraction rule work perfectly — see below.

The calendar,decreed by King Chulalongkorn (Rama V), was called Ratana Kosindra Sok (Thai: รัตนโกสินทรศก ), and was nearly identical with the western Gregorian calendar. Year counting, however, was in reference of the date of the founding of Bangkok (Ratana Kosindra), April 6 1782 (the first day of Year 1 Ratana Kosindra Era (Thai: รัตนโกสินทร์ศักราช ), abbr. (Thai: ร.ศ. ) ro so). King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) changed the year counting to Buddhist Era in 1912 and fixed the start of a year to April 1.

In 1941 (2484 B.E.) as World War II loomed on the horizon, Prime Minister Phibunsongkhram per decree made January 1 the official start of a new year (so year 2483 B.E. had only nine months). When converting a date prior to that year, check whether it falls between January 1 and March 31: if so the number to add or subtract is 542, not 543.

This chart shows changed Thai new year day in 2484 BE comparing with AD.

Today, both the Common-Era New Year's Day (January 1) and the traditional Songkran (Thai: สงกรานต์ ) celebrations (April 13-15) are public holidays on the official calendar. Public holidays on the official calendar for Buddhist and Chinese feasts are still calculated according to the lunar calendar, so their dates change with respect to the solar calendar every year.

Thirty-day-month names end with Thai: -ยน

-yon, which is from the Sanskrit root -ayana, meaning the arrival of; 31-day-month names with Thai: -คม
-khom, which is from Sanskrit -agama which also means the arrival of. February's name ends with Thai: -พันธ์

, fettered or bound. The day added to February in a solar leap year is named Athikasuratin Thai: อธิกสุรทิน

respelled to aid pronunciation Thai
อะทิกะสุระทิน

.[1]

Months
English name Thai Name Abbr. Transcription Zodiac Sign
January มกราคม ม.ค. makarakhom Capricorn
February กุมภาพันธ์ ก.พ. kumphaphan Aquarius
March มีนาคม มี.ค. minakhom Pisces
April เมษายน เม.ย. mesayon Aries
May พฤษภาคม พ.ค. pruetsaphakhom Taurus
June มิถุนายน มี.ย. mithunayon Gemini
July กรกฎาคม ก.ค. karakadakhom Cancer
August สิงหาคม ส.ค. singhakhom Leo
September กันยายน ก.ย. kanyayon Virgo
October ตุลาคม ต.ค. tulakhom Libra
November พฤศจิกายน พ.ย. pruetsachikayon Scorpio
December ธันวาคม ธ.ค. thanwakhom Sagittarius
Weekdays
English name Thai name Transcription Planet
Sunday วันอาทิตย์ wan athit Sun
Monday วันจันทร์ wan chan Moon
Tuesday วันอังคาร wan angkhan Mars
Wednesday วันพุธ wan phut Mercury
Thursday วันพฤหัสบดี wan pharuehat(sabodi) Jupiter
Friday วันศุกร์ wan suk Venus
Saturday วันเสาร์ wan sao Saturn

Note: The colours are the traditional Thai birthday colours associated with the days of the week: red, yellow, pink, green, orange, blue and purple.

See also

References

  • นายเปลื้อง ณ นคร ผู้รวบรวม ปทานุกรมนักเรียน ไทยวัฒนาพานิช กทม. Mr. Bleung na Nakorn, Compiler, Student's Handbook, Thai Wattana Panit, Bangkok 2514
  • Thai calendar for August 2004
  • Sethaputra, So. New Model English - Thai Dictionary, ISBN 974-08-3253-9
  • Web dictionary Thai-English English-Thai
  • J.C. Eade. The calendrical systems of mainland south-east Asia. ISBN 90-04-10437-2

External link


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Thai solar calendar. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.

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This article uses material from the "Thai solar calendar" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

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