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The Archers

The podcast picture of the soap
Genre Soap opera
Running time 15 minutes, later 12½ minutes
Country United Kingdom
Languages English
Home station BBC Light Programme, later BBC Home Service, now BBC Radio 4
Creators Godfrey Baseley
Editors Vanessa Whitburn
Producers Julie Beckett
Recording studio BBC Birmingham
Air dates since 29 May – 2 June 1950 (pilot)
1 January 1951 – present
No. of episodes 15,995 (as of 10 January 2010)[1]
Audio format Stereophonic sound
Opening theme Barwick Green
Barwick Green.ogg
Website Archers homepage
Podcast The Archers podcast

The Archers is a British soap opera broadcast on the BBC's main spoken-word channel, Radio 4. Originally billed as "an everyday story of country folk", a familiar phrase now "dumbed up" on its R4 page as "contemporary drama in a rural setting". [2] With more than 15,900 episodes it is the both world's longest running radio soap and, since the axing of the American soap opera Guiding Light in September 2009, the longest running soap opera of all formats in the world. [3]

The Archers is the most listened to Radio 4 non-news programme,[4] and holds the BBC Radio programme record for the number of times listened to over the internet, with over one million listeners.[5]

Contents

Outline

The Archers is set in the fictional village of Ambridge in the fictional county of Borsetshire, in the real English Midlands. Borsetshire is situated between the (in reality, contiguous) counties of Worcestershire and Warwickshire, south of Birmingham in the West Midlands. Various villages claim to be the inspiration for Ambridge: Ambridge's public house, The Bull, is modelled on The Old Bull in Inkberrow,[6] whereas Hanbury's St Mary the Virgin is often used as a stand-in for Ambridge's parish church, St Stephen's.[7][8]

Other fictional villages include Penny Hassett, Loxley Barrett, Darrington, Hollerton, Edgeley, Waterley Cross and Lakey Green. The county town of Borsetshire is Borchester, and the nearest big city is the cathedral city of Felpersham. Anywhere further from Ambridge may be referred to humorously with comments such as 'that's on the other side of Felpersham!', but characters do occasionally venture further: several attended the Countryside Alliance march in London,[9] there have been references to the gay scene in Manchester's Canal Street, and a number of scenes have taken place abroad or in other places around the country, with some characters resident overseas in South Africa and Hungary, and other characters have visited Norfolk. Birmingham is a favourite destination for shopping.

Since Easter Day 1998 there have been six episodes a week from Sunday to Friday, at around 19:02 (preceded by a news bulletin). All except the Friday evening episode are repeated the following day at 14:02, and all of the week's episodes are re-run as a Sunday morning omnibus at 10:00.

Characters

Many of the storylines concern the title family, the middle-class Archers, who own and manage Brookfield Farm. The farm has been passed down the generations from the original owner Dan (now deceased) to his son Phil, currently the oldest surviving Archer, and is now co-owned by three of Phil's four children: David (who manages it with his wife Ruth), Elizabeth and Kenton. As well as other Archer families and offspring, the other main families include:

  • the prosperous Aldridges, portrayed as money-driven practitioners of agribusiness. Brian, the head of the family, is a serial adulterer,
  • the rich and elderly Woolleys, with Jack now badly affected by Alzheimer's disease,[10]
  • the Grundys, formerly struggling tenant farmers who were brought to prominence in the late 1970s as comic characters, but are now seen as doggedly battling adversity,
  • the urban, nouveau riche "incomers": pretentious and domineering, Lynda Snell is the butt of many jokes, although her sheer energy makes her a stalwart of village life. She is partnered by the long-suffering Robert,
  • the perpetually struggling (and complaining) Carters,
  • the newly-remarried milkman and casual farm labourer Mike Tucker, his gushing little wifey Vicky who divides opinion like a knife, his on-site son, Roy, daughter-in-law Hayley and two grandaughters, and his nose-out-of-joint daughter Brenda, an Archer-in-waiting as Tom's intended,
  • the pseudo-aristocratic Pargetters, owners of Lower Loxley Hall in Ambridge's outskirts. Head of the family, Nigel, is keen on environmentalism but is sometimes seen as dim.

Many plots involve the teen and twenties offspring of these families, so new nuclear families come into existence over time. Other distant relatives also reappear. Some characters are well known but never heard on air. Over the years, some silent characters become real, or vice-versa (for example, Mrs Antrobus, "the Dog Woman").

Topicality

Unlike some soap operas, episodes of The Archers portray events taking place on the date of broadcast, allowing many topical subjects to be included. Real-life events which can be readily predicted in advance are often written into the script, such as the annual Oxford Farming Conference[11] and the FIFA World Cup.[12] On some occasions, scenes recorded at these events are planned and edited into episodes shortly before transmission.

More challengingly for the production team, some significant but unforeseen events require scenes to be rewritten and rerecorded at short notice, such as the death of Princess Margaret,[13][14] (particularly poignant because she had appeared as herself on the programme - see cameo appearances below) the World Trade Center attacks,[15] and the 2005 London bombings.[16] The events and implications of the 2001 foot-and-mouth crisis required many "topical inserts"[17][18][19][20] and the rewriting of several storylines.[21]

Actors

Unlike television soaps, The Archers actors are not held on retainers, so most do other acting and can disappear if they are working on long-term projects such as films or television series. For example, Tamsin Greig, who plays Debbie Aldridge, has appeared on television comedy shows such as Green Wing and Black Books. As a result, Debbie manages a farm in Hungary in which her family has an interest while Greig is filming these shows, and then returns to Ambridge when Greig's commitments allow. Because of this, and by the nature of the storylines focusing on particular groups of characters, in any week the series comprises between 20 and 30 speaking characters out of a regular cast of about 60. Greig's situation is similar to that of Felicity Jones who plays Emma Carter in the series; Jones, after a period studying at Wadham College, Oxford has moved into large TV parts, such as a starring role in Northanger Abbey.

History

Starting on Whit Monday, 29 May 1950, and continuing with five episodes through that week,[22] a pilot series created by Godfrey Baseley was broadcast to the English Midlands in the Regional Home Service, as 'a farming Dick Barton'. Recordings were sent to London, and after some discussion the BBC decided to commission the series for a longer national run. In the five pilot episodes the Archers owned Wimberton Farm, rather than Brookfield.

Since 1 January 1951, five 15-minute episodes (since 1998, six 12½-minute episodes) have been transmitted each week, at first on the BBC Light Programme and subsequently on the BBC Home Service (now Radio 4). The original scriptwriters were Geoffrey Webb and Edward J. Mason, who were also working on the series Dick Barton — Special Agent whose popularity partly inspired The Archers and whose slot in the schedules it eventually took. Originally produced with collaborative input from the Ministry of Agriculture, The Archers was conceived as a means of disseminating information to farmers and smallholders to help increase productivity in the post-World War II years of rationing and food shortages. The programme was hugely successful; at the height of its popularity it was estimated that 60% of adult Britons were regular listeners. The programme's educational remit and the involvement of the MoA ended in the 1970s, but it still contains many storylines and discussions about farming, and has a separate 'agricultural story editor', Graham Harvey.[23]

Tony Shryane MBE was the programme's producer from 1 January 1951 to 19 January 1979. Vanessa Whitburn has been the programme's editor since 1992. Since 2007, The Archers has been available as a podcast.[24] As of February 2009, it was the 49th most popular podcast on iTunes in the United Kingdom.

Death of Grace Archer

One of the most controversial Archers episodes was broadcast on 22 September 1955, the evening of the launch of the UK's first commercial television station, ITV. Phil and Grace Archer had been married just a few months earlier, and their blossoming relationship was the talk of the nation. However, searching for a story which would demonstrate some real tragedy among the increasingly unconvincing episode cliff-hangers, Godfrey Baseley had decided that Grace would have to die. It was explained to the cast as an "exercise in topicality." The scripts for the week of 19 September 1955 were both written, recorded, and broadcast on each day. On Thursday evening of that week, listeners heard Grace trying to rescue her horse, Midnight, from a fire at Brookfield stables, and the crash as a beam fell on her.[25]

Whether the timing of the episode was a deliberate attempt to overshadow the opening night of the BBC's first commercial rival has been debated ever since. It was certainly planned some months in advance, but it may well be that the actual date of the death was changed during the scriptwriting stage to coincide with the start of ITV.[26] Deliberate or not, the episode attracted widespread media attention, being reported by newspapers around the world.

This controversy has been parodied twice: in The Bowmans, an episode of the television comedy programme Hancock, and in the play and film The Killing of Sister George. On the 50th anniversary of ITV's launch, Ysanne Churchman, who played Grace, sent a congratulatory card to ITV, signed "Grace Archer".

In 1996, William Smethurst recounted a conversation with Baseley in which he reveals his real motivation for killing off Grace Archer: Churchman was encouraging the other actors to join a trade union.[27]

Longevity

While The Archers is the longest running radio soap opera, it is not the longest running soap opera in history: the American soap opera Guiding Light started on radio in 1937 before moving to television in 1952. However, the final episode of Guiding Light was broadcast on 18 September 2009, with a total of 15,762 episodes.[28]

The actor Norman Painting played Phil Archer continuously from the first trial series in 1950 until his death on 29 October 2009. His last recording for an Archers episode was recorded just two days before his death and was broadcast on 22 November.[29] He holds the title of longest-serving actor in a single soap opera in the Guinness Book of Records.[29] As a script writer, he also wrote around 1,200 complete episodes, credited as "Bruno Milna", culminating in the 10,000th episode. June Spencer has played Peggy Archer/Woolley from the pilot episode onwards,[30] though not for all of the period since. According to Who's Who in The Archers 2008,[31] episode 15,360 was to be broadcast on 1 January 2008.[32] Episode 15,000 was broadcast on 7 November 2006.[33]

Themes

A recurring theme has been the resentment of the working-class Grundy family towards the middle-class Archers. Labour politician Neil Kinnock in the 1980s jokingly called for The Archers to be retitled "The Grundys and their Oppressors".[34] The series, however, now deals with a wide range of contemporary issues including illicit affairs, drug abuse, rape, and gay marriage — inviting criticism from conservative commentators such as Peter Hitchens[35] that the series has become a vehicle for liberal and left-wing values and agendas, with characters behaving out of character to achieve those goals. However, one of the show's charms is to make absorbing stories out of everyday, small concerns, such as the possible closure of the village shop, the loss and rediscovery of a pair of spectacles,[36] competitive marmalade-making, or nonsense such as a 'spile troshing' competition,[37] rather than the large-scale and improbable events that form the plots of many soap operas. However, there are some dramatic storylines, such as the rape of Kathy Perks.[38]

Sometimes mocked as a comfortable middle-class series with stereotypical comic yokels, the programme has nonetheless tackled many serious social issues. There have been, for instance: rural drug addiction; inter-racial relationships; direct action against genetically modified crops; family break-ups; and civil partnerships (gay marriage). Thus, given the (allegedly) middle-class nature of The Archers audience (and the generally unsympathetic treatment of characters such as Sid Perks, the adulterous pub landlord, who nevertheless has forcibly expressed views on the superiority of those aspects of "traditional morality" which suit him) The Archers may be seen as a counterpoise to the uniformly differently inclined lower-middle-class British newspapers. For instance, it seems likely that the intense discussion in Ambridge and the "real world" about whether the term "wedding" is appropriate for a civil partnership will make the use of the term much more frequent, and perhaps even more acceptable, in Middle England.

According to some of the actors, and confirmed in the writings of Godfrey Baseley, in its early days the show was used as a conduit for announcements from the Ministry of Agriculture, one actor reading an announcement almost verbatim to another. More recently the show has reacted within a day to agricultural emergencies such as outbreaks of foot and mouth disease, which affect farmers nationwide when livestock movements are restricted.

Cameo appearances

Many famous people have made cameo appearances on the programme.

Theme tune

The theme tune of The Archers' is called "Barwick Green" and is a maypole dance from the suite My Native Heath, written in 1924 by the Yorkshire composer Arthur Wood. An alternative arrangement, played by The Yetties, is used to introduce the Sunday omnibus. In 1992, having used the same recording for many years, the theme was re-recorded in stereo. The original orchestral arrangement was used, but the slightly different mixing and more leisurely tempo led many listeners to consider the new version inferior.

Robert Robinson once compared the tune to "the genteel abandon of a lifelong teetotaller who has suddenly taken to drink". On April Fool's Day 2004 both The Independent and The Today Programme claimed that BBC executives had commissioned composer Brian Eno to record an electronic version of "Barwick Green" as a replacement for the current theme,[51][52] while the (Scottish) comedian Billy Connolly once joked that the theme was so typically English that it should be the national anthem - with the added advantage that it is wordless, thus readily learned by immigrants with limited knowledge of English.

English doctors are taught that the tempo of the tune is the rate at which to apply cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). An alternative tune is Nellie the Elephant which has the same tempo.

Fan clubs

Two organisations dedicated to the programme were established in the 1990s. Archers Addicts is the official body, run by members of the cast. Archers Anarchists was formed around the same time, objecting to the "castist" assumptions propagated by the BBC, and claiming that the characters are real.

Overseas parallels

In 1994, the BBC World Service in Afghanistan began broadcasting Naway Kor, Naway Jwand ("New Home, New Life"), an everyday story of country folk with built-in bits of useful information. Although the useful information was more likely to concern unexploded land mines and opium addiction than the latest modern farming techniques, the inspiration and model of Naway Kor, Naway Jwand was The Archers, and the initial workshopping with Afghan writers included an Archers scriptwriter.[53] A 1997 study found that listeners to the soap opera were significantly less likely to be injured by a mine than non-listeners.[54]

In Rwanda, the BBC World Service's Kinyarwanda-Kirundi service has been broadcasting the Archers-inspired soap opera Urunana ("Hand in Hand") since 1999.[55][56]

The Archers was also the model for the Russian radio soap opera Dom 7, Podyezd 4 ("House 7, Entrance 4")[57] — on which the former UK Prime Minister, Tony Blair, once made a cameo appearance.[58]

The Japanese national radio and TV network, NHK, offers a "morning drama" (asadora) that runs for 15 minutes Monday through Saturday on television. It started on radio in the early postwar and then was moved to television in 1961. Each series lasts six months, so about 150 episodes. All center on a heroine, usually a young girl facing challenges (usually in Japanese traditional social ways) to realize her dream. Various programs have often been used to get across a socially useful message, such as recently the foster-child system, as well as celebrating the locales around Japan where it is centered.

Books and audiobooks

Reference works

The most recent Archers reference books are Who's Who in The Archers by Keri Davies, senior producer and scriptwriter. This has been published by BBC Books since 2003 and is updated annually for the Christmas gift-giving season.[59]

  • Forever Ambridge — 25 Years of The Archers (1975) by Norman Painting ASIN B0012UT8XM
  • The Book of The Archers (1994) by Patricia Greene, Charles Collingwood and Hedli Niklaus ISBN 0-7181-3849-X
  • The Archers: The True Story (1996) by William Smethurst ISBN 1-85833-620-1
  • The Archers Encyclopaedia (2001) by Joanna Toye and Adrian Flynn ISBN 0-563-53718-3, published to coincide with the 50th anniversary of The Archers
  • Who's Who in The Archers 2008 by Keri Davies ISBN 1-84607-326-X

Novelisations

  • The Archers by Jock Gallagher
    • The Archers: To The Victor The Spoils (1988) ISBN 0-563-20599-7
    • The Archers: Return to Ambridge (1988) ISBN 0-563-20606-3
    • The Archers: Borchester Echoes (1988) ISBN 0-563-20607-1
    • The Archers: Omnibus Edition (1988) ISBN 0-563-36001-1
  • The Ambridge Chronicles by Joanna Toye
    • The Archers 1951-1967: Family Ties (1998) ISBN 0-563-38397-6
    • The Archers 1968-1986: Looking For Love (1999) ISBN 0-563-55125-9
    • The Archers 1987-2000: Back to the Land (2000) ISBN 0-563-53701-9
    • The Archers 1951-1967: Family Ties (1998, audiobook, narrated by Miriam Margolyes) ISBN 0-563-55714-1
    • The Archers 1968-1986: Looking For Love (1999, audiobook, narrated by Stella Gonet) ISBN 0-563-55813-X
    • The Archers 1987-2000: Back to the Land (2000, audiobook, narrated by Stephanie Cole) ISBN 0-563-55818-0
  • In the 1970s, Tandem published prequel novels of Ambridge in the early 1900s
    • Spring at Brookfield by Brian Hayles (1975) ISBN 426-16520-9
    • Ambridge Summer by Keith Miles (1975) ISBN 0855230657

Published audio episodes

  • Vintage Archers
    • Vintage Archers: Volume 1 (1988) ISBN 0-563-22586-6
    • Vintage Archers: Volume 2 (1988) ISBN 0-563-22704-4
    • Vintage Archers: Volume 3 (1998) ISBN 0-563-55740-0 (contains several "lost episodes" which have been digitally restored)
    • The Archers: The Wedding Jack and Peggy tie the knot
    • Vintage Archers: Volumes 1-3 (2001) ISBN 0-563-38281-3
  • Ambridge Affairs
    • Ambridge Affairs: Love Triangles (2007) ISBN 1-4056-7733-3
    • Ambridge Affairs: Heartache at Home Farm (2007) ISBN 1-4056-8785-1

Maps

In addition to books and audiobooks, purported maps of Ambridge and Borsetshire have been published.[60][61]

In popular culture

A special episode of Arena, broadcast on BBC Four on 1 January 2007, focused on The Archers. It was narrated by Stephen Fry and included interviews with current actors and scriptwriters.[62] Jeremy Clarkson in his anthology of articles, Clarkson on Cars, lambasts The Archers by describing them as "...living in a farm-subsidised world and thinking postage stamps are amazing...."[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ Davies, Keri (2008). Who's Who in The Archers 2009. BBC Books. ISBN 1846075793.  
  2. ^ Adrian, Jack (2003-10-09). "Tony Shryane Obituary". The Independent on Sunday. http://news.independent.co.uk/people/obituaries/article37242.ece. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  3. ^ The Archers airs 15,000th episode, BBC News, 2006-11-07
  4. ^ "The Archers clocks up 55 years". BBC Press Office. 2005-12-30. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2005/12_december/30/archers.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  5. ^ Martin, Nicole (2007-08-20). "The Archers online dwarfs Chris Moyles". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/08/17/nradio217.xml. Retrieved 2007-01-06.  
  6. ^ Compare Ambridge's The Bull with Inkberrow's The Old Bull.
  7. ^ "Transcript: Any Questions? 22 September 2006". BBC Radio 4. 2006-09-22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/news/anyquestions_transcripts_20060922.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  8. ^ Compare Ambridge's St Stephen's with Hanbury's St Mary the Virgin.
  9. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2002-09-22. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  10. ^ "Jack and Alzheimer's". BBC Radio 4. 2006-09-21. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/backstage/alzheimers.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  11. ^ "Oxford Farming Conference". BBC Radio 4. 2008-01-03. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/backstage/oxford_conference.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-17.  
  12. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2006-06-27. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  13. ^ a b "Princess Margaret Remembered". BBC Radio 4. 2002-02-10. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/backstage/princess_margaret.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-17.  
  14. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2002-02-10. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  15. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2001-09-12. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  16. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2005-07-11. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  17. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2001-02-22. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  18. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2001-02-23. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  19. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2001-02-27. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  20. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2001-03-01. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  21. ^ "Drama in a Crisis". BBC Radio 4. 2001-03-02. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/backstage/drama_in_a_crisis.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-17.  
  22. ^ "BBC — Radio 4 — The Archers — Information and FAQs". BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/info/. Retrieved 2008-02-10.  
  23. ^ "Back to the Future". ABC Radio. http://www.abc.net.au/landline/content/2008/s2503104.htm. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  
  24. ^ "BBC — Radio — Podcasts — The Archers". BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio/podcasts/archers/. Retrieved 2008-02-10.  
  25. ^ a b The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode 10,000, broadcast 1989-05-26.
  26. ^ Smethurst, William. "Dead Girls Tell No Tales". The Archers: The True Story. London: Michael O'Mara Books Limited. pp. 63. ISBN 1-85833-620-1. "Even this presupposes that the BBC realized the impact that the 'death' would have — and all the evidence is that the BBC was totally taken by surprise."  
  27. ^ Smethurst, William. "Dead Girls Tell No Tales". The Archers: The True Story. London: Michael O'Mara Books Limited. pp. 64. ISBN 1-85833-620-1. "'She was trying to get the actors to join a trade union,' he told the author of this book, in 1995, 'so I killed her off. Very few of the original actors were professionals. I'd taken them on because they were countrymen with natural country voices. But she was stirring them up and trying to get them to join the actors' union, and saying we should only employ union actors, which would have been fatal.'"  
  28. ^ "After 72 Years on the Air, 'Guiding Light' Fades to Black". The Washington Post. 2009-09-18. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/09/17/AR2009091704328.html. Retrieved 2009-09-19.  
  29. ^ a b Norman Painting, BBC Obituary
  30. ^ "Biographies: June Spencer OBE, The Archers". http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/biographies/biogs/radio4/junespencer.shtml. Retrieved 2009-09-01.  
  31. ^ Davies, Keri (2007). Who's Who in The Archers, 2008. Reading: BBC Books. pp. 4. ISBN 978-1-84607-326-7.  
  32. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode 15,360, broadcast 2008-01-01. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  33. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode 15,000, broadcast 2006-11-07. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  34. ^ Smethurst, William. "The Rise of the House of Grundy". The Archers: The True Story. London: Michael O'Mara Books Limited. pp. 198. ISBN 1-85833-620-1.  
  35. ^ Peter Hitchens (2000), The Abolition of Britain, p262–64, Quartet (revised edition)
  36. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2005-06-07. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  37. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2000-08-11. (Unofficial summary)
  38. ^ Mahoney, Elisabeth (2008-04-16). "Radio review: The Archers". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2008/apr/16/radio.tvandradioarts. Retrieved 2008-04-16.  
  39. ^ "Peel's life away from music". BBC News. 2004-10-26. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/music/3956119.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  40. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2003-05-26. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  41. ^ "Chris Moyles braves The Bull". BBC Radio 4. 2004-06-10. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/backstage/moyles_visit.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  42. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2004-06-14. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  43. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2004-07-14. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  44. ^ "Stephen Fry "desperate no more"". BBC Radio 4. 2005-03-12. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/red_nose_day_05/rednoseday.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  45. ^ "Introducing Ms Zandra Rhodes". Archers Addicts. 2006-09-11. http://www.thearchers.co.uk/archers/DesktopDefault.aspx?tabid=119&ItemID=2442&tabIndex=0. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  46. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2006-09-22. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  47. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2007-01-02. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  48. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2007-02-07. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  49. ^ "From The Ashes to The Archers". BBC Press Office. 2007-09-07. http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2007/09_september/07/archers.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  50. ^ The Archers, BBC Radio 4, episode broadcast 2007-09-09. (BBC summary) (Unofficial summary)
  51. ^ "Tum-ti tum-ti tum-ti tum... kerrang. Ambridge in uproar over Eno's 'new-wave' theme tune". The Independent. 2004-04-01. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/tumti-tumti-tumti-tum-kerrang-ambridge-in-uproar-over-enos-newwave-theme-tune-568412.html. Retrieved 2008-02-17.  
  52. ^ "New Archers Theme Tune". BBC Radio 4. 2004-04-01. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/today/reports/arts/archers_20040401.shtml. Retrieved 2008-02-17.  
  53. ^ Brockes, Emma (2001-10-23). "A long way from Ambridge". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/waronterror/story/0,1361,579231,00.html. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  
  54. ^ Neil Andersson, Charles Whitaker, Aparna Swaminathan. Afghanistan: The 1997 National Mine Awareness Evaluation, [http://www.ciet.org/en/ CIET international 1998. "Executive summary". Accessed 2006-11-17.
  55. ^ Uwamariya, Josephine Irene; Kalisa Narcisse. "Country life". Developments. Department for International Development. http://www.developments.org.uk/articles/health-soap-opera/. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  
  56. ^ "Urunana Radio Soap — Rwanda". The Communication Initiative Network. 2003-08-14. http://www.comminit.com/en/node/118365. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  
  57. ^ Connolly, Joan (2005-10-22). "Dom Syem, Podjezd Chetirie". Television Trust for the Environment. http://www.tve.org/sisters/Domsyem.html. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  58. ^ Bailey, Jemimah (1997-10-17). "Broadcast: Tune in to the power of the viewing public". Brand Republic. http://www.brandrepublic.com/login/News/97015/. Retrieved 2008-01-05.  
  59. ^ "Search: Who's Who in The Archers". Amazon.co.uk. http://www.amazon.co.uk/s/ref=sr_nr_i_0?ie=UTF8&rs=&keywords=who%27s%20who%20in%20the%20archers&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3Awho%27s%20who%20in%20the%20archers%2Ci%3Astripbooks. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  60. ^ Humphreys, John (1994-09-23). Archers Addicts Official Map of Ambridge. Old House Books. ISBN 1873590083.  
  61. ^ "The Archers — Wallpaper". BBC Radio 4. http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/archers/wallpaper/. Retrieved 2008-01-06.  
  62. ^ Kennedy, Emily (2006). "Arena: The Archers". BBC Four. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bbcfour/documentaries/features/archers.shtml. Retrieved 2006-01-05.  
  63. ^ Clarkson, Jeremy (2004-05-27). Clarkson on Cars. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-101788-0.  

External links


Source material

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Flint and Feather by E. Pauline Johnson
The Archer

I

Stripped to the waist, his copper-coloured skin
Red from the smouldering heat of hate within,
Lean as a wolf in winter, fierce of mood—
As all wild things that hunt for foes, or food—
War paint adorning breast and thigh and face,
Armed with the ancient weapons of his race,
A slender ashen bow, deer sinew strung,
And flint-tipped arrow each with poisoned tongue,—
Thus does the Red man stalk to death his foe,
And sighting him strings silently his bow,
Takes his unerring aim, and straight and true
The arrow cuts in flight the forest through,
A flint which never made for mark and missed,
And finds the heart of his antagonist.
Thus has he warred and won since time began,
Thus does the Indian bring to earth his man.

II

Ungarmented, save for a web that lies
In fleecy folds across his impish eyes,
A tiny archer takes his way intent
On mischief, which is his especial bent.
Across his shoulder lies a quiver, filled
With arrows dipped in honey, thrice distilled
From all the roses brides have ever worn
Since that first wedding out of Eden born.
Beneath a cherub face and dimpled smile
This youthful hunter hides a heart of guile;
His arrows aimed at random fly in quest
Of lodging-place within some blameless breast.
But those he wounds die happily, and so
Blame not young Cupid with his dart and bow:
Thus has he warred and won since time began,
Transporting into Heaven both maid and man.








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