The Dinner Party: Wikis

  
  
  

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For other works with this title, see Dinner Party

Cover of Judy Chicago's 1996 book describing the work

The Dinner Party is an installation artwork by feminist artist Judy Chicago depicting place settings for 39 mythical and historical famous women. It was produced from 1974 to 1979 as a collaboration and was first exhibited in 1979. Subsequently, despite art world resistance, it toured to 16 venues in 6 countries on 3 continents to a viewing audience of 1 million. Since 2007 it has been on permanent exhibition at the Brooklyn Museum, New York City, United States of America.

Contents

About the work

Judy Chicago, the instigator and co-ordinator of the project, stated that its purpose was to "end the ongoing cycle of omission in which women were written out of the historical record."

The table is triangular and measures forty-eight feet on each side. Each place setting features a table runner embroidered with the woman's name and images or symbols relating to her accomplishments, with a napkin, utensils, a glass or goblet, and a plate. Many of the plates feature a butterfly or flower-like sculpture as a vulva symbol. A collaborative effort of many female artists(and some male ones), The Dinner Party celebrates traditional female accomplishments such as textile arts (weaving, embroidery, sewing) and china painting, which have been framed as craft or domestic art, as opposed to the more culturally valued, male dominated fine arts. The white floor of triangular porcelain tiles is inscribed with the names of a further 999 notable women.

The Dinner Party was donated by the Elizabeth A. Sackler Foundation to the Brooklyn Museum, where it is now permanently housed within the Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art, which opened in March 2007.

"The Dinner Party elevates female achievement in Western history to a heroic scale traditionally reserved for men."

Details of the Making

The completed Dinner Party took six years and 250,000 dollars to complete, not including volunteer labor.[1] The work began modestly as "Twenty-Five Women Who Were Eaten Alive," a way in which Chicago could use her "butterfly-vagina" imagery and interest in china painting in a high-art setting.[1]

Chicago soon expanded it to include the thirty-nine final women arranged in three groups of thirteen. The triangular shape has significance because it has long been a symbol of the female. It is also an equilateral triangle to represent equality. The number thirteen represents the number of people who were present at the Last Supper, an important comparison for Chicago, as the only people involved there were men.[1] Chicago developed the work on her own for the first three years before bringing in others. Over the next three years, over 400 people contributed to the creation of the work, most of them volunteers. About 125 were called "members of the project," suggesting long-term efforts, and a small group was closely involved with the project for the final three years, including ceramicists,needleworkers, and researchers.[1] The project was organized according to what has been called "benevolent hierarchy" and "non-hierarchical leadership," as Chicago designed most aspects of the work and had the final control over decisions made.[1]

The 39 plates themselves start flat and begin to emerge in higher relief towards the very end of the chronology, meant to represent modern woman's gradual independence and equality, though it is still not totally free of societal expectations.[2] The work also uses supplementary written information such as banners, timelines, and a three-book exhibition publication to provide background information on each woman included and the process of making the work.[2]

Immediate critical response (1980-1981)

The Dinner Party prompted many varied opinions. Feminist critic Lucy Lippard stated, "My own initial experience was strongly emotional… The longer I spent with the piece, the more I became addicted to its intricate detail and hidden meanings," and defended the work as an excellent example of the feminist effort.[1] These reactions are echoed by other critics, and the work was glorified by many.[3]

Just as adamant, however, were the immediate critiques of the work. Hilton Kramer, for example, argued, "The Dinner Party reiterates its theme with an insistence and vulgarity more appropriate, perhaps, to an advertising campaign than to a work of art" .[4] He called the work not only a kitsch object but also "crass and solemn and singleminded," "very bad art,… failed art,… art so mired in the pieties of a cause that it quite fails to acquire any independent artistic life of its own".[4] The lack of typical "fine art" materials is problematic for Kramer and similar critics.

Maureen Mullarkey also criticized the work, calling it preachy and untrue to the women it claims to represent.[4] She especially disagreed with the sentiment she labels "turn ‘em upside down and they all look alike," an essentializing of all women which does not respect the feminist cause.[4] Mullarkey also called the hierarchical aspect of the work into question, claiming that Chicago took advantage of her female volunteers.[5] Similarly, Roberta Smith stated that "its historical import and social significance may be greater than its aesthetic value".[6]

Mullarkey focused on several particular plates in her critique of the work, specifically Emily Dickinson, Virginia Woolf, and Georgia O’Keeffe, using these women as examples of why Chicago's work was disrespectful to the women it depicts. She states that Dickinson's "multi-tiered pink lace crotch" was opposite the woman it was meant to symbolize because of Dickinson's extreme privacy.[5] Woolf's inclusion ignores her frustration at the public's curiosity about the gender of writers, and O’Keeffe had similar thoughts, denying that her work had any gendered or sexual meaning.[5]

Larger retrospective response

Critics such as Mullarkey have returned to The Dinner Party in later years and stated that their opinions have not changed. Many later responses to the work, however, have been more moderate or accepting, even if only by giving the work value based on its continued importance.

Amelia Jones, for example, places the work in the context of both art history and the evolution of feminist ideas to explain critical responses of the work.[7] She discusses Hilton Kramer's objection to the piece as an extension of Modernist ideas about art, stating, "the piece blatantly subverts modernist value systems, which privilege the ‘pure’ aesthetic object over the debased sentimentality of the domestic and popular arts" .[7] Jones also addresses some critics’ argument that The Dinner Party is not high art because of its huge popularity and public appeal. Where Kramer saw the work's popularity as a sign that it was of a lesser quality, Lippard and Chicago herself thought that its capability of speaking to a larger audience should be considered a positive attribute.[7]

The "butterfly vagina" imagery continues to be both highly criticized and esteemed. Many conservatives criticized the work for reasons summed up by Congressman Robert K. Dornan in his statement that it was "ceramic 3-D pornography," but some feminists also found the imagery problematic because of its essentializing, passive nature.[7] However, the work fits into the feminist movement of the 1970s which glorified and focused on the female body. Other feminists have disagreed with the main idea of this work because it shows a universal female experience, which many argue does not exist. For example, lesbians and women of other ethnicities are not well represented in the work.[7]

Jones presents the argument regarding the collaborative nature of the project. Many critics attacked Chicago for claiming that the work was a collaboration when instead she was in control of the work. Chicago, however, had never claimed that the work would be this kind of ideal collaboration and always took full responsibility for the piece.[7]

Artist Cornelia Parker nominated it as a work she would like to see "binned", saying, "Too many vaginas for my liking. I find it all about Judy Chicago's ego rather than the poor women she's supposed to be elevating – we're all reduced to vaginas, which is a bit depressing. It's almost like the biggest piece of victim art you've ever seen. And it takes up so much space! I quite like the idea of trying to fit it in some tiny bin – not a very feminist gesture but I don't think the piece is either."[8]

Controversy at the University of the District of Columbia

In 1990, The Dinner Party was considered for permanent housing at the University of the District of Columbia. It was part of a plan to bring in revenue for the school, as it had proved to be very successful.[9] The work was to be donated as a gift to the school, with the understanding that one of the school's buildings would be repaired to house it. The money for these repairs had already been allocated and did not come from the school's working budget.[9] However, misunderstandings about the monetary situation were emphasized and perpetuated by media sources.[9] Eventually, the plans were cancelled due to threats to affect the school's working budget.[9]

Women represented in the place settings

The first wing of the triangular table has place settings for female figures from the goddesses of prehistory through to Hypatia at the time of the Roman Empire. This section covers the emergence and decline of the Classical world.

The second wing begins with Marcella and covers the rise of Christianity. It concludes with Anna van Schurman in the seventeenth century at the time of the Reformation.

The third wing represents the Age of Revolution. It begins with Anne Hutchinson and moves through the twentieth century to the final places paying tribute to Virginia Woolf and Georgia O'Keeffe.

The 39 women with places at the table are:

Wing I: From Prehistory to the Roman Empire
1. Primordial Goddess
2. Fertility goddess
3. Ishtar
4. Kali
5. Snake Goddess
6. Sophia
7. Amazon
8. Hatshepsut
9. Judith
10. Sappho
11. Aspasia
12. Boudica
13. Hypatia

Wing II: From the Beginnings of Christianity to the Reformation
14. Marcella
15. Saint Bridget
16. Theodora of Byzantium
17. Hrosvitha
18. Trotula of Salerno
19. Eleanor of Aquitaine
20. Hildegard of Bingen
21. Petronilla de Meath
22. Christine de Pisan
23. Isabella d'Este
24. Elizabeth I of England
25. Artemisia Gentileschi
26. Anna van Schurman

Wing III: From the American to the Women's Revolution
27. Anne Hutchinson
28. Sacajawea
29. Caroline Herschel
30. Mary Wollstonecraft
31. Sojourner Truth
32. Susan B. Anthony
33. Elizabeth Blackwell
34. Emily Dickinson
35. Ethel Smyth
36. Margaret Sanger
37. Natalie Barney
38. Virginia Woolf
39. Georgia O'Keeffe

Women represented on the ceramic floor tiles

The names of 999 more women are represented on the floor tiles (the names are spelled here as they appear on the tiles):

Abella of Salerno, Abigail Adams, Abigail, Adela of Blois, Adela Zambudia-Ribero (sic), Adelaide Labille-Guiard, Adelaide of Susa, Adelperga, Adelheid Popp, Aemilia, Æthelburg of Kent, Aethelflaed, Agatha, Ageltrude Benevento, Aglaonice, Agnes of Bohemia, Agnes of Poitou, Agnes Smedley, Agnes Waterhouse, Agnodice, Aisha, Ajysyt, Albertine Necker de Saussure, Alexandra Kollontai, Alessandra Giliani, Aletta Jacobs, Alexandra of Jerusalem, Alexandra van Grippenberg, Alfonsina Storni, Alice Paul, Alice Pike Barney, Alice Samuel, Alice Stone Blackwell, Aliénor de Poitiers, Alison Rutherford, Almucs De Castelnau (sic), Aloara, Althea Gibson, Alukah, Amat-Mamu, Amelia Earhart, Amelia Villa, Amy Beach, Amyte, Ana Betancourt, Anacaona, Anahita, Anaïs Nin, Anasandra (sic), Anastasia (in the Christine de Pisan group), Anastasia (in the Marcella group), Anath, Andres Villareal (sic), Angela Merici, Angelberga, Angéle de la Barthe, Angelica Balbanoff, Angelica Kauffmann, Angelina Grimké, Angelique de Coudray, Ann Lee, Anna Comnena, Anna Dalassena Comnena, Anna Karsch, Anna Manzolini, Anna Pavlova, Anna Schabanoff (sic), Anna Sophia, Anna, Anne Askew, Anne Bacon, Anne Baynard, Anne Bonney, Anne Bradstreet, Anne Clough, Anne Dacier, Anne Ella Carroll, Anne Halkett, Anne of Beaujeu, Anne of Brittany, Anne Redfearne, Annie Jump Cannon, Annie Kenney, Annie Smith Peck, Annie Wood Besant, Antigone, Antiope, Antonia Bembo, Antonia Brico, Aphra Behn, Aphrodite, Arachne, Aretaphilia of Cyrene, Arete of Cyrene, Ariadne, Arianhrod, Arinitti, Aristoclea, Arsinoe II, Artemis, Artemisia I, Artemisia II, Aruru, Asherah, Ashtoreth, Aspasia of Athens, Astarte, Atalanta, Athaliah, Athanarsa (sic), Athene, Atira, Augusta Fickert, Augusta Savage, Augusta Schmidt, Augustina Saragossa, Awashonks, Axiothea, Baba Petkova, Babe Didrikson, Balthilde, Baptista Malatesta, Baranamtarra, Barbara Bodichon, Barbara Hepworth, Barbara Strozzi, Barbara, Barbe De Verrue, Baroness de Beausaleil, Baroness of Adlersparre, Basilea, Basine, Bathsua Makin, Baudonivia, Beatrice de Die, Beatrice Webb, Beatrix Galindo, Begga, Bel-Shalti-Narrar, Belva Lockwood, Berenguela, Bernarda de la Cerda, Bertha Lutz, Bertha of England, Bertha of Sulzbach, Bertha von Suttner, Bertha, Berthe Morisot, Berthildis, Bertille (sic), Beruriah, Bessie Smith, Betsy Kjelsberg (sic), Bettina von Arnim, Bettisia Gozzadini, Birgitta, Blanche of Castile, Blandina, Blodeuwedd, Bona Dea, Bourgot, Bridget Bevan, Brigh Brigaid, Brigid, Britomartis, Brunhilde, Brynhild, Buto, Cambra, Camilla, Candelaria Figueredo, Capillana, Carcas, Cardea, Carlota Matienzo, Carlotta Ferrari, Carmenta, Caroline Schlegel, Carrie Chapman Catt, Cartismandua, Cassandra Fidelis, Cassandra, Caterina Van Hemessen, Catherine Adorni (sic), Catherine de Rambouillet, Catherine Deshayes, Catherine Fisher, Catherine Greene, Catherine II, Catherine of Aragon, Catherine of Siena, Catherine Pavlovna, Catherine, Celia Fiennes, Cerridwen, Charitas Pirckheimer, Charlotte Brontë, Charlotte Corday, Charlotte Guest, Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Chicomecoatl, Chiomara, Christabel Pankhurst, Christina of Sweden, Christina Rossetti, Circe, Clara Schumann, Clara Zetkin, Clare of Assisi, Claricia, Claudine de Tencin, Clemence Royer, Cleobuline, Cleopatra, Clodia, Clotilda, Clytemnestra, Coatlicue, Cobhlair Mor, Colette, Constance Lytton, Constantia, Cordelia Gracchi, Corinna of Tanagro, Cresilla, Cristina Trivulzio, Cunegund, Cybele, Cynane, Cynisca, Damelis, Damo, Danu, Daphne, Deborah Sampson, Deborah, Demeter, Dervorguilla, Dhuoda, Dido, Diemud, Diotima, Djuna Barnes, Dolores Ibarruri, Dorcas, Doris Lessing, Dorotea Bucca, Dorothea Dix, Dorothea Lange, Dorothea Leporin-Erxleben, Dorothea von Rodde, Dorothy Richardson, Dorothy Wordsworth, Douceline, Eachtach, Eadburga, Eanswith, Ebba, Edith Cavell, Edith Evans, Edith Sitwell, Edith Wharton, Edith, Edmonia Lewis, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Egee, Ehyophsta, Eileen Gray, Eleanor Butler, Eleanor Duse, Elfrida Andrée, Elin Kallio, Eliska Krasnohorska, Eliza Lucas Pinckney, Elizabeth Anderson, Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Elizabeth Bekker, Elizabeth Carter, Elizabeth Cheron, Elizabeth Danviers (sic), Elizabeth de la Guerre, Elizabeth Druzbacka (sic), Elizabeth Farren, Elizabeth Fry, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Elizabeth Hamilton, Elizabeth Hoby, Elizabeth Lucar, Elizabeth Montagu, Elizabeth of Schonau, Elizabeth Petrovna, Elizabeth Southern, Elizabeth Talbot, Elizabeth Vesey, Elizabeth Vigeé-Lebrun, Elizabeth, Elizabetta Gonzaga, Elizabette Sirani, Ellen Richards, Elpinice, Emilia Pardo-Bazán, Emilie du Chatelet, Emilie Snethlage, Emily Brontë, Emily Carr, Emily Carr, Emily Faithful, Emma Goldman, Emma Paterson, Emmeline Pankhurst, Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Encheduanna, Ende, Engleberga, Epicharis, Ereshkigal, Erinna, Esther, Ethelberga, Etheldreda, Ethylwyn, Eudocia, Eudoxia, Eugenia, Europa, Eurpyle, Euryleon (sic), Eurynome, Eustochium, Eve, Fabiola, Failge, Fanny Burney, Faustina Bordoni, Fede Galizia, Federica Montseny, Fibors (sic), Florence Nightingale, Fortuna, Frances Brooke, Frances Harper, Frances Perkins, Frances Power Cobbe, Frances Wright, Francesca Caccini, Francesca of Salerno, Francoise de Maintenon, Frau Cramer, Fredegund, Frederika Bremer, Freya, Frida Kahlo, Frija, Gabriela Mistral, Gabriele Münter, Gabrielle Petit, Gaea, Gaspara Stampa, Gebjon, Genevieve D'Arconville, Genevieve, George Eliot, George Sand, Germaine de Staël, Gertrude Kasebier, Gertrude of Nivelles, Gertrude Stein, Gertrude Svensen, Gisela, Glueckel von Hameln, Golda Meir, Gormlaith, Grace O'Malley, Gracia Mendesa, Guda, Guillemine, Gunda Beeg, Hannah Adams, Hannah Arendt, Hannah Crocker, Hannah Hoch, Hannah More, Hannah Senesh, Hannah Woolley, Hannahanna, Hardlind, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Harriet Hosmer, Harriet Martineau, Harriet Tubman, Hashop, Hasta Hansteen, Hathor, Hawisa, Hecate, Hecuba, Hedwig Nordenflycht, Hedwig, Hel, Helen Blavatsky, Helen Cornaro, Helen Diner, Helen Keller, Helena, Helene Kottauer, Heloise, Henrietta Johnston, Henrietta Szold, Hera, Hermine Veres, Herrad of Lansberg, Hersend, Hersilia, Hester Stanhope, Hestiaea, Hiera, Hipparchia, Hippo, Hippolyte, Honorata Rodiana, Hortense Lepaut (sic), Hortensia von Moos, Hortensia, Huldah, Hygeburg, Ida B. Wells, Ida Kaminska, Ida Pfieffer, Ilmatar, Iltani, Inanna, Inesse Armand, Ingrida, Irene Joliot-Curie, Irene, Irkalla, Isabel de Guevara, Isabel of France, Isabel Pinochet, Isabela Czartoryska, Isabella Andreini, Isabella Bishop, Isabella de Joya Roseres, Isabella Losa, Isadora Duncan, Isak Dinesen, Isis, Isotta Nogarola, Jacobe Felicie, Jadwiga, Jane Austen, Jane Harrison, Jane of Sutherland, Jane Weston, Jeanne Campan, Jeanne D'Albret, Jeanne de Montfort, Jeanne de Pompodour, Jeanne Dumeè, Jeanne Louis Farrenc, Jeanne Mance, Jeanne Manon Roland, Jeanne Marie Guyon, Jeanne of Navarre, Jeanne Recamier, Jeannette Rankin, Jezebel, Joan of Arc, Joanna Koerton, Joanna, Joanne Baillie, Josefa Amar, Josefa de Dominguez, Josephine Baker, Josephine Kablick, Juana Inés de la Cruz, Judith Leyster, Judith Murray, Julia Cameron, Julia Domna, Julia Maesa, Julia Mamaea, Julia Morgan, Julie de Lespinasse, Juno, Justine Dietrich, Jutta, Kaahumanu, Kallirhoe Parren, Karen Horney, Karoline Pichler, Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead, Katharine Hepburn, Käthe Kollwitz, Kathe Schirmacher, Katherine Bethlen (sic), Katherine Sheppard, Katti Moeler, Khuwyt, Kora, Kore, Kubaba, La Malinche, Lady Beatrix, Lady Uallach, Lalla, Lamia, Lampedo, Las Huelgas, Laura Ammanati, Laura Bassi, Laura Cereta, Laura Torres, Lavinia Fontana, Laya, Leah, Leela of Granada, Leonor D'Almeida, Leonora Baroni, Leontium, Leoparda, Levina Teerling, Liadain, Libana, Lili Boulanger, Lilith, Lilliard, Lioba, Lioba, Loretta, Lorraine Hansberry, Lou Andreas Salomé, Louise Labé, Louise le Gras, Louise Michel, Louise Nevelson, Louyse Bourgeois, Lucretia Marinelli, Lucretia, Lucrezia Tournabuoni, Lucy, Luisa de Carvajal, Luisa Roldain, Luise Gottsched, Luise Otto-Peter, Luiza Todi, Lydia, Lysistrata, Maacah, Mabel, Macha of the Red Tresses, Macha, Macrina, Madame A. Milliat, Maddalena Buonsignori, Madderakka, Madeleine de Sable, Madeleine de Scudéry, Magda Portal, Mahaut of Artois, Makeda, Manto, Marcellina, Margaret (Eleanor of Aquitaine group), Margaret Beaufort, Margaret Brent, Margaret Cavendish, Margaret Fell Fox, Margaret Fuller, Margaret Mead, Margaret Murray Washington, Margaret Murray, Margaret O'Connor, Margaret of Austria, Margaret of Desmond (sic), Margaret of Navarre, Margaret of Scandinavia, Margaret Paston, Margaret Philipse, Margaret Roper, Margarete Forchhammer, Margarethe Dessoff, Margery Jourdemain, Marguerite Gerard, Marguerite of Bourgogne, Marguerite-Antoinette Couperin, Marguerite-Louise Couperin, Maria Agnesi, Maria Alphaizuli, Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria, Maria Bartola, Maria Cunitz, Maria de Abarca, Maria de Agreda, Maria de Coste Blanche, Maria de Ventadorn, Maria del Refugio Garcia, Maria Edgeworth, Maria Kirch, Maria Luisa Sanchez, Maria Mitchell, Maria Montessori, Maria Montoya Martinez, Maria Sibylla Merian, Maria Stewart, Maria Theresa, Maria Theresia von Paradis, Maria-Christine de Lalaing, Marian Anderson, Marianna Alcoforado, Marianne Beth, Marie Bashkirtsev, Marie Bovin, Marie Champmeslé, Marie Colinet, Marie Curie, Marie de France, Marie de Lafayette, Marie de l'Incarnation, Marie de Medici, Marie de Miramion, Marie de Sévigné, Marie du Deffand, Marie Duges, Marie Durocher, Marie Geoffrin, Marie Heim-Vögtlin, Marie Iowa (sic), Marie la Chapelle, Marie Laurencin, Marie le Jars de Gournay, Marie of Champagne, Marie Popelin, Marie Sallé, Marie Stopes, Marie Tussaud, Marie Venier, Martesia, Martha Baretskaya, Martha Graham, Martha Mears, Martha of Bethany, Martia Proba, Mary "Mother" Jones, Mary Alexander, Mary Ann Shad Cary, Mary Astell, Mary Baker Eddy, Mary Bonaventure, Mary Cassatt, Mary Church Terrell, Mary Dyer, Mary Esther Karding, Mary Goddard, Mary Hays, Mary Lamb, Mary Lavoisier, Mary Lee, Mary Livermore, Mary Lou Williams, Mary Louise McLaughlin, Mary Manley, Mary McLeod Bethune, Mary Monckton, Mary Mueller, Mary of Bethany, Mary of Hungary, Mary Radcliffe, Mary Read, Mary Shelley, Mary Sidney, Mary Somerville, Mary Wortley Montague, Maryann, Mata Hari, Mathilda, Mathilde of Tuscany, Matilda of Flanders, Matilda, Maude, Maximilla, Maya Deren, Maeve, Mechthild of Hackeborn, Medusa, Megalostrata, Melisande, Mentuhetop, Mercy Otis Warren, Metrodora, Milla Granson, Millicent Fawcett, Minna Canth, Minna Cauer, Miranda Stuart, Miriam, Modesta Pozzo, Moero of Byzantium, Molly Pitcher, Morrigan, Mother Hutton, Mrs. Cellier, Muirgel, Myrine, Myrtis of Anthedon, Nadezhda Krupskaya, Nadia Boulanger, Nammu, Nancy Ward, Nanno, Naomi, Naqi'a, Natalia Goncharova, Nathalie Zand, Nefertiti, Neith, Nell Gwyn, Nelly Sachs, Neobule, Nephthys, Nerthus, Nicaula, Nicobule, Ninhursaga, Ninon de L'Enclos, Ninti, Nitocris, Nofret, Nossis, Novella D'Andrea, Nut, Octavia, Odilla, Ojelia Uribe de Acosta, Olga, Oliva Sabuco, Olive Schreiner, Olympe de Gouges, Olympia Morata, Olympias, Omeciuatl, Orinthya, Pamphile, Pandora, Pasiphae, Paula Modersohn-Becker, Paula, Penelope Barker, Penette de Guillet, Penthelia, Penthesilia, Perictyone, Phantasia, Phile, Philippa of Hainault, Phillipe Auguste, Phillis Wheatley, Philotis, Phoebe, Pierrone, Plotina, Pocahontas, Porcia, Praxagora, Praxilla, Priscilla, Properzia de Rossi, Prudence Crandall, Puduchepa, Pulcheria, Pythia, Python, Rachel (Trotula group), Rachel Katznelson, Rachel Ruysch, Rachel Varnhagen, Radclyffe Hall, Radegund, Rahonem, Rebecca Lee, Rebecca West, Rebekah, Reinhild, Renee Vivien, Renier Michiel, Rhea, Rhiannon, Romaine Brooks, Rosa Bonheur, Rosa Chouteau, Rosa Luxemburg, Rosalba Carriera, Rosalia of Palermo, Rose de Burford, Rose Mooney, Ruth Benedict, Ruth, Saaredra Villanueva, Sabina Von Steinbach, Salomée Halpir, Salpe, Sarah Bernhardt, Sarah Grimke, Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, Sarah of St. Gilles, Sarah Peale, Sarah Ponsonby, Sarah Siddons, Sarah, Scholastica, Selin Hastings, Selma Lagerlof, Semiramis, Shalom, Shibtu, Shub-Ad of Ur, Sigrid Undset, Simone de Beauvoir, Simone Weil, Siva, Sobeya, Sofia Kovalevskaya, Sofia Perovskaya, Sonia Delaunay, Sonja Henie, Sophia Heath, Sophia of Mechlenberg, Sophie Blanchard, Sophie de Condorcet, Sophie Germain, Sophie Taeuber-Arp, Sophonisba Anguisciola (sic), Stephanie de Genlis, Stephanie De Montaneis, Sulpicia, Susan la Flesche Piccotte, Susanna Lorantffy, Susanna Rowson, Susanna Wesley, Suzanne Langer, Suzanne Necker, Suzanne Valadon, Sylvia Pankhurst, Sylvia Plath, Tanaquil, Tanith, Tarquinia Molza, Tefnut, Telesilla, Teresa de Cartagena, Teresa Villareal, Tetisheri, Thalestris, The Norns, The Valkyries, Theano, Thecla, Theoclea, Theodelinda, Theodora II, Theodora III, Theodora the Senatrix, Teresa of Avila, Théroigne de Mericourt, Thoma, Tiamat, Timarete, Tituba, Tiy, Tomyris, Tuchulcha, Tullia d'Aragona, Urraca, Ursley Kempe, Valada (sic), Vashti, Veleda, Vera Figner, Vera Zasulich, Veronica Gambara, Vesta, Victoria Woodhull, Violante, Virgin Mary, Virginia, Vita Sackville West, Vittoria Colonna, Walpurgis, Wanda Landowska, Wanda, Wetamoo, Willa Cather, Xochitl, Yekaterina Breshkovskaya, Yekaterina Dashkova, Yvette of Huy, Zenobia, Zipporah, Zoé, Zora Neale Hurston.

References

  • Chicago, Judy, The Dinner Party, Penguin, revised edition 1996, ISBN 0-14-024437-9
  • Brooklyn Museum :The Elizabeth A. Sackler Center for Feminist Art, The Dinner Party. (includes a searchable database of all 1039 women represented in the piece) Accessed July 2007
  • The Dinner Party by Judy Chicago - 39 Guests and the 999 Women of Achievement at Manatee Community College, Florida. Accessed May 2007
  • Gallery of The Dinner Party images at throughtheflower.org. Accessed July 2007
  • Presenting Judy Chicago's The Dinner Party -Famous Female Activists & Artists, Penny L. Hankins, Department of English, Illinois State University. Accessed July 2007
  1. ^ a b c d e f Lippard, Lucy. "Judy Chicago's Dinner Party." Art in America 68 (April 1980): 114-126.
  2. ^ a b Koplos, Janet. "‘The Dinner Party’ Revisited." Art in America 91.5 (May 2003): 75-77.
  3. ^ Caldwell, Susan H. "Experiencing The Dinner Party." Woman's Art Journal 1.2 (Autumn 1980-Winter 1981): 35-37.
  4. ^ a b c d Kramer, Hilton. "Art: Judy Chicago's Dinner Party Comes to Brooklyn Museum." The New York Times. October 17, 1980.
  5. ^ a b c Mullarkey, Maureen. "The Dinner Party is a Church Supper: Judy Chicago at the Brooklyn Museum." Commonweal Foundation, 1981.
  6. ^ Smith, Roberta. "Art Review: For a Paean to Heroic Women, a Place at History's Table." New York Times. September 20, 2002.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Jones, Amelia. "The ‘Sexual Politics’ of The Dinner Party: A Critical Context." Reclaiming Female Agency. Eds. Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005. 409-433.
  8. ^ Michael Landy: modern art is rubbish…, Hermione Hoby, The Observer, Sunday 17 January 2010
  9. ^ a b c d Lippard, Lucy R. "Uninvited Guests: How Washington Lost ‘The Dinner Party.’" Art in America 79 (Dec 1991): 39-49.

External links

See also








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