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The Bible
New Testament

The Epistle of Paul to Titus, usually referred to simply as Titus, is one of the three Pastoral Epistles (with 1 Timothy and 2 Timothy), traditionally attributed to Saint Paul, and is part of the New Testament. It describes the requirements and duties of elders and bishops.[1]



Today scholars are divided as to the authenticity of the pastoral epistles.[1] They generally consider the Pastoral epistles to have be written by the same author. Titus has a very close affinity with 1 Timothy, sharing similar phrases and expressions and similar subject matter.[2][3] While these epistles are traditionally attributed to Paul of Tarsus, many scholars today consider them pseudepigraphical.


Pauline Authenticity

The author of Titus identifies himself as "Paul, a servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ." According to Easton's Bible Dictionary, "Paul's Authorship was undisputed in antiquity, and was probably written about the same time as the First Epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities."

Scholars who believe Paul wrote Titus such as Donald Guthrie date its composition from the circumstance that it was written after Paul's visit to Crete (Titus 1:5). That visit could not be the one referred to in the Book of Acts 27:7, when Paul was on his voyage to Rome as a prisoner, and where he continued a prisoner for two years. Thus traditional exegesis supposes that after his release Paul sailed from Rome into Asia, passing Crete by the way, and that there he left Titus "to set in order the things that were wanting." Thence he would have gone to Ephesus, where he left Timothy, and from Ephesus to Macedonia, where he wrote the First Epistle to Timothy, and thence, according to the superscription of this epistle, to Nicopolis in Epirus, from which place he wrote to Titus, about 66 or 67.

Opposed to Pauline Authenticity

The Pastoral epistles are regarded by some scholars as being pseudepigraphical. On the basis of the language and content of the pastoral epistles, these scholars today doubt that they were written by Paul, and believe that they were written after his death. Critics examining the text fail to find its vocabulary and literary style similar to Paul's unquestionably authentic letters, fail to fit the life situation of Paul in the epistles into Paul's reconstructed biography, and identify principles of the emerged Christian church rather than those of the apostolic generation.

Those scholars who consider Titus to be pseudepigraphical date the epistle from the 80s up to the end of the 2nd century.[4]


One of the secular peculiarities of the Epistle to Titus is the inclusion of text which has become known as the Epimenides paradox. According to the World English Bible translation, Titus 1:12-13 reads (in part) "One of them, a prophet of their own, said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, and idle gluttons.' This testimony is true." The statement by a member of a group that all members are liars is now a famous logic problem. In this section of the letter, Paul does not go after the character of the Cretans but rather makes observations of their false teachers. He leaves the character judgment of the people on Crete up to their own prophet.

Summary Exegesis and Commentary

Chapter One

“1. From Saul, slave of God and emissary of Jesus the anointed, for the sake of the faith of God's chosen, and their knowledge of the truth which is in accordance with the fear of Heaven”

“The exact meaning of the prepositional phrases is perplexing... the obscurity is due to… the fact that vss. 1-3 are composed of a series of phrases in liturgical form - compact, condensed, intent – symbols whose first intent is to work on emotion rather than describe or clarify an idea.” TIB 1955[5] XI p. 523
Knowledge of the truth which accords with godliness is circumlocution for 'Christianity.'” TIB 1955 XI p. 524

“7. Does not, in accordance with his stewardship of the house God, the administrator need to be a man who has no flaw in him, who is not perverse, not bad tempered, not given to wine, not a brawler, not a pursuer of ill-gotten gain? 8. Rather” [he should be] “hospitable, a lover of the good, settled in his opinion, wise, holy, self controlled,”

moderate, just, devoted, self-controlled: A version of the four cardinal virtues of Greco-Roman antiquity. The candidate must be a fully virtuous man.” TNJBC 1990[6] p. 894
A lover of hospitality] υιλοξενον” [filoxenon] “; a lover of strangers… Instead of υιλοξενον, one MS. has υιλοπτεσον”[filoptekhon] “, a lover of the poor.” A.C. 1831[7] VI p. 617
“The two virtues master of himself (σωυπων” [sofron] “)and self-controlled (εγκπατηρ” [egkrates]"), more Greek than Jewish, are closely related to each other in Stoic thought. Self control has small place in biblical religion because the Christian life is determined by God's command, and self-control loses its high position, asceticism being cut off as a method of meriting salvation (Gerhard Kittel … 1935)…” TIB 1955 XI p. 528

“9. and a grasper of the faithful word according to our doctrine, for the encouragement of sound moral instruction, and also to rebuke the opposition. 10. For there are many, particularly from the circumcised, who urge vain and misleading words upon listeners, 11. and who ought to shut their mouths. They destroy whole families teaching their flawed words, and this for base profit. 12. One of their own prophets said: 'Cretans are always liars; they are evil beasts and slothful gluttons.'”

“This … singularly indiscreet quotation … over reaches itself to defame all Cretans … although unnamed, the prophet is probably Epimenides of Cnossos, a half-mythical sixth century Greek, variously described as poet, prophet (Aristotle Rhetoric III. 17. 10) … religious reformer to whom the Cretans offered sacrifices (Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers I. 11), one of the seven sages (Plutarch Solon XII), and the reputed author of a body of literature extant in the first century…
“Epimenides, it appears, called the Cretans liars because they claimed to have the tomb of Zeus among them, whereas his devotees said he was not dead but alive and risen. ...
“In a real letter addressed to Cretans the quotation would be singularly untactful. And in any case, the elders Titus would appoint would have to be Cretan elders… Unless the Cretan destination of the letter is entirely fanciful and unreal, and was conceived by the writer in order to blacken the names of his opponents by smearing them with the reputed Cretan depravity, we should have to suppose either that Titus was strictly a private letter to a non-Cretan named Titus, or that the writer was strangely insensitive to the insult he was inflicting on the Cretan brethren by the use of so devastating a quotation.” TIB 1955 XI pp. 530 – 531

“15. All is pure to the pure, but to the defiled, and to those who do not believe, nothing is pure because both their mind and their conscience are defiled.”

“To the pure all things are pure has the ring of a proverb. Even if its identical form is not found elsewhere in the N.T. (nor indeed outside; but see Philo On the Special Laws III. 208-9; Seneca Epistle XCVIII. 3), yet the idea is proverbially used as a warrant for engaging in practices traditionally regarded as taboo. Jesus was believed to have given expression to the idea in Mark 7:14-15 (cited by Paul in Rom. 14;14) and Luke 11:41, thereby asserting that purity is of the heart, releasing men in principle from the error of thinking that religious purity can be attained by correct performance of specified ritual or by careful avoidance of practices declared (ritually)unclean, and releasing them in fact from the necessity of observing those precepts in Judaism, whether written or unwritten, which were to be interpreted as ceremonial rather than moral. In the present passage the writer brandishes the familiar saying in his own defense to justify Christian practice of marriage and enjoyment of foods (see I Tim. 4:3; 5:23): to the spiritually pure all (an overstatement) things are (ritually) pure. The reason why to the corrupt and unbelieving [with special reference to the false teachers] nothing [an overstatement] is pure, not even marriage, or foods which God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe(I Tim. 4:3), is that their very minds and consciences are corrupted, i.e. the impurity is in their souls, not in the created world. Since their souls are totally depraved, they think the world is. The heart of the verse is that purity is a matter of the mind and conscience, not an attribute of things.” TIB 1955 XI p. 532

“16. They declare that they know God, but in their deeds deny him, they are loathsome and unruly, and do not succeed in anything.”

“He who does not refer every thing to eternity, is never likely to live either well or happily in time.” A.C. 1831 VI p. 619

Chapter Two

“1. And speak the word that is fitting to our sound doctrine, 2. that the elders (aged men) be sober, serious, restrained, and sound in faith, in love, and in patience.”

“As is typical of the Pastorals, the morality here urged is in no sense specifically Christian, but is a good account of conventional behavior as approved in any patriarchal society anywhere. It is a civil not a heroic morality…” TIB 1955 XI p. 533

"3. The aged women likewise, that they be in behaviour as becometh holiness, not false accusers, not given to much wine, teachers of good things; that they may teach the younger women..."

Titus chapter 2 makes specific addressses related to aged men, aged women, younger women, young men and servants (v.9-10). As such, it is a commonly referenced text for teaching on roles and relationships.

"4...teach the younger women to be sober, to love their husbnds, to love their children," "5. to be discreet, chaste, keepers at home, good, obedient to their husbands..." "6. Young men likewise exhort to be sober minded"

“9. It is for slaves to submit to their masters in everything; to satisfy their wants and not to be refractory. 10. Do not pilfer; rather show full faithfulness, so that everything will increase the glory of the law of the God our savior.”

“The mention of a stereotypical slave vice like pilfering and the failure to list the duties of masters suggest a lurking bias in favor of the slaveholders.” TNJBC 1990 p. 895 The relationship of employees to their supervisors and employers has also been taught from this section on servants. Commendation to the good and faithful servant is also taught by Jesus Christ in the Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:21,23)

“11. Thus the mercy of God will appear to the salvation of all men, 12. to guide us in departing from the evil and passions of the world, so that we can live in this world in chastity and in righteousness and in piety, 13. in expectation of the realization of the blessed hope and the glorious appearance of the great God, and our savior Jesus the anointed …”

“The Pastorals view Christ as subordinate to God yet accord him, as a past and also yet-to-come manifestation of God, the same titles as God. Here he receives the very name of God.” TNJBC 1990 p. 895
“The Greek of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ is ambiguous and therefore capable of being interpreted as referring to two persons rather than one. It is preferable, however, to suppose with most commentators, ancient as well as modern, that both epithets refer to Jesus, even though nowhere else in the N.T. is Jesus spoken of as our great God. This is the natural construction in Greek of two nouns following one article ('the'). Also the language here is obviously framed in reaction to that of the emperor cult and of the mystery religions Ptolemy I was named 'savior and god'; Antiochus and Julius Caesar 'god manifest'; Osiris, 'lord and savior,' In common usage the compound epithet meant one deity, not two. It should therefore not be surprising that a late Christian writer should speak of Jesus in the same two fold fashion, claiming for him the divine titles which others ascribed to their gods. Furthermore, functions ascribed to Yahweh in the O.T., viz., to redeem us … and to purify for himself a people of his own, are ascribed to Jesus (vs.14). Identity of function prompts identity in name. Also, while Jewish apocalyptic speaks now of the appearing of God, now of the Messiah, the two are never thought of as appearing simultaneously. Such a double appearance would be unthinkable. And in the N.T. it is always the appearing of Christ which is expected, not of God…” TIB 1955 XI pp. 539-540

Chapter Three

“1-2. Remind them to be subject to rulers and authorities, to obey, to be ready for every good work, to speak evil of no one, to be peaceable, gentle, showing all humility to all men.”

They must be not only obedient subjects (passively) but must be ready to initiate every good work (actively).

“3. Once we too were lacking in knowledge, rebellious, wrong, slaves to all kinds of passions and cravings, wasting our time in malice and envy, hateful,” [Στςγητοι, stugetoi] “and each hating his brother.”

hateful as hell. The word comes from Στςξ, Styx, the infernal river… he who ... violated [an]oath was expelled from the assembly of the gods,” [to the other side of the river Styx] “and was deprived of his nectar and ambrosia for a year” A.C. 1831 VI p. 624

“8. The word is trustworthy, and I want you stand upon its authority so that the believers in God turn their heart to engage in good works.”

“When he is most himself” [the author] “thinks of religion in terms of an obedience to the received pattern of faith issuing in good deeds. The function of doctrine is to undergird the practical moral life.” TIB 1955 XI p. 547

“9… refrain from investigations of foolish questions, from research into the histories of the genealogies, and from quarreling and disputes about the Law; there is no value in them; they are pointless.”

“As the church sought to ground its unity in a creed, the problem of heresy and discipline became increasingly troublesome.” TIB 1955 XI p. 548
Avoid foolish questions, and genealogies] In these the Jews particularly delighted; they abounded in the most frivolous questions; and, as they had little piety themselves, they were solicitous to show that they had descended from godly ancestors….
“Of their frivolous questions, and the answers given to them, by the wisest and most reputable of their rabbins, the following is a specimen:
“Rabbi Hillel was asked, Why have the Babylonians round heads? To which he answered, This is a difficult question, but I will tell the reason: Their heads are round because they have but little wit. ...
Q. Why have the Africans broad feet? –
A. Because they inhabit a marshy country…
But ridiculous and trifling as these are, they are little in comparison to those solemnly proposed, and most gravely answered, by those who are called the Schoolmen. Here is a specimen, which I leave the reader to translate:-
Utrum essent excrementa in Paradiso? Utrum sancti resurgent cum intestinis? Utrum si deipara fuisset vir, potuisset esse naturalis parens Christi?
These, with many thousands of others, of equal use to religion and common sense, may be found in their writings. See the Summa of Thom. Aquinas, passim. Might not the Spirit have these religious triflers in view, rather than the less ridiculous Jews?” A.C. 1831 VI p. 626
“There is not one … subscription… of any authority; and some of them are plainly ridiculous…see a treatise by old Mr. Prynne, intituled, The unbishoping of Timothy and Titus, 4to. Lond. 1636 and 1660, where, among many crooked things, there are some just observations.” A.C. 1831 VI p. 627

“12. When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter.”

This is Paul's exit plan for Titus from Crete. Titus had received direction from Paul to complete a work in Crete. (Titus 1:5). However, upon the arrival of Artemas or Tychicus, Paul was directing Titus to leave Crete and join him at Nicopolis.

See also


  1. ^ a b Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ William Paley Horae Paulinae (1785)
  3. ^ Bart D. Ehrman. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. pp. 385ff
  4. ^ Raymond E. Brown. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Anchor Bible, p. 662
  5. ^ The Interpreters Bible The Holy Scriptures in the King James and Revised Standard versions with general articles and introduction, exegesis, [and] exposition for each book of the Bible in twelve volumes, George Arthur Buttrick, Commentary Editor, Walter Russell Bowie, Associate Editor of Exposition, Paul Scherer, Associate Editor of Exposition, John Knox Associate Editor of New Testament Introduction and Exegesis, Samuel Terrien, Associate Editor of Old Testament Introduction and Exegesis, Nolan B. Harmon Editor, Abingdon Press, copyright 1955 by Pierce and Washabaugh, set up printed, and bound by the Parthenon Press, at Nashville, Tennessee, Volume XI, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Pastoral Epistles [The First and Second Epistles to Timothy, and the Epistle to Titus [[Introduction and Exegesis by Fred D. Gealy]] , Philemon, Hebrews
  6. ^ The New Jerome Biblical Commentary, Edited by Raymond E. Brown, S.S., Union Theological Seminary, New York; NY, Robert A. Wild, S. J. [The Pastorals]; Roland E. Murphy, O. Carm. (emeritus) The Divinity School, Duke University, Durham, NC, with a foreword by His Eminence Carlo Maria Cardinal Martini, S.J.; Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1990
  7. ^ The New Testament of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. The text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present Authorized Version. Including the marginal readings and parallel texts. With a Commentary and Critical Notes. Designed as a help to a better understanding of the sacred writings. By Adam Clarke, LL.D. F.S.A. M.R.I.A. With a complete alphabetical index. Royal Octavo Stereotype Edition. Vol. II. [Volume VI together with the Old Testament volumes] New York, Published by J. Emory and B. Waugh, for the Methodist Episcopal Church, at the conference office, 13 Crosby-Street. J. Collord, Printer. 1831.

External links

Online translations of the Epistle to Titus:

Exegetical papers on Titus:

Preceded by
2 Timothy
Books of the Bible Succeeded by

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

THE EPISTLE TO TITUS, in the New Testament, an epistle which purports to have been written by Paul to Titus (i. 1-4), who is in charge of the local churches at Crete (i. 5). The younger man is reminded of the qualifications which he is to insist upon in officials (i. 5-16), in view of current errors,2 doctrinal and moral. The genuine teaching, or "sound doctrine," which he is to propound (ii. 1, seq.), is then outlined, with regard to aged men and women, younger men and slaves especially. 3 After a postscript (iii. 8-11), reiterating the counsels of the letter, with particular reference to the outside public, some personal notices are briefly added (iii. 12-13), and, with some final exhortations, the epistle ends.

The origin of Christian missions in Crete is obscure. A strong Jewish element existed among the population (cf. i. 13 seq., iii. 9), which explains the particular hue of the local heresies as well as, perhaps, the initial efforts of a Christian propaganda (cf. Acts ii. 11). The geographical situation of the island also favoured an early introduction of the new faith. "Crete was a great wintering place" for vessels (cf. Acts xxvii. 12 seq.) working their slow way to Rome along the southern coast of the Mediterranean,' so that the possibility of Jewish Christian evangelists having reached it before long is to be granted freely.

1 The common names given to this bird are so very inapplicable that it is a pity that "silerella" (from ssler, an osier) bestowed upon it by Sir T. Browne, its original discoverer, cannot be restored.

On the somewhat harsh estimate of the Cretans in i. 12 see Dr J. Rendel Harris in Expositor (7th series, vol. ii. p. 305 seq.). The other features noted in the epistle, their turbulence, drunkenness and greed, all happen to be verified in the pages of ancient writers like Polybius.

On the sub-Pauline tone of iii. 5 cf. Sokolowski's Geist and Leben bei Paulus (1903), p. 108 seq.

' Cf. W. M. Ramsay: Pauline and other Studies (1907), p. 76, Hoennicke's Das Judenchristentum (1908), p. 156 seq., and Harnack's Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii. 229-230 (2nd ed., 1908).

It is more difficult to determine when Paul can have visited the island and left Titus behind him. Attempts have been made to find a setting for the epistle within the apostle's life previous to his Roman imprisonment (as recorded in Acts), but by common consent s it is now held that the epistle (if written by the apostle) must fall later, during the period of missionary enterprise which is supposed to have followed his release from the first captivity. Like the epistles to Timothy, the Epistle to Titus thus belongs to a phase of the apostle's life for which we possess no other contemporary evidence. The second imprisonment of Paul, after a period of freedom following his acquittal, is an historical hypothesis (cf. the statement in Steinmetz's Die zweite rdm. Gefangenschaft des Paulus, p. 46 seq.), which is absolutely essential to the Pauline authorship of the pastorals. It is indeed supported by several critics who reject the latter, just as it is occasionally rejected by advocates of their authenticity. But, upon the whole, such evidence from early tradition as can be adduced from the 2nd century seems no more than an expansion of Paul's language in Rom. xv. 24, 28. The pastorals themselves never mention any mission in Spain. Spanish tradition is silent on the fact, and the allusion to the "west" (in Clem. Rom. v.) can be interpreted at least as fairly of Rome as of Spain. The entire problem is not without its difficulties still, after all the research lavished upon it, but the probabilities seem to converge upon the conclusion that Paul was never released from his imprisonment, and consequently that he never revisited the East.

The internal criticism of the epistle starts from i. 7-9, which is plainly an interpolation, perhaps from the margin, upon the qualifications of episcopoi. On the other hand a passage like iii. 12-13 is indubitably a Pauline fragment, and the problem for the critic is to determine whether in the epistle as a whole we have a redacted and interpolated edition of what was originally a note from the hand of Paul, or whether the epistle drew upon some Pauline tradition '(connecting Titus with Crete) and material, and was afterwards interpolated at i. 7-9. The latter hypothesis seems more probable, upon the whole, although there is little to choose between the two. The substantially Pauline character of the epistle, for all practical purposes, is to be granted upon either hypothesis, for the author or the editor strove not unsuccessfully, upon the whole, to reproduce the Pauline spirit and traditions The older notion that the personal data in Titus, or in the rest of the pastorals, were invented to lend verisimilitude to the writing must be given up. They are too circumstantial and artless to be the work of a writer idealizing or creating a situation. Thus, in the present epistle, a passage like iii. 12-13 is palpably genuine. But it is another question whether other passages can be added to it (e.g. i. 1 seq., 5-6, 12-13a, 16, iii. 1-7, 15, by Hesse; i. I, 4, iii. 15, by von Soden; i. 1-6?, iii. 1-7, by McGiffert), in order to reconstruct a more or less independent note from Paul's own pen.

It seems improbable that Titus or any of the pastorals is directed against any one phase of contemporary heresy.' The prohibition of marriage (1 Tim. iv. 3) was common to Marcion and Apelles, while the injunction of fasting $ is attributed to the Encratites (Iren. Adv. Haer. i. 28, 1) and to Saturninus of Antioch in Syria (ibid. I. 24, 3), the latter being also credited with having been the first to introduce a dualism into humanity, which made God send his Saviour to destroy the evil and redeem the good, both classes having been formed by the angels (cf. Titus ii. 11; I Tim. iv. io). The exhaustive discussions on this point (cf. Bourquin, pp. 55 seq.) have led most scholars to the conclusion that no one system of 2nd-century gnosticism is before the writer's mind. He is maintaining Paul's role. He makes the apostle prophesy, vaguely of course, the evil tendencies which were to come upon the church; but the internal evidence, W. E. Bowen, Professor Bartlet (Apostolic Age, pp. 178 seq.; cf. also article on Paul), Lisco (Vincula sanctorum, 1900) and Laughlin are the only recent exceptions, and their conjectural schemes are mutually destructive. The common style of the epistles forbids any dispersion of them over a term of years. They stand or fall together, as critics of all schools are practically agreed. The impossibility of placing them within the period of Acts is best known by Hatch, Bourquin (pp. 10-25), Bertrand (23-47) and von Soden.

The historical site for iii. 12-13, as well as for the tradition which forms the setting of the epistle, is probably to be sought in the neighbourhood of Acts xx. 3 (so Krenkel). Clemen dates iii. 12-13 from Macedonia after 2 Cor. x. - xiii., i. - ix., previous to Romans (in A.D. 59).

' Essenim, blended with Ebionitism, is the plausible conjecture of Schle:ermacher, Neander and Mangold, but the Essenes do not seem to have prohibited marriage so dogmatically.

8 Asceticism was bound up with the gnostic depreciation of the body. By a natural recoil it produced licentiousness of conduct which the pastorals hotly denounce.

together with the impossibility of placing the epistles later than the first ten or twenty years of the 2nd century, render it impracticable to detect anything except incipient phases of syncretistic gnosticism behind the polemical allusions. It was a gnosticism fluctuating not only in its relation to the Church but in its emphasis upon certain ethical and theosophical ideas. One definite trait is its Jewish character (Titus i. to; 2 Tim. iii. 16; I Tim. i. 7, &c.). The errorists developed speculations and practical theories on the basis of the Old Testament law, which proved extremely seductive to many Christians. But it is difficult to find any homogeneity in the repeated descriptions of this semi-gnostic phase, although now and then (e.g. in I Tim. i. 7 seq.; Titus i. 14, iii. 9) there are suggestions of the legalism which Cerinthus advocated. The Ophites are said to have not only used myths but forbidden marriage and held that the resurrection was purely spiritual (Lightfoot); this, however, is probably no more than an interesting coincidence, and all attempts to identify the errorists definitely must be abandoned.' The early Fathers often indeed identify them with later types of gnosticism, but this cannot be taken as any sure clue to the author's meaning. They naturally found in his prophetic words the anticipation of heresies current in their own age.

Sometimes, as in the cases of the resurrection being allegorized2 and marriage repudiated,' it is feasible to detect distortions or exaggerations of Paul's own teaching, against which the Paulinist of the pastorals puts in a caveat and a corrective. But these somewhat "indiscriminate denunciations are certainly not what we expect from a man like Paul, who was an uncommonly clear-headed dialectician" (McGiffert). They partake of the nature of a pastoral manifesto, which does not trouble to draw any fine distinctions between the principles or motives of its opponents. The method resembles that of the First Epistle of John, for although the errorists attacked in the latter manifesto are not those of the pastorals, and although the one writer eschews entirely the inner authority of the Spirit which the other posits, the same anti-gnostic emphasis on practical religion and stereotyped doctrine is felt in both.

Literature. - Special monographs on Titus have been written by Jerome, Casper Cruciger (Expositio brevis et familiaris, 1542), Mosheim (Erklarung des Briefs an Tit., 1779), and Kuinoel (Explicatio epist. Pauli ad Titum, 1812). Commonly, however, the epistle has been edited and criticized along with the epistles of Timothy. The ablest recent editions are by B. Weiss (in Meyer's Commentar, 7th ed., 1902; full and exact), Wohlenberg (in Zahn's Commentar, 1906), and J. E. Belser, the Roman Catholic savant (1907), with which may be ranked Wace's (Speaker's Commentary, 1886) and J. H. Bernard's (Cambridge Greek Testament, 1899) editions. All these present the conservative position. On the other side, Von Soden's Hand-Commentar (2nd ed., 1893) and Franz Koehler's popular commentaries Die Schriften des N. T. (1906) are most notable. Brief English notes are furnished by Horton (Century Bible, 1901, from Zahn's standpoint) and J. P. Lilley (Edinburgh, 1901). Of the older editions, the most valuable are Heydenreich's (Die Pastoralbriefe, 1826-1828), Alford's (3rd ed., 1862), Huther's (3rd ed., Göttingen, 1866), Bisping's (1866), P. Fairbairn's (Edinburgh, 1874), Ellicott's (5th ed., 1883, strong in exegesis) and Knoke's (in Lange's Bibel-Werk, 4th ed., 1894), with Riggenbach's (in the StrackZockler Commentar, 1897). Editions in English have recently been undertaken in the International Critical Commentary (by W. Lock), in the Expositor's Greek Testament (by N. J. D. White), and by Sir W. M. Ramsay. For the patristic literature see Wohlenberg (op. cit. p. 76).

For the view that a Paulinist was the author, see Schleiermacher, Ober den sogen. ersten Brief des Paulus an den Tim. (1807), which really opened the modern phase of criticism on all three epistles; Baur, Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus (1835); H. J. Holtzmann, Die Pastoralbriefe kritisch u. exegetisch behandelt (1880), an exhaustive treatment; Hilgenfeld, Zeitschrift far die wiss. Theologie (1897), 49 seq., 61 seq., 79 seq.; E. Y. Hincks, Journal of Bibl. Literature (1897), 9411 7; and Renan, S. Paul xxiii.-liii., L'Eglise chretienne, ch. v. The conservative position is maintained with varying confidence by C. W. Otto, Die geschichtlichen Verhaltnisse der Pastoralbriefe (1860); Bertrand, Essai critique sur l'authenticite des ep. pastorales (1888); G. G. Findlay, appendix to Eng. trans. of Sabatier's L'Apotre Paul, pp. 341 seq.; W. E. Bowen, Dates of Pastoral Letters (1900); T. C. Laughlin, The Pastoral Epp. in the Light of one Roman Imprisonment (California, 1905); and J. D. James, The Genuineness and Authorship of the Pastoral Epistles (1906). For general studies, see Schenkel's Bibel-Lexicon, iv. 393-4 02; Sabatier's article in Ency. des sciences religieuses, x. 2 502 59; J. R. Boise, ' Clemen (Paulus i. 148) distinguishes broadly between the errorists of 2 Tim. and those controverted in the other two epistles. The former, he argues, are in the last resort libertinists and antinomians; the latter must be regarded as ascetic Judaists.

2 2 Tim. ii. 18. Paul's teaching about the believer being already risen with Christ gave a welcome handle to the later Gnostics. The passage in Joh,n v. 28-29 seems a correction of the possible inferences which might be drawn from such teaching in Paul and in the Fourth Gospel itself.

3 Cf. Von Dobschiitz, Christian Life the Primitive Church (pp. 261 seq.).

The Epp. of Paul written after he became a Prisoner (New York, 1887); Plummer, Expositor's Bible (1888); Bourquin, Etude critique sur les past. epitres (1890); Harnack, Die Chronologie, 480 seq., 710-711; Moffatt, Ency. Bib., 5079-5096, and W. Lock (Hastings's Diet. Bible, vol. iv.). (J. MT.)

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