The Fellowship (Christian organization): Wikis

Advertisements
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Fellowship
Formation 1935
Headquarters The Cedars, a mansion in Arlington, Virginia[1]
Associate Director Douglas Coe
Affiliations Christians in Parliament

The Fellowship, also known as the Family, is an international organization founded in 1935 by Dr. Abraham Vereide in Seattle, Washington and incorporated in Chicago, United States. Participants include ranking government officials, corporate executives, heads of religious and humanitarian aid organizations, and ambassadors, from around the world. It has been described as one of the most well-connected ministries in the US.[1][2][3][4][5]

The core purpose of this group is to provide a fellowship forum for decision makers to share in Bible Studies, prayer meetings, worship experiences and to experience spiritual affirmation and support.[6][7] In Newsweek, Lisa Miller writes that the common love for the teachings of Jesus binds this group together and all approaches to understanding him are acceptable.[8]

The group is most widely known for facilitating supportive prayer groups throughout the United States and around the world, including the Presidential Prayer Breakfast, later known as the National Prayer Breakfast. Every sitting United States president since 1953 has participated in the national breakfast.[9][10][11][12]

The groups typically practice confidentiality about the names of the small group participants and urge its members to be considerate towards one another and to avoid gossip.[13]

In 1946, amid the international turmoil from World War II, Dr. Abraham Vereide wrote and released a book with Reverend John G. Magee, chaplain to President Harry Truman, entitled: "Together" (Abingdon Cokesbury). Herein Vereide explained his philosophy of visionary discipleship and gathering together in what he termed as spiritual cells:

Man craves fellowship. Most of us want an opportunity to make our feelings known, to relate our personal experiences, to compare notes with others, and, in unity of spirit to receive renewal, inspiration, guidance, and strength from God. Such groups as we are thinking of have characterized every spiritual awakening. Jesus began with Peter and James and John. He had the twelve and the Seventy. At Bethany he established a cell...there you have the formula...faith embodied the same close informal fellowship...one common practice - gathering together in the name of Jesus.

Contents

Names

Fellowship Foundation was incorporated by Dr. Vereide in Chicago, Illinois in 1942 as Fellowship Foundation, Inc. and also acquired the names International Christian Leadership, ICL, Fellowship House and International Foundation as venues of global outreach ministry expanded.[9][14]

The Fellowship Foundation, Inc. often uses the trade name: The International Foundation,[13] which is listed as its DBA name on IRS tax forms.[15]

Extent of Influence: Organizations and Individuals

Prominent evangelical Christians, have described it as one of the most, or the most, politically well-connected ministries in the world.

D. Michael Lindsay, a Rice University sociologist who studies the evangelical movement, says “there is no other organization like the Fellowship, especially among religious groups, in terms of its access or clout among the country’s leadership.”[2] He also reports that lawmakers mentioned the Fellowship more than any other organization when asked to name a ministry with the most influence on their faith.[1]

In 1977, four years after he had converted to Christianity, Fellowship member and Watergate conspirator Charles Colson described the group as a “veritable underground of Christ’s men all through the US government.”[3]

The Reverend Robert Schenck, founder of the Washington, D.C. ministry Faith and Action in the Nation’s Capital, describes the Family's influence as "off the charts" in comparison with other fundamentalist groups, specifically compared to Focus on the Family, Pat Robertson, Gary Bauer, Traditional Values Coalition, and Prison Fellowship.[5] (These last two are associated with the Family: Traditional Values Coalition uses their C Street House[5] and Prison Fellowship was founded by Charles Colson.) Schenck also says that "the mystique of the Fellowship" has helped it "gain entree into almost impossible places in the capital."[13]

A talk from 1970 for college students encouraging mentoring and discipleship relates: “If you want... there are men in government, there are senators who literally find it their pleasure to give any advice, assistance, or counsel.” [16]

Lindsay also interviewed 360 evangelical elites, among whom “One in three mentioned [Doug] Coe or the Fellowship as an important influence."[2]

The Fellowship also has relationships with numerous non-US government leaders. Lindsay reports that it "has relationships with pretty much every world leader—good and bad—and there are not many organizations in the world that can claim that."[1]

“The Fellowship’s reach into governments around the world is almost impossible to overstate or even grasp,” says David Kuo, a former special assistant in George W. Bush’s Office of Faith-Based Initiatives.[4]

The following politicians are among those who have publicly acknowledged working with the Fellowship or are documented as having done so:[9]

Documented historic associates of the Fellowship include:

Military officers who are documented as having worked with the Fellowship include:

  • former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General John William Vessey, Jr.
  • former Chief of Staff of the Army Harold K. Johnson
  • former Inspector General of the Department of Defense, Lt. Gen. Claude Kicklighter

Other figures of note who have worked with the Fellowship are:

Religious leaders associated with the Fellowship include:

Other people in business associated with the Fellowship include:

  • Wayne Parker, Vice President, Insurance Office of America
  • Steve South, Senior VP and Chief Operating Officer of CEO Forum Inc.
  • J. Robert Hunter, Consumer Federation of America
  • Peter Hiskey, former executive, Ping golf equipment
  • Jerry Jonker, Home Acres Supply Corporation
  • Steve Hughes, former Chief Financial Officer, SRA International
  • Eric Fellman, World Bible Translation Center

The Fellowship is affiliated with other organizations:

History

The Fellowship traces its roots to Dr.Abraham Vereide, a Methodist clergyman and social innovator, and a month of prayer meetings he convened in 1934 in San Francisco.[9] Vereide himself was a Norwegian immigrant who, in 1916, founded Goodwill Industries in Seattle to encourage and lift up the city's unemployed and distraught Scandinavian immigrant population. His Goodwill Industries soon occupied a whole city block, where they repaired & processed discarded clothing and furniture and converted "waste to wages", inspired a "dedicated head, heart, and hand" and developed citizens of God's kingdom on Heaven and earth. His work spread down the West coast and eventually to Boston.[26]

In April 1935, Dr. Vereide, and Major J.F. Douglas invited nineteen business and civic leaders for a breakfast prayer meeting.[26] By 1937, 209 prayer breakfast groups had been organized throughout Seattle.[9] In 1940, 300 men from all over the state of Washington attended a prayer breakfast for the new governor, Arthur Langlie.[9] Vereide traveled through the Pacific Northwest, and later around the country, to develop similar groups.[9] The nondenominational groups were meant to bring together civic and business leaders informally to share vision, study the Bible, and develop relationships of trust and support.[9]

By 1942, there were 60 breakfast groups in major cities around the country, including Chicago, Los Angeles, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Washington and Vancouver. That same year, Vereide began to hold small prayer breakfasts for members of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate, with the inclusion of David Lawrence, meetings of informal fellowship, mutual prayer and encouragement. The following year, members of the Senate began holding prayer breakfast meetings. Vereide began publishing a monthly newsletter called The Breakfast Luncheon Fireside and Campus Groups that contained a Bible study that could be used by the groups, as well as information about activities of different groups and international meetings. The organization published a newsletter through the years under various names, including "The Breakfast Groups" Informer (ca. 1945-1946), The Breakfast Groups (ca. 1944-1953), International Christian Leadership Bulletin (ca. 1953-1954), Bulletin of International Christian Leadership (ca. 1954-1956), Christian Leadership (ca. 1957-1961), ICLeadership Letter (1961–1966), International Leadership Letter (ca. 1967), Leadership Letter (ca. 1963-1970).

In 1942, its offices moved from Seattle to Chicago. In 1944 Vereide held his first joint Senate-House prayer breakfast meeting. He held another breakfast on June 16, 1946, attended by Senators H. Alexander Smith and Lister Hill, and US News and World Report publisher David Lawrence.

In January 1947, a conference in Washington led to the formation of the International Council for Christian Leadership (ICCL), an umbrella group for the national fellowship groups in the United States, Canada, Great Britain, Norway, Hungary, Egypt, and China. ICCL was formally incorporated as a separate organization in 1953. ICL and ICCL were governed by different boards of directors, joined by a coordinating committee; four members of ICCL's board and four from the ICL's executive committee. In 1942 the Fellowship Foundation established a delegation ministry on Massachusetts Avenue at Sheridan Circle named: "Fellowship House". Dr. Vereide later described it as the nerve center of the breakfast groups.

By 1936, Abraham Vereide had already made his first entrée into the White House and when President Dwight D. Eisenhower came to attend the Senate Prayer Breakfast Group, invited by fellow Kansan, Frank Carlson in 1953, the first Presidential Prayer Breakfast came into being and the world stage was set to begin to invite other world leaders. By that time, Vereide’s congressional core members also included Senators Frank Carlson,Karl Mundt, Everett Dirkson and Strom Thurmond.

By 1957, ICL had established 125 groups in 100 cities, with 16 groups in Washington, D.C.. Around the world, it had set up another 125 groups in Canada, Britain, Germany, France, Northern Ireland, Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Switzerland, Italy, Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Ethiopia, India, South Vietnam, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Philippines, Australia, New Zealand, Guatemala, Cuba, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Bermuda. During this time, future Fellowship Leader, Douglas Coe joined Vereide as assistant executive director of ICL in Washington, D.C.

After over thirty five years of leading the Fellowship, Vereide was succeeded by Dr. Richard C. Halverson as executive director in 1969. Douglas E. Coe became associate executive director. Halverson and Coe worked side by side, inspiring the movement until Halverson's death in 1995.

Beliefs and theology

The Fellowship's 501(c)(3) mission statement is:

To develop and maintain an informal association of people banded together, to go out as "ambassadors of reconciliation," modeling the principles of Jesus, based on loving God and loving others. To work with the leaders of other nations, and as their hearts are touched, the poor, the oppressed, the widows and the youth of their country will be impacted in a positive manner. It is said that youth groups will be developed under the thoughts of Jesus, including loving others as you want to be loved.

As Newsweek reports, the Fellowship has often been criticized by conservative and fundamentalist Christian groups for being too inclusive and not putting enough emphasis on doctrine or church attendance.[8]

David Kuo, staffer in President George W. Bush's Office of Faith Based Initiatives, who has been affiliated with the Fellowship since college, said of the Fellowship:

For all the hysteria about Christian organizations, the irony that the Fellowship is being targeted as a bad egg is jaw-dropping. This is so not Focus on the Family, this is so not the Christian Coalition. There are other Christian groups that are truly insane. Who purport to follow Jesus Christ and who I would submit do not. The Fellowship is a loosely banded group of people who have an affinity for Jesus.[8]

Current Fellowship member and former US Representative Tony P. Hall (D-OH) said, "If people in this country knew how many Democrats and Republicans pray together and actually like each other behind closed doors, they would be amazed." The Fellowship is simply, "men and women who are trying to get right with God. Trying to follow God, learn how to love him, and learn how to love each other." When he lost his teenage son to leukemia, Hall says, "This family helped me. This family was there for me. That's what they do."[8]

Hillary Clinton described meeting the leader of the Fellowship in 1993: “Doug Coe, the longtime National Prayer Breakfast organizer, is a unique presence in Washington: a genuinely loving spiritual mentor and guide to anyone, regardless of party or faith, who wants to deepen his or her relationship to God.”[27]

Author Jeff Sharlet did intensive research in the Family's archives, before the Billy Graham archives were limited to the theology students. He also spent a month in 2002 living at a Fellowship house near Washington, and wrote a magazine article describing his experiences. In his 2008 book about the Family, he criticizes their theology as elitist, an "elite fundamentalism" that fetishizes political power and wealth, consistently opposes labor movements in the US and abroad, and teaches that laissez-faire economic policy is "God's will." He criticizes their theology of instant forgiveness for powerful men as providing a convenient excuse so that elites who commit misdeeds or crimes can avoid accepting responsibility or accountability for their actions.[28]

Jeff Sharlet's book was endorsed by several literary friends, including Frank Schaeffer, once a leading figure of the Christian Right, who called Sharlet's book a "must read ... disturbing tour de force," and Brian McLaren, one of Time Magazine's "25 most influential evangelicals" in the U.S., who said: “Jeff Sharlet [is] a confessed non-evangelical whom top evangelical organizations might be wise to hire—and quick—as a consultant."[29][30] Lisa Miller, who writes a column on religion at Newsweek since October 2006, however, called his book "alarmist" and says it paints a "creepy, even cultish picture" of the young, lower-ranking members of the Fellowship.[8][31]

Controversial leadership model

Jeff Sharlet and Andrea Mitchell describe fellowship leader Doug Coe as preaching a leadership model, and a personal commitment to Jesus Christ, comparable to the blind devotion that Adolf Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Chairman Mao, and Pol Pot demanded from their followers. In one videotaped 1989 lecture series, Coe said:

Hitler, Goebbels and Himmler were three men. Think of the immense power these three men had...But they bound themselves together in an agreement...Two years before they moved into Poland, these three men had...systematically a plan drawn out...to annihilate the entire Polish population and destroy by numbers every single house...every single building in Warsaw and then to start on the rest of Poland." Coe adds that it worked; they killed six and a half million "Polish people." Though he calls Nazis "these enemies of ours," he compares their commitment to Jesus' demands: "Jesus said, ‘You have to put me before other people. And you have to put me before yourself.' Hitler, that was the demand to be in the Nazi party. You have to put the Nazi party and its objectives ahead of your own life and ahead of other people.[32][33]

Later in the video, Coe also contrasts Jesus' teachings with the Red Guard during the Chinese Cultural Revolution:

I’ve seen pictures of young men in the Red Guard of China...they would bring in this young man’s mother and father, lay her on the table with a basket on the end, he would take an axe and cut her head off....They have to put the purposes of the Red Guard ahead of the mother-father-brother-sister -- their own life! That was a covenant. A pledge. That was what Jesus said.[32][34]

David Kuo states that comparisons such as these are taken out of context and aren't representative of the picture Douglas Coe was trying to paint:

Kuo says Doug Coe wasn’t lauding Hitler's actions.
“What Doug is saying, it’s a metaphor. He is using Hitler as a metaphor. Jesus used that,” Kuo said. A metaphor for what? “Commitment,” Kuo answered. ...
[A] close friend told NBC News that Doug Coe invokes Hitler only to show the power of small groups -- for good and bad. And, the friend said, Coe spends “99 percent” of his time during the sermons talking about the leadership model set by Jesus Christ.[32]

Secrecy

The groups have urged human sensitivity and courtesy to those in personal dilemma.[35][36] It maintains no public website and conducts no public fundraising activities.

Prominent political figures have insisted that confidentiality and privacy are essential to the Fellowship's operation. In 1985, President Ronald Reagan said about the Fellowship, "I wish I could say more about it, but it's working precisely because it is private."[37]

At the 1990 National Prayer Breakfast, President George H.W. Bush praised Doug Coe for what he described as “quiet diplomacy, I wouldn’t say secret diplomacy.”[4]

In 2009, Reverend Chris Halverson, a son of deceased, former executive associate director Dr. Richard C. Halverson, said that a culture of pastoral confidentialty is essential to the ministry: "If you talked about it, you would destroy that fellowship."[1]

From the 1930s it spread like a flame across America. In 1947, at the Zurich Conference, Vereide broaded the global outreach into every corner of the world and every culture in need of hope and reconciliation.[38] Author Jeff Sharlet describes this shift in operation:

Thereafter, the Fellowship would avoid at all costs any appearance of an organization... Business would be conducted on the letterhead of public men, who would testify that Fellowship initiatives were their own. Finances would be more ‘man-to-man,’ which is to say, off the books.[39]

In 1975, in concern for the risk of lives, a member of the Fellowship's legal staff wrote to the group's chief South African member, that their reconciliatory initiatives

...may be misunderstood by 'outsiders.' As a result of very bitter experiences, therefore, we have learned never to commit to paper any discussions or negotiations that are taking place. There is no such thing as a 'confidential' memorandum, and leakage can occur. Thus, I would urge you not to put on paper anything relating to any of the ministry that you are doing...[unless] you know the recipient well enough to put at the top of the page 'PLEASE DESTROY AFTER READING.'

The recipient made copies of this memo for other group members in Africa, one of which survives.[40][41]

In 1974, after several Watergate conspirators had joined the Fellowship, an LA Times columnist discouraged further inquiries into Washington's "underground prayer movement", i.e. the Fellowship: “They genuinely avoid publicity...they shun it.”[42]

In 2002, Doug Coe denied that the Fellowship owns the National Prayer Breakfast. Jennifer Thornett, a Fellowship employee, said that "there is no such thing as The Fellowship. All who follow Christ are in fellowship with Him."[13]

Former Republican Senator William Armstrong said the group has “made a fetish of being invisible.”[43]

In the 1960s, when the organization first went "underground," the Fellowship began distributing, to involved members of Congress, confidential memos which stressed that “the group, as such, never takes any formal action, but individuals who participate in the group through their initiative have made possible the activities mentioned.”[44]

Senate Prayer Group member, Senator Sam Brownback describes group members' method of operation: “Typically, one person grows desirous of pursuing an action”—-a piece of legislation, a diplomatic strategy—-“and the others pull in behind.” [45] Indeed, Brownback has often joined with fellow Family members in pursuing legislation. For example, in 1999 he joined together with fellow Family members, Senators Strom Thurmond and Don Nickles to demand a criminal investigation of Americans United for the Separation of Church and State, and in 2005 Brownback joined with Fellowship member Sen. Tom Coburn to promote the Houses of Worship Act.[46]

On January 5, 2010, prayer group member, and government analyst, Bob Hunter gave an interview on national television in which he stated:

But I do agree with you, that The Fellowship is too secret. We don't have a Web site. We don't have - we have a lot of good ministers, 200 ministers doing good works that nobody knows about. I think that's wrong, and there's a debate going on among a lot of people about whether and how we should change that.[47]

Finances and funding

The Fellowship Foundation, which since 1935, has conducted no public fundraising programs, relies totally on private donations by those so inspired to see the prayer and mentoring ministries continue to serve across the world. In 2007, the group received nearly 16.8 million dollars to support the 400 ministries.[15] Among the Family's key supporters are billionaire Paul N. Temple, a former executive of Esso (Exxon) and the founder of the Institute of Noetic Sciences and the Three Swallows Foundation. Between 1998 and 2007, Three Swallows made grants totaling $1,777,650 to the International Foundation, including $171,500 in 2004,[19] $203,500 in 2005,[20] and $145,500 in 2006.[21]

Another supporter, Jerome (Jerry) A. Lewis, established Denver-based Downing Street Foundation to provide support to three organizations: the Fellowship Foundation, Denver Leadership Foundation, and Young Life. Between 1999 and 2007, Downing Street donated at least $756,000 to the Family,[48] in addition to allowing the group to use its "retreat center."

Madelynn Winstead, a Downing Street director, was paid $21,500 by the Fellowship Foundation as managing director of the retreat center.[49] Winstead also sits on the board of directors of ENDOW, a Catholic educational program that brings women together to discover their God-given dignity and to understand their role in humanizing and transforming society.[50]

The Kingdom Fund (Kingdom Oil Christian Foundation t/a Twin Cities Christian Foundation) also provides support to the Family and World Vision.[51]

Fellowship Foundation sees more than $1,000,000 annually processed through its non-profit International Foundation account to assist in the bringing to the National Prayer Breakfast and National Leadership Seminars, for spiritual encouragement, leaders of developing countries and new democracies who would not otherwise be able to attend such gatherings of global peacemaking, prayer and discipleship around the reconcilitory teachings of Jesus and the Bible.

Activities

Advertisements

National Prayer Breakfast

The Fellowship is best known for organizing the National Prayer Breakfast, held each year on the first Thursday of February in Washington, D.C.[28][52] First held in 1953, the event is now attended by over 3,400 guests including dignitaries from many nations. The President of the United States typically makes an address at the breakfast. The event is officially hosted by a 24 member committee of members of Congress from all the parties and races. Extrovert and internationally involved Democrats and Republicans serve on the organizing committee, and chairmanship alternates each year between the House and the Senate.

At the National Prayer Breakfast, the President usually arrives an hour early and meets with eight to ten heads of state, usually of small nations, and maybe another dozen guests chosen by the Fellowship.[53][54]

G. Philip Hughes, the executive secretary for the National Security Council in the George H.W. Bush administration, said, "Doug Coe or someone who worked with him would call and say, 'So and so would like to have a word with the president. Do you think you could arrange something?'"[13]

However, Doug Coe has said that the Fellowship does not help foreign dignitaries gain access to U.S. officials. "We never make any commitment, ever, to arrange special meetings with the president, vice president or secretary of State," Coe said. "We would never do it."[13]

At the 2001 Senate Foreign Relations Committee confirmation hearings for State Department officials, Fellowship member Sen. Bill Nelson (D-FL) complained that the State Department had blocked then-President Bush from meeting with four foreign heads of state (Rwanda, Macedonia, Congo and Slovakia) at the NPB that year.[13]

Senator Paul Sarbanes (D-MD) said of Nelson's complaint: "I'm not sure a head of state ought to be able to wander over here for the prayer breakfast and, in effect, compel the president of the United States to meet with him as a consequence... Getting these meetings with the president is a process that's usually very carefully vetted and worked up. Now sort of this back door has sort of evolved."[13]

“It [the NPB] totally circumvents the State Department and the usual vetting within the administration that such a meeting would require,” an anonymous government informant told sociologist D. Michael Lindsay. “If Doug Coe can get you some face time with the President of the United States, then you will take his call and seek his friendship. That’s power.”[55]

Year Keynote Speaker Chairpersons
2006 King Abdullah II of Jordan and humanitarian/musician Paul Hewson (Bono)[56] Senators Norm Coleman (R-MN) and Mark Pryor (D-AR)
2007 Francis S. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., director of the Human Genome Project Reps. Emanuel Cleaver II (D-MO) and Jo Ann Davis (R-VA)
2008 Edward Brehm, Chairman of the United States African Development Foundation[57] Senators Ken Salazar (D-CO) and Mike Enzi (R-WY)
2009 Former Prime Minister Tony Blair[58] Reps. Heath Shuler (D-NC) and Vernon Ehlers (R-MI)
2010 Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero and Secretary of State Hillary Clinton Senators Johnny Isakson (R-GA) and Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)[59]

Prayer Breakfast movement

A primary activity of the Fellowship is to develop small support groups for politicians, including Senators and Members of Congress, Executive Branch officials, military officers, foreign leaders and dignitaries, businesspersons, and other influential individuals. Prayer groups have met in the White House, the Pentagon and at the Department of Defense.[60] By the early 1970s, prayer groups, breakfasts, and luncheons, including those sponsored by ICL, had become commonplace in the Pentagon.[61]

J. Edwin Orr, an advisor to Billy Graham and friend of Abraham Vereide, helped shape the prayer breakfast movement that grew out of ICL.[62]

Role in international conflicts

The Fellowship was a behind-the-scenes player at the Camp David Middle East accords in 1978, working with President Jimmy Carter to issue a worldwide call to prayer with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin and Egyptian President Anwar Sadat.[13]

President Carter hosted former Senator Harold E. Hughes, the President of the Fellowship Foundation, and Doug Coe, for a luncheon at the White House on September 26, 1978.[63] Six weeks later, President Carter and the First Lady traveled by Marine helicopter to Cedar Point Farm, Hughes' home on Maryland's Eastern Shore, where he placed a telephone call to Menachim Begin.[64]

The author Jeff Sharlet has criticized the Fellowship's influence on US foreign policy. He argues that Doug Coe and the Family's "networking" (or formation of prayer cells) between foreign dictators and US politicians, defense contractors, and industry leaders has facilitated military aid for repressive foreign regimes. Sharlet did intensive research in the Family's archives, kept at the Billy Graham Center, before the Family archives were closed to the public. Sharlet published a book about the history of the Family and its influence on US domestic and foreign policy from the 1920s to the present[28]. Sharlet in particular details the relationship of the Family with General Suharto of Indonesia in the 1970s, and with Siad Barre of Somalia in the 1980s. Also, in the Family's archives, there are at least two nearly full boxes of documents describing the Family's relationship with Brazil's long dictatorship of the Generals.[65]

Regarding his relationships with foreign dictators, Coe said in 2007, “I never invite them. They come to me. And I do what Jesus did: I don’t turn my back to any one. You know, the Bible is full of mass murderers.”[66]

Private diplomacy

The LA Times examined the Fellowship's archives (before they were sealed) as well as documents obtained from several presidential libraries and found that the Fellowship has had extraordinary access and significant influence over U.S. foreign affairs for the last 50 years.[13]

The Fellowship has funded the travel expenses of members of Congress to various hot spots throughout the globe, including Rep. Robert Aderholt (R-Al.) to Darfur,[67] Sen. Tom Coburn (R-Ok.) to Lebanon,[68] Rep. Aderholt to The Balkans,[69][70] and Reps John Carter (R-Tex.) and Joseph Pitts (R.-Pa.) to Belarus[71][72].

In 2002, Reps. Frank Wolf (R-Va.), Tony P. Hall (D-Ohio) and Joe Pitts (R-Pa.) traveled to Afghanistan and Pakistan on a fact-finding congressional trip, meeting with the leaders of both Muslim countries. According to Pitts, "The first thing we did when we met with [Afghan] President Karzai and [then Pakistan] President Musharraf was to say, 'We're here officially representing the Congress; we'll report back to the speaker, our leaders, our committees, our government. But we're here also because we're best friends.... We're members of the same prayer group'".[13]

Doug Coe has been dispatched to foreign governments with the blessing of congressional representatives and has helped arrange meetings overseas for U.S. officials and members of Congress.[13] In 1979, for instance, Coe messaged the Saudi Arabian minister of commerce and asked him to meet with a Defense Department official who was visiting Riyadh, the capital.[13]

The Fellowship has brought controversial international figures to Washington to meet with US officials. Among them are former Salvadoran Gen. Carlos Eugenio Vides Casanova, who in 2002 was found liable by a civil jury in Florida for the torture of thousands of civilians in the 1980s. He was invited to the 1984 prayer breakfast, along with Gen. Gustavo Alvarez Martinez, then head of the Honduran armed forces who was linked to a death squad and the CIA.[13][73]

Douglas Coe was quoted in a rare interview regarding the Fellowship's associations with despots as explaining, "The people that are involved in this association of people around the world are the worst and the best, some are total despots. Some are totally religious. You can find what you want to find."[13]

Coe also has claimed that the Fellowship does not help foreign dignitaries gain access to U.S. officials. "We never make any commitment, ever, to arrange special meetings with the president, vice president or secretary of State", Coe said. "We would never do it". The LA Times found that "the archives tell another story”.[13]

In January 1991, Fellowship associate and financial supporter Michael Timmis met President Pierre Buyoya of Burundi on behalf of the Fellowship, then flew to Kenya with Arthur (Gene) Dewey, the former second-in-command at the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, and Sam Owen, then living in Nairobi.[74] Timmis wrote that he had obtained permission to fly over Tanzanian air space, even though the U.S. Department of State had ordered American citizens to stay clear of Tanzania.

The Fellowship has pushed for reconciliation between the warring leaders of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, and Rwanda. In 2001, the Fellowship helped arrange a secret meeting at The Cedars between Democratic Republic of Congo President Joseph Kabila and Rwandan President Paul Kagame — one of the first discreet meetings between the two African leaders that led to a peace accord in July 2002.[13]

In 1994 at the National Prayer Breakfast, the Fellowship helped to persuade South African Zulu chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi not to engage in a civil war with Nelson Mandela.[75]

According to Jeff Sharlet, Senator Sam Brownback (R.-Kan.) is a Fellowship member who leads a secret "cell" of leading U.S. Senators and Representatives to influence U.S. foreign policy.[76] Jeff Sharlet reports that the group has stamped much of U.S. foreign policy through a group of Senators and affiliated religious organizations forming the "Values Action Team" or "VAT".[76] One victory for the group was Brownback's North Korea Human Rights Act, which establishes a confrontational stance toward North Korea and shifts funds for humanitarian aid from the UN to Christian organizations.[76]

The Fellowship is behind an international project called Youth Corps, a network of Christian youth groups that attract teenagers, and only later steer them to Jesus.[38][77] The Youth Corps web site does not mention an affiliation to the Fellowship or religion.[78] A non-public, internal Fellowship document, “Regional Reports, January 3, 2002,” lists some of the nations where Youth Corps programs are in operation: Russia; Ukraine; Romania; India; Pakistan; Uganda; Nepal; Bhutan; Ecuador; Honduras and Peru.[38][77]

Fellowship dollars have gone to an orphanage in India, a program in Uganda that provides schooling, and a development group in Peru.[13]

The Fellowship and Uganda

The Fellowship, through Representative Joe Pitts (R.-Pa.), redirected millions in US aid to Uganda from sex education programs to abstinence programs, thereby causing an evangelical revival, which included condom burnings. Following the American intervention, the Ugandan HIV incidence rate, once dropping, jumped from 70,000 in 2003 to 130,000 in 2005.[79][80]

In a November 2009 NPR interview, Jeff Sharlet alleged that Ugandan Fellowship associates David Bahati and Nsaba Buturo were behind the recent proposed bill in Uganda that called for the death penalty for gays.[81]

Sharlet reveals that David Bahati, the Uganda legislator backing the bill, reportedly first floated the idea of executing gays during The Family's Uganda National Prayer Breakfast in 2008.[82] Mr. Sharlet described Mr. Bahati as a "rising star" in the Fellowship who has attended the National Prayer Breakfast in the United States and, until the news over the gay execution law broke, was scheduled to attend this year's U.S. National Prayer Breakfast.[82]

Family member Bob Hunter gave an interview to NPR in December 2009 in which he acknowledged Bahati's connection but argued that no American associates support the bill.[83]

Fellowship involvement in extra-marital affairs of politician members

In 2009, the Fellowship received media attention in connection with three Republicans politician members who reportedly engaged in extra-marital affairs.[7][84][85][86] Two of them, Senator John Ensign, chairman of the Republican Policy Committee in the Senate and the fourth ranking in his party’s Senate leadership, and South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford, immediate past Chair of the Republican Governors Association and U.S. Representative from 1995–2001, were considering running for President in 2012.[7][84][85][87][88] The affairs of Ensign and then-Congressman Chip Pickering, R-Miss., took place while they were living at the C Street Center. Each of the three voted to impeach Bill Clinton for trying to cover up his affair with Monica Lewinsky.[89][90]

Role in the Affair of Senator John Ensign

Senator John Ensign, Fellowship member and longtime resident of the C Street Center, admitted in June 2009 to an extra-marital affair with Cindy Hampton, his campaign treasurer and the wife of his co-chief of staff, longtime friend and fellow worshipper, Doug Hampton.[91]

The Washington Post reported that the C Street "house pulsed with backstage intrigue, in the days and months before the Sanford and Ensign scandals" and that residents tried to talk each politician into ending his philandering, escalating into an emotional meeting to discuss "forgiveness" between Doug Hampton, the husband of Ensign's mistress, and Senator Tom Coburn.[7]

Doug Hampton said he was not directly advised by the Fellowship to cover up Senator Ensign's affair with his wife, but instead to "be cool." Doug Hampton said they felt they needed a more powerful voice to confront Ensign, and reached out to C Street resident and conservative leader Senator Tom Coburn.[91] After initially denying it, Senator Coburn admitted that he tried to broker a settlement between Doug Hampton and Senator Ensign that would have prevented Senator Ensign's affair with Cindy Hampton and his dealings with Doug Hampton from being exacerbated in TV talk shows.[91]

Coburn, with Timothy and David Coe, leaders of the Fellowship, attempted to intervene to end Ensign's affair in February 2008 by meeting with Mr. Hampton and convincing Ensign to write a letter to Ms. Hampton breaking off the affair.[7][84][85] Ensign was chaperoned by Senator Coburn and other members from C Street, where Ensign lives with Coburn, to a Federal Express office to post the letter.[7][84][85]But supposedly, he weakened and hours thereafter Senator Ensign called Ms. Hampton to tell her to ignore the letter and flew out to spend the weekend with her in Nevada.[7][84][85]

In connection with the affair, Senator Ensign reportedly engaged in conduct which, if true, would amount to felonies according to Melanie Sloan, executive director of the liberal watchdog group Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington.[91] The reported misconduct includes a $96,000 payment from Senator Ensign's parents which Hampton claims was an unreported severance payment for the termination of his position as co-chief of staff for Senator Ensign,[86] Mr. Hampton receiving a job as a lobbyist allegedly at the behest of Senator Ensign,[91] Senator Ensign allegedly helping Mr. Hampton in his role as a lobbyist to lobby the Senator in violation of a one year lobbying ban on ex-Senate staffers,[91] and Mr. Hampton's additional charge that Senator Ensign sexually harassed his wife.[92] The Senate Ethics Committee and the Department of Justice are investigating the charges related to illegal lobbying and subpoenas have been issued. Intimacy between government employees is reassessed as it affects the dignity of the environment.ref>Lipton, Eric (December 4, 2009). "Ethics Committee Issues Subpoenas in Ensign Inquiry." New York Times. Retrieved on December 5, 2005.</ref>

Mr. Hampton said he feels his friends at C Street have abandoned him by choosing to close ranks around Ensign and that for them the episode "is about preserving John [Ensign], preserving the Republican party, this is about preserving C Street."[91] One of Doug Coe's grandchildren, Belen R. Coe, was a paid intern in Senator Ensign's office in 2004.[93]

Role in affair of South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford

South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford, a Congressman from 1995 to 2001, admitted in June 2009 to having an extramarital affair and said that during the months prior to news breaking he had sought counseling at the C Street Center.[94][95]

Governor Sanford’s affair was revealed when, during his last secret trip to Argentina in June 2009, he left no contact information and told his staff that he was hiking the Appalachian trail.[96]

When asked during a press conference if his wife and family knew about his affair before his last trip to Argentina, the Governor said, “Yes. We've been working through this thing for about the last five months. I've been to a lot of different—as part of what we called "C Street" when I was in Washington. It was, believe it or not, a Christian Bible study—some folks that asked members of Congress hard questions that I think were very, very important. And I've been working with them.”[95]

Sanford "was a frequent visitor to the home for prayer meetings and meals during his time in Congress".[97]

Congressman Chip Pickering

In 2009, Pickering's wife filed a lawsuit against the alleged mistress of her husband, a former six-term Republican Congressman from Mississippi.[97][98] The lawsuit alleges that Pickering restarted a relationship with Elizabeth Creekmore Byrd, his college sweetheart, while he was "a United States congressman prior to and while living in the well-known C Street Complex in Washington, D.C."[97][98]

International roots

Sir Vivian Gabriel, a British Air Commission attaché in Washington during World War II, established a branch of the Family (International Christian Leadership Association) in the United Kingdom.[99] Ernest Williams, a member of the directing staff of the British Admiralty and a member of the Archbishop of Canterbury’s Commission on Evangelism, served as its president in the 1960’s.[99] Williams worked closely with Harald Bredesen, a British intelligence operative who went on to personally mentor Rev. Pat Robertson in the United States.[99]

C Street

The Fellowship reportedly runs a $1.8 million three story brick mansion in Washington D.C. known as "C Street."[100][101][102][103][104][105] It is the former convent for nearby St. Peter's Church. It is located at 133 C Street, SE, behind the Madison Annex of the Library of Congress and a short distance from the United States Capitol, Republican National Committee, Democratic National Committee and House of Representative Office Buildings.[13] The structure has 12 bedrooms, nine bathrooms, five living rooms, four dining rooms, three offices, a kitchen, and a small "chapel".[13]

The facility houses mostly Republican members of Congress.[7][13][106] The house is also the locale for:

  • Wednesday prayer breakfasts for United States Senators, which have been attended by Senators Sam Brownback, Tom Coburn, James Inhofe, John Ensign, Susan Collins and Hillary Clinton.
  • Tuesday night dinners for Members of Congress and other Fellowship associates.
  • An annual Ambassador Luncheon.[107] The 2006 event was attended by ambassadors from Turkey, Macedonia, Pakistan, Jordan, Algeria, Armenia, Egypt, Belarus, Mongolia, Latvia, and Moldova.
  • Receptions for foreign dignitaries, including the Prime Minister of Australia.

C Street has been the subject of controversy over its claimed tax status as a church, the ownership of the property, and the reportedly subsidized benefits the facility provides to members of Congress.

Until 2009, C Street was exempt from real property taxes because it was classified as a "special purpose" use as a church. District of Columbia law exempts from taxation "buildings belonging to religious corporations or societies" which meet certain criteria. In August 2009, the property was reclassified. A DC city official said "it was determined that portions are being rented to private individuals for residential purposes. As a result, the exemption was partially revoked and adjusted so that only 34 percent is now tax-exempt and 66 percent has become taxable."[108]

On February 23, 2010, Clergy VOICE, consisting of 13 pastors from mainstream Christian denominations, filed a lawsuit with the United States Internal Revenue Service challenging the remainder of the C Street facility's tax favored status as a church, including on the grounds that many ordinary church activities did not occur there and due to the secretiveness of the organization.[109][110]

In February 2010, the president of the Fellowship Richard Carver told The Columbus Dispatch that his “charitable organization” does not own the C Street Center “and has no control over its policy.”[100] Carver added he does not know who owns or runs the center: “It is simply not apart of anything we do.”[100]

In response to Carver's statement, MSNBC host Rachel Maddow produced an official Corrective Deed of September 23, 2009 for C Street signed on behalf of C Street Center, Inc. by Marty B. Sherman, Secretary, who is listed as "Associate" on the Family's 2008 tax filing.[111] Property records show that in 1980, C Street was purchased by Youth with a Mission, Washington, D.C., Inc. On July 19, 1983, the organization changed its name to "Youth with a Mission Renewal Ministries, Inc." On November 28, 1984, the organization changed its name to "FaithAmerica". On September 3, 1985, the organization changed its name to "Youth with a Mission National Christian Center, Inc." On February 27, 1992, the organization changed its name to "C Street Center, Inc." The Corrective Deed changed the name on the title to reflect changes in name of its owner.[112]

As well, The Fellowship lists C Street Center on its 2007 Form 990 as a related organization through common members, governing bodies, trustees, officers, etc.[113]

In 2002, the Los Angeles Times reported that C Street charged Senators and Congressmen $600 per month for rent. Meals cost extra.[13] In 2009, WORLD Magazine report that C Street charged about $950 per month for rent.[1]

On March 12, 2010, Melanie Sloan of the Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, a liberal watchdog group, said that hotel rooms in the area cost between $2,700 and $7,000 per month. She states that if Senators and Congressmen pay rent below market value, they are receiving a gift, and this violates the House ban of members of Congress from receiving gifts. Sloan intends to file a complaint with the House Ethics Committee.[114]

Boarders who have received media attention in connection with receiving allegedly subsidized lodging at C Street include Senators Ensign and Coburn and Congressmen Stupak and Pickering, among others.[7][13][104]

Property holdings

Arlington

Fellowship Foundation purchased a large old house in 1978, named the Doubleday Mansion. The home which also has a detached two story garage and a gardener's cottage, is zoned as a worship and teaching center. The home is used as a center for Bible studies, counseling, hymn sings, life mentoring, prayer groups, prayer breakfasts, luncheons, dinners, and hospitality receptions for international reconciliation and conflict resolution iniatives. The home was once surrounded by Cedar trees and was so renamed The Cedars. It's location is near Georgetown University in the Arlington Woodmont community. It is a historic landmark house and is situated adjacent to a commemorative recreational county park, once the homestead of writer C. F. Henry.[115]

Coe has described Cedars as a place "committed to the care of the underprivileged, even though it looks very wealthy." He noted that people might say, "Why don't you sell a chandelier and help poor people?" Answering his own question, Coe said, "The people who come here have tremendous influence over kids." Private documents indicate that Cedars was purchased so that "people throughout the world who carry heavy responsibilities could meet in Washington to think together, plan together and pray together about personal and public problems and opportunities."[13] The Cedars the host house to dozens of prayer luncheons and dinners and prayer breakfast for ambassadors, congressmen, legislators, pastors, educators, urban renewal workers, university students, scientists, laborers, interracial workers, and foreign religious leaders.

In March 1990, YWAM (which also previously owned the C Street Center) purchased a nearby property located at 2200 24th Street North for $580,000.[116] The property, was used as another gathering place for bible study. Ownership of 2200- 24th was transferred to the C Street Center on May 6, 1992, and again to the Fellowship Foundation on October 25, 2002. This house had been owned by Timothy Coe, who sold the property to his father, Douglas Coe on November 30, 1989, for $580,000.

A second property, located at 2224 24th Street North and assessed at $916,000, is used as a men's mentoring ministry, known as a Navigator house. This property was purchased by Jerome A. Lewis and Co. in 1986, and sold to the Wilberforce Foundation in 1987. In 2007, the Wilberforce Foundation transferred it to the Fellowship Foundation for $1 million. Jerome A. Lewis is a trustee emeritus of the Trinity Forum and the former Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Petro-Lewis Corporation.[117]

Douglas Coe once owned 2560 North 23rd Road, which he sold to Ohio transplant Tony P. Hall (D-OH) and his wife on September 22, 1987, for $100,000.[118] Hall donated $20,000 to the Fellowship Foundation on September 4, 2002,[119], $1,500 to the Wilberforce Foundation,[120] and $1,000 to the Jonathan Coe Memorial of Annapolis, Maryland during the 2001 campaign cycle.[121]

The residence located at 2244 24th Street North, and assessed at $1,458,800, is owned by Merle Morgan, whose wife, Edita, is on the board of the Cedars.[122] It also is identified as the offices of the greeting card firm of Morgan Bros. Corp. (d/b/a Capitol Publishing). Missionary Fred Heyn and his wife owned 2206 24th Street North.

LeRoy Rooker, the one-time treasurer of the Cedars and former Director of the Family Policy Compliance Office at the U.S. Department of Education, and his wife own 2222 24th Street North.[123]

Dr. Lindsley, theologian, lecturer, author, and a Senior Fellow at the C.S. Lewis Institute owns 2226 24th Street North.[124]

Cedar Point Farm

According to White House records dating from 1978, President Jimmy Carter traveled to Cedar Point Farm by Marine helicopter on November 12, 1978, to attend a Fellowship prayer and discussion group.[64] President Carter placed a call to Menachim Begin while at Cedar Point Farm.[64] The White House records reflect that Cedar Point Farm was owned by Harold Hughes, a former Senator from Iowa and the President of the Fellowship Foundation.[64] Cedar Point Farm was later used by the Wilberforce Foundation.

Other Fellowship properties

  • "Southeast White House", located at 2909 Pennsylvania Avenue, Southeast, which is a center of urban reconciliation, youth mentoring, community prayer breakfasts, Bible studies, life principle teaching and racial relational healing initiatives. University students come for internships in urban reconciliation and in community service for the bereft. [125] This property is assessed at $736,310 for 2009 tax year.[126]
  • "19th Street House," a two-story, brick apartment building located at 859 19th Street NE,[1] in the Trinidad neighborhood of northeast Washington, D.C., which is assessed at $358,250 for the 2009 tax year.[127] The 19th Street Center is used for afterschool activities.
  • Mount Oak Estates, Annapolis, Maryland. One residential property, formerly owned by Timothy Coe, was sold to Wilberforce Foundation, Inc. for $1.1 million. A second residence is owned by David and Alden Coe and a third is owned by Fellowship associate Marty Sherman. Another nearby property, 1701 Baltimore Annapolis Boulevard, was owned by the Fellowship Foundation.
  • Until 1994, the Fellowship Foundation owned the aged French revival historic "Fellowship House", the former base of Dr. Vereide's ministry located at 2817 Woodland Drive in Washington, D.C., which was sold to the Ourisman Chevrolet family for $2.5 million and which was then fully architecturally and historically restored and preserved.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Belz, Emily; Pitts, Edward Lee (August 29, 2009). "All in the Family". World Magazine. http://www.worldmag.com/articles/15778. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b c Lindsay, D. Michael (2007). Faith in the Halls of Power. Oxford University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-532666-6. "Quoted in Sharlet, The Family, (2008), p.25" 
  3. ^ a b Charles Colson, Born Again, Spire, 1977.
  4. ^ a b c Sharlet, Jeff (2008). The Family: The Secret Fundamentalism at the Heart of American Power. HarperCollins. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-06-055979-3. 
  5. ^ a b c d Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.259
  6. ^ Republican Senate Sex Scandals Point Back to Secretive Conservative Christian "Family"
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Roig-Franzia, Manuel (June 26, 2009). "The Political Enclave That Dare Not Speak Its Name". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/25/AR2009062504480.html. Retrieved July 18, 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Miller, Lisa (September 8, 2009). "House of Worship". Newsweek. http://www.newsweek.com/id/214986. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Records of the Fellowship Foundation - Collection 459". Billy Graham Center - Archives. Wheaton College. November 7, 2007. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/459.htm. Retrieved August 11, 2009. 
  10. ^ "The Archives Bulletin Board: Presidential Prayer Breakfasts". Billy Graham Center - Archives. Wheaton College. January 6, 1999. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/bulletin/bu9901.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  11. ^ Eisenhower, Dwight D. (February 5, 1953). "Remarks at the Dedicatory Prayer Breakfast of the International Christian Leadership". The American Presidency Project. UCSB. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=9851&st=international+christian&st1=. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  12. ^ Obama, Barack (February 5, 2009). "This is my hope. This is my prayer". White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog_post/this_is_my_prayer/. Retrieved June 20, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Getter, Lisa (September 27, 2002) (fee required), Showing Faith in Discretion, Los Angeles Times, http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/196922601.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT, retrieved 2009-12-28 
    Free copy available at Getter, Lisa (September 27, 2002). "Showing Faith in Discretion". Los Angeles Times. http://www.toobeautiful.org/lat_020927.html. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  14. ^ http://www.ilsos.gov/corporatellc/CorporateLlcController
  15. ^ a b Carver, Richard; The Fellowship Foundation (November 11, 2008). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 2007" (PDF). IRS Form 990. GuideStar. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2007/530/204/2007-530204604-0495bcf0-9.pdf. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  16. ^ “Young Men’s Seminar,” dated February 5, 1970, tape 107, "Record of the Fellowship Foundation-Collection 459", Billy Graham Center Archives. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/459.htm#602. Cited in Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.228.
  17. ^ Coe, David; Wilberforce Foundation (October 30, 2008). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 2007" (PDF). IRS Form 990. GuideStar. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2007/720/973/2007-720973244-047164d4-9.pdf. Retrieved July 24, 2009. 
  18. ^ Sheldon, Louis P. (December 13, 2005). "The War on Christianity". Traditional Values Coalition. http://www.traditionalvalues.org/modules.php?sid=2533. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  19. ^ a b Temple, Paul N.; Three Swallows Foundation (August 22, 2006). "Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax: 2004" (PDF). IRS Form 990. GuideStar. p. 20. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2005/521/234/2005-521234546-029af68b-F.pdf. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  20. ^ a b Temple, Paul N.; Three Swallows Foundation (June 14, 2007). "Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax: 2005" (PDF). IRS Form 990. GuideStar. p. 21. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2006/521/234/2006-521234546-0335acda-F.pdf. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  21. ^ a b Temple, Paul N.; Three Swallows Foundation (March 11, 2008). "Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax: 2006" (PDF). IRS Form 990. GuideStar. p. 21. http://www.guidestar.org/FinDocuments/2007/521/234/2005-521234546-03ca6483-F.pdf. Retrieved March 7, 2010. 
  22. ^ Johnston, Doug (December 22, 2004). "December 2004 Update: SIRC Workshop on Darfur, Iran Delegation". International Center for Religion & Diplomacy. http://www.icrd.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=251&Itemid=147. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  23. ^ Corder, Lee (October 2009). "2009 Rockbridge Men's Retreat" (PDF). Young Life. http://sites.younglife.org/sites/internationalnorth/Shared%20Documents/09%20Men%27s%20Retreat.pdf. Retrieved November 18, 2009. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Nakamura, John T.; The Fellowship Foundation (September 12, 2000). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 1999" (PDF). IRS Form 990. ERI. http://207.153.189.83/EINS/530204604/530204604_1999_00029406.pdf. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  25. ^ Carver, Richard E.; The Fellowship Foundation (November 6, 2002). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 2001" (PDF). IRS Form 990. ERI. http://207.153.189.83/EINS/530204604/530204604_2001_005ee932.pdf. Retrieved July 29, 2009. 
  26. ^ a b "Washington's Prayer Breakfast History". Leadership Development. 2009. http://www.waleadership.com/GenericPage/DisplayPage.aspx?guid=956FE760-7036-46F2-869B-2723033C6131. Retrieved August 29, 2009. 
  27. ^ Hillary Clinton, Living History, Simon & Schuster, 2003.
  28. ^ a b c Sharlet, Jeff (2008). The Family: Power, Politics and Fundamentalism's Shadow Elite. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702236942. http://books.google.com/books?id=NVmcx-8zdGEC&dq. 
  29. ^ "Amazon book review quotes."
  30. ^ "The Revealer quoting book reviews for The Family."
  31. ^ "Newsweek Lisa Miller bio"
  32. ^ a b c Mitchell, Andrea; Popkin, Jim (April 3, 2008). "NBC News Exclusive: Political ties to a secretive religious group". NBC News. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/23943446#23943446. Retrieved 2010-01-28. 
  33. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.254-5.
  34. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.255.
  35. ^ Grossman, Cathy Lynn (July 16, 2009). "Does 'C Street' give 'accountability groups' bad name?". USA Today. http://content.usatoday.com/communities/religion/post/2009/07/68494598/1. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  36. ^ Bailey, Holly (July 17, 2009). "Another 'C Street' Pol Accused of Cheating". Newsweek. http://blog.newsweek.com/blogs/thegaggle/archive/2009/07/17/another-c-street-pol-accused-of-cheating.aspx. Retrieved July 19, 2009. 
  37. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.19
  38. ^ a b c Sharlet, Jeff (March 2003). "Jesus plus nothing: Undercover among America's secret theocrats". Harper's Magazine. http://www.harpers.org/archive/2003/03/0079525. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  39. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.223
  40. ^ James F. Bell to Ross Main, May 19, 1975. Folder 25, Box 254, "Record of the Fellowship Foundation-Collection 459", Billy Graham Center Archives. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/459.htm#702. Main to Doug Coe, June 19, 1975, Ibid.
  41. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.21.
  42. ^ Thimmesch, “Politicians and the Underground Prayer Movement,” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 13, 1974.
  43. ^ "HRC Says Wright Would Not Be Her Pastor; So Who Would Be?." Mother Jones (March 26, 2008). Retrieved on August 4, 2009.
  44. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.198.
  45. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.264-5.
  46. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.265.
  47. ^ Rachel Maddow Show, Jan. 5 2010.
  48. ^ Lewis, Jerome A.; Downing Street Foundation (October 18, 2000). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 1999" (PDF). IRS Form 990. ERI. http://207.153.189.83/EINS/742446158/742446158_1999_00029222.pdf. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  49. ^ Lewis, Jerome A.; Downing Street Foundation (September 6, 2006). "Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax: 2005" (PDF). IRS Form 990. ERI. http://207.153.189.83/EINS/742446158/742446158_2005_028D79D6.PDF. Retrieved August 22, 2009. 
  50. ^ "ENDOW Board of Directors". ENDOW Online. 2007. http://www.endowonline.com/resources/front-page/endow-board. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  51. ^ "International: Portfolio Ministries". Kingdom Oil. http://www.unitytools.com/clients/kingdomfund/international/intoverview.htm. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  52. ^ "'Family': Fundamentalism, Friends In High Places". National Public Radio. July 1, 2009. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=106115324. Retrieved 2009-07-02. "Founded in 1935 in opposition to FDR's New Deal, the evangelical group's views on religion and politics are so singular that some other Christian-right organizations consider them heretical ..." 
  53. ^ Jeff Sharlet, The Family, (Harper, 2008), p.23.
  54. ^ Lindsay, D. Michael (June 2006). "Is the National Prayer Breakfast Surrounded by a "Christian Mafia"?" (fee required). Journal of the American Academy of Religion 74 (2): 394. ISSN 1477-4585. http://jaar.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/74/2/390. Retrieved March 16, 2010. 
  55. ^ Lindsay, (2006), Is the National Prayer Breakfast Surrounded by a "Christian Mafia"?, p.395. Quoted in Sharlet, (2008), The Family, p.24
  56. ^ "Transcript: Bono remarks at the National Prayer Breakfast". USA Today. 2006-02-02. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-02-02-bono-transcript_x.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  57. ^ Frommer, Frederic (2008-02-06). "Minnesotan to deliver keynote speech at National Prayer Breakfast". Star-Tribune. http://www.startribune.com/local/15374266.html. Retrieved 2008-03-22. 
  58. ^ "Barack Obama makes Tony Blair his unofficial 'first friend'". The Guardian. 2009. http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/blog/2009/feb/05/blair-obama-first-friend. Retrieved 2009-07-02. "At the annual National Prayer Breakfast in Washington, Obama lavished praise on Blair, who was the principal speaker." 
  59. ^ Obama, Barack (February 4, 2010). "Remarks by the President at the National Prayer Breakfast". White House. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-president-national-prayer-breakfast. Retrieved February 4, 2010. 
  60. ^ Anthony Lappé, "Meet 'The Family'", Guerrilla News Network, June 13, 2003
  61. ^ Millonig, Lt. Col. William (March 15, 2006). "THE IMPACT OF RELIGIOUS AND POLITICAL AFFILIATION ON STRATEGIC MILITARY DECISIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS". Yahoo! Search. U.S. Army War College. Archived from the original on September 5, 2009. http://74.6.239.67/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=%22international+christian+leadership%22&y=Search&fr=yfp-t-501&u=handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA449308&w=%22international+christian+leadership%22&d=Pr0cnBlMS5BJ&icp=1&.intl=us. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  62. ^ "Papers of James Edwin Orr - Collection 355". Billy Graham Center - Archives. Wheaton College. May 25, 2000. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/355.htm#3. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  63. ^ Carter, Jimmy (September 26, 1978). "The Daily Diary of President Jimmy Carter" (PDF). Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. http://jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/diary/1978/d092678t.pdf. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  64. ^ a b c d Carter, Jimmy (November 12, 1978). "The Daily Diary of President Jimmy Carter" (PDF). Jimmy Carter Library and Museum. http://jimmycarterlibrary.org/documents/diary/1978/d111278t.pdf. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  65. ^ Boxes 184-185, "Record of the Fellowship Foundation-Collection 459", Billy Graham Center Archives. http://www.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/GUIDES/459.htm#702. Cited in Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.420 note.
  66. ^ Interview with Doug Coe by Tore Gjerstad, October 29, 2007. Cited in Jeff Sharlet, The Family (Harper, 2008), p.222.
  67. ^ "Rep. Robert Aderholt trip to Khartoum, Sudan on December 10, 2006". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/25941.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  68. ^ "Sen. Tom Coburn trip to Beirut, Lebanon on June 2, 2005". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/16816.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  69. ^ "Rep. Robert Aderholt trip to Sofia, Bulgaria on May 25, 2007". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/27687.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  70. ^ "Rep. Frank Wolf trip to Albania on March 18, 2005". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/21849.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  71. ^ "Rep. John Carter trip to Minsk, Belarus on May 20, 2004". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/20246.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  72. ^ "Rep. Joseph Pitts trip to Belarus on May 20, 2004". LegiStorm. http://www.legistorm.com/trip/17583.html. Retrieved August 20, 2009. 
  73. ^ Lobe, Jim (July 1, 2004). "New US envoy: Past and present". Asia Times Online. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/FG01Ak02.html. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  74. ^ Timmis, Mike; Fickett, Harold (March 15, 2008). "Between Two Worlds". Book excerpt. Savvy Mom. http://womenathome.typepad.com/savvymom/2008/03/between-two-wor.html. Retrieved December 30, 2009. 
  75. ^ Sharlet, Jeff (2008). “The Family.” Harper Perennial. Page 24.
  76. ^ a b c Sharlet, Jeff (January 25, 2006). "God's Senator". Rolling Stone. http://www.rollingstone.com/politics/story/9178374/gods_senator. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  77. ^ a b Stone, Ralph E.; Iranyi, Judi (November 30, 2009). "The Fellowship: A Secret Christian Fundamentalist Organization". FogCityJournal.com. http://www.fogcityjournal.com/wordpress/2009/11/30/the-fellowship-a-secretive-christian-fundementalist-organization/. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  78. ^ Youth Corps web site
  79. ^ Sharlet, Jeff (2008). The Family. Harper Perennial. Page 328.
  80. ^ Kaplan, Esther (June 18, 2006), "Fairy-Tale Failure: How Africa's one AIDS success story, Uganda, became a disaster when Christianity trumped science.", The American Prospect, http://www.prospect.org/cs/articles?article=fairytale_failure, retrieved 2010-03-11 
  81. ^ "The Secret Political Reach Of 'The Family'". NPR. November 24, 2009. http://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=120746516. Retrieved November 30, 2009. 
  82. ^ a b "'The Rachel Maddow Show' for Wednesday, December 9, 2009". MSNBC. December 9, 2009. http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/34362943/ns/msnbc_tv-rachel_maddow_show/. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  83. ^ "A Different Perspective On 'The Family' And Uganda". NPR. December 22, 2009. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121755993&ps=cprs. Retrieved December 24, 2009. 
  84. ^ a b c d e Thrush, Glenn (July 8, 2009). "Ensign "letter" to mistress: I used you for "pleasure"". Politico. http://www.politico.com/blogs/glennthrush/0709/LV_Sun_publishes_Ensign_letter_to_mistress.html. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  85. ^ a b c d e Maddow, Rachel (July 10, 2009). "The Rachael Maddow Show". MSNBC. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31890176. Retrieved March 18, 2010. 
  86. ^ a b Hennessey, Kathleen (July 9, 2009). "New Details Emerge in Ensign Sex Scandal". Aol News. AP. http://news.aol.com/article/john-ensign-affair-scandal/562649. Retrieved January 7, 2010. 
  87. ^ Murray, Mark (June 1, 2009) "GOP WATCH: ENSIGN IN IOWA." MSNBC. Retrieved on December 27, 2009.
  88. ^ Mark Sanford for President 2012, Facebook Entry
  89. ^ "FINAL VOTE RESULTS FOR ROLL CALL 543". 105th Congress H.RES.611. Clerk of the United States House of Representatives. December 19, 1998. http://clerk.house.gov/evs/1998/roll543.xml. Retrieved December 10, 2009. 
  90. ^ Padilla, Steve (June 24, 2009). "Sanford and Ensign called on Clinton to resign after his affair". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/washington/2009/06/sanford-and-ensign-called-on-clinton-to-resign-after-his-affair.html. Retrieved July 25, 2009. 
  91. ^ a b c d e f g McFadden, Cynthia; Arons, Melinda; Sher, Lauren (November 23, 2009). "Exclusive: Doug Hampton Speaks Out on Sen. Ensign's Affair With His Wife". ABC News. http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/doug-hampton-speaks-sen-john-ensigns-affair-ethic/story?id=9140788. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  92. ^ "Ethics panel gets complaints on Ensign."
  93. ^ "Belen R Coe, Congressional Staffer - Salary Data". LegiStorm. 2004. http://www.legistorm.com/person/Belen_R_Coe/38447.html. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  94. ^ Collins, Michael (2009-07-10). "Wamp, housemates hurt by links to scandals". Knoxville News Sentinel. http://www.knoxnews.com/news/2009/jul/10/c-street-group-hurt-by-links-to-scandals/. Retrieved 2009-07-20. 
  95. ^ a b Gilgoff, Dan (June 24, 2009). "Sanford Cites Secretive Christian Group's Role in Helping Confront Affair". U.S. News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/news/blogs/god-and-country/2009/06/24/sanford-cites-secretive-christian-groups-role-in-helping-confront-affair. Retrieved December 27, 2009. 
  96. ^ Smith, Gina & O'Connor, John (July 14, 2009)."Sanford’s office couldn't locate missing governor." The State. Retrieved on July 26, 2009.
  97. ^ a b c Mooney, Alexander (July 17, 2009). "A third 'C Street' Republican embroiled in sex scandal". CNN. http://politicalticker.blogs.cnn.com/2009/07/17/a-third-c-street-republican-embroiled-in-sex-scandal/. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  98. ^ a b Bresnahan, John (July 17, 2009). "Chip Pickering's wife sues alleged mistress". The Politico. http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0709/25067.html. Retrieved July 20, 2009. 
  99. ^ a b c Thomson, Rev. C.D. (February 28, 2004). "LORD HUTTON'S FAMOUS CHURCH". Illuminati News. http://www.illuminati-news.com/lord-hutton%27s-famous-church.htm. Retrieved August 29, 2009. 
  100. ^ a b c Hallett, Joe (February 23, 2010). "Columbus-area pastors try to lift veil on mysterious D.C. organization." The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved on March 13, 2010.
  101. ^ Complaint
  102. ^ Parnes, Amie (February 2, 2010). "C Street Cash Questioned." Politico. Retrieved on March 5, 2010
  103. ^ "The Family at C Street: Congressmen’s Secretive Religious Political Group Attacked by Ministers." People Magazine (March 8, 2010). Retrieved on March 13, 2010
  104. ^ a b Overby, Peter (February 24, 2010). "Tax Status Of Lawmakers' Religious Refuge Disputed". NPR. Retrieved on March 13, 2010
  105. ^ https://www.taxpayerservicecenter.com/RP_Detail.jsp?ssl=0733%20%20%20%200825
  106. ^ Overby, Peter (February 24, 2010). "Tax Status Of Lawmakers' Religious Refuge Disputed". NPR. Retrieved on March 13, 2010 (stating the "vast majority" of members of Congress staying at C Street are Republican)
  107. ^ Vogel, Kristen (June 28, 2006). "The District". Xanga. http://sarakristen.xanga.com/?nextdate=7%2F6%2F2006+12%3A7%3A10.170&direction=n. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 
  108. ^ Al Kamen (November 18, 2009). "It's official: The C Street house is not a church". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/11/17/AR2009111703700.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  109. ^ Complaint
  110. ^ Parnes, Amie (February 2, 2010). "C Street Cash Questioned." Politico. Retrieved on March 5, 2010
  111. ^ "The Family at C Street: Congressmen’s Secretive Religious Political Group Attacked by Ministers." People Magazine (March 8, 2010). Retrieved on March 13, 2010
  112. ^ Sherman, Marty (September 23, 2009), Updated Deed for Property Located at 133 C Street, SE., Washington, DC 20003, Washington, DC: Washington DC Recorder of Deeds (published September 28, 2009)  Steps to find document:
    1. Navigate to Washington's Office of Tax and Revenue: Recorder of Deeds: Public Images.
    2. Click on Online Public Records.
    3. Register.
    4. Start "Document #" search.
    5. Search for document with number: 2009106347.
    6. Pay $4.00.
  113. ^ The Fellowship's 2007 Form 990: See Page 6, Line 80b and related data table. retrieved 2010-03-13.
  114. ^ Lexis/Nexis Transcript of March 12, 2010 Interview with Melanie Sloane Videocafe. Retrieved on March 13, 2010.
  115. ^ "County Board Agenda Item" (PDF). Arlington County, VA. 2004-10-16. http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/CountyBoard/meetings/2004/nov/1116/34.pdf. Retrieved 2009-07-18. 
  116. ^ "2200 24th ST N". Dept. of Real Estate Assessments. Arlington, Virginia. June 30, 2009. http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/realestate/reassessments/scripts/Inquiry.asp?action=view&lrsn=7673. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Jerome A. Lewis". Trinity Forum. 2009. http://www.ttf.org/index/about/lewis/. Retrieved August 11, 2009. 
  118. ^ "2560 23rd RD N". Dept. of Real Estate Assessments. Arlington, Virginia. June 30, 2009. http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/realestate/reassessments/scripts/Inquiry.asp?action=view&lrsn=7676. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  119. ^ "Expenditure Detail - 2002". Fellowship Foundation. Center for Responsive Politics. July 9, 2003. http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/expendetail.php?cid=N00003716&cycle=2002&name=Fellowship%20Foundation%20t/a%20International%20Foundation. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  120. ^ "Expenditure Detail - 2002". Wilberforce Foundation. Center for Responsive Politics. July 9, 2003. http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/expendetail.php?cid=N00003716&cycle=2002&name=Wilberforce%20Foundation. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  121. ^ "Expenditures". Congressman Tony P. Hall 2001 - 2002. Center for Responsive Politics. July 9, 2003. http://www.opensecrets.org/politicians/expend.php?CID=N00003716&cycle=2002. Retrieved August 30, 2009. 
  122. ^ "2244 24th ST N". Dept. of Real Estate Assessments. Arlington, Virginia. June 27, 2009. http://www.arlingtonva.us/Departments/RealEstate/reassessments/scripts/Inquiry.asp?Action=View&lrsn=7679. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  123. ^ "2222 24th ST N". Dept. of Real Estate Assessments. Arlington, Virginia. June 27, 2009. http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/realestate/reassessments/scripts/Inquiry.asp?Action=View&lrsn=7674. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  124. ^ "2226 24th ST N". Dept. of Real Estate Assessments. Arlington, Virginia. June 27, 2009. http://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/realestate/reassessments/scripts/Inquiry.asp?Action=View&lrsn=7675. Retrieved August 14, 2009. 
  125. ^ http://www.capitalcommunitynews.com/publications/eotr/2008_May/47_EOR_0508.pdf
  126. ^ https://www.taxpayerservicecenter.com/RP_Detail.jsp?ssl=5583%20%20%20%200809
  127. ^ https://www.taxpayerservicecenter.com/RP_Detail.jsp?ssl=4495%20%20%20%200080

External links


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message