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Greater Persia at the beginning of the Great Game in 1814
Central Asia, circa 1848.
.The Great Game (Russian: Большая игра, Bol'sháya igrá) is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.^ The strategic conflict, called “The Great Game or Big Game”, between the expanding British and Russian Empires significantly influenced Afghanistan during the 19th century.
  • Afghanistan old photos : The Great Game (The Big Game) 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanistan-photos.com [Source type: General]

^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game : strategic conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • Afghanistan old photos : The Great Game (The Big Game) 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanistan-photos.com [Source type: General]

.The classic Great Game period is generally regarded as running approximately from the Russo-Persian Treaty of 1813 to the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907.^ In August, 1907, the Anglo-Russian Convention in St. Petersburg formally ended the Great Game, although the posturing and espionage continued.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This book deals with the 19th century Anglo-Russian Great Game played out on the territorial chessboard of eastern and north-eastern parts of the waning Persian empire.

A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 .
.The term "The Great Game" is usually attributed to Arthur Conolly (1807–1842), an intelligence officer of the British East India Company's Sixth Bengal Light Cavalry.^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game' was a term first used by one its protagonists: Captain Arthur Conolly but it only became famous as a term describing the cold war in Central Asia after it was used by Rudyard Kipling in his novel "Kim".
  • Special Circumstances: The Great Game: the struggle for Empire in Central Asia by Peter Hopkirk 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.cs.sfu.ca [Source type: General]

^ Great Game” is thought to have been coined by a young Bengal cavalry officer named Arthur Connolly in his 1835 Narrative of an Overland Journey to the North of India .
  • http://www.silkroadinvestor.com/still-playing-the-great-game.html 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.silkroadinvestor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .It was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel Kim (1901).^ Its best-known use is by the poet and novelist, Rudyard Kipling , in his novel, Kim (1901).
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game' was a term first used by one its protagonists: Captain Arthur Conolly but it only became famous as a term describing the cold war in Central Asia after it was used by Rudyard Kipling in his novel "Kim".
  • Special Circumstances: The Great Game: the struggle for Empire in Central Asia by Peter Hopkirk 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.cs.sfu.ca [Source type: General]

^ The term, most simply, designated the rivalry between the British and Tsarist Empires along the perimeter of Russia, a rivalry given its literary fame by Rudyard Kipling.
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

British-Russian rivalry in Afghanistan

Political cartoon depicting the Afghan Emir Sher Ali with his "friends" the Russian Bear & British Lion (1878).
.From the British perspective, the Russian Empire's expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, India.^ This rapid and steady expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia alarmed the British, but there was little they could do about it.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game of the past was the strategic rivalry between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia .The Russian Empire's expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, India.
  • 'Maaseed' Psyche and the Great Game - Associated Content 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

^ The British Lion was particularly possessive of India, often called the Jewel in the Crown, and deeply suspicious of the Russian Bear's southward move into surrounding territories.
  • Classical Voice of North Carolina 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.cvnc.org [Source type: General]

.As the Tsar's troops began to subdue one khanate after another, the British feared that Afghanistan would become a staging post for a Russian invasion of India.^ The British Lion was particularly possessive of India, often called the Jewel in the Crown, and deeply suspicious of the Russian Bear's southward move into surrounding territories.
  • Classical Voice of North Carolina 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.cvnc.org [Source type: General]

^ The Great Game set in motion the confrontation of the British and Russian empires--whose spheres of influence moved steadily closer to one another until they met in Afghanistan.
  • Afghanistan THE GREAT GAME - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the same time, the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward, taking the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir.
  • Afghanistan THE GREAT GAME - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was with these thoughts in mind that in 1838 the British launched the First Anglo-Afghan War and attempted to impose a puppet regime under Shuja Shah.^ The last Afghan-Anglo war ended in 1919.
  • Mumia Abu-Jamal, Afghanistan & the great game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shuja's realization that he was under the controll of the British mounted undercover attacks on the British posts at night .
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Afghan people drove the British out in three successive British-Afghan wars.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

The regime was short lived, and unsustainable without British military support. .By 1842, mobs were attacking the British on the streets of Kabul and the British garrison was forced to abandon Kabul due to constant civilian attacks.^ Kabul was destroyed by the attacks of the forces of Hekmatyar and Dostum.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

.The retreating British army consisted of approximately 4,500 troops (of which 690 were European) and 12,000 camp followers.^ Stephen Jeffrey's play Bugles at the Gates of Jalalabad kicks off with the tale of a disastrous massacre of British troops and camp followers.
  • The Great Game, a Curtain Up London review 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.curtainup.com [Source type: General]

During a series of attacks by Afghan warriors, all but one, Dr. William Brydon, were killed on the march back to India.[2]
.The British curbed their ambitions in Afghanistan following the humiliating retreat from Kabul.^ Burnes became the British envoy to Afghanistan in 1836, headquartered in Kabul.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The first Western colonialists to invade Afghanistan, the British occupied Kabul in 1839 in their rivalry with Russia.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

.After the Indian rebellion of 1857, successive British governments saw Afghanistan as a buffer state.^ The British wished to protect their Indian colony from a Russian invasion through Afghanistan and the Kashmir .
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afghanistan in the 1830s became a diplomatic nightmare for Britain, as the colonial government in Calcutta sought to widen the buffer between India and Russia in this crucial region.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russians, led by Konstantin Kaufman, Mikhail Skobelev, and Mikhail Chernyayev, continued to advance steadily southward toward Afghanistan and by 1865 Tashkent had been formally annexed.^ Nevertheless as the 19th Century drew on, the Russians advanced slowly but steadily towards the frontiers of India.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russians made similar overtures, but also sent troops to the region under Konstantin Kaufman (1818–1882).
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Public criticism of Mr Hamid Karzai has led to increasing his public popularity in Afghanistan, prompting Russian support for the beleaguered Afghan President.
  • The Pioneer > Online Edition : >> Winning the Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.dailypioneer.com [Source type: News]

.Samarkand became part of the Russian Empire three years later and the independence of Bukhara was virtually stripped away in a peace treaty the same year.^ Yet almost three years later it is still dragging on.

Russian control now extended as far as the northern bank of the Amu Darya river.
.In a letter to Queen Victoria, Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli proposed "to clear Central Asia of Muscovites and drive them into the Caspian".[3] He introduced the Royal Titles Act, which added to Victoria's titles that of Empress of India, putting her at the same level as the Russian Emperor.^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ At the same time, the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward, taking the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir.
  • Afghanistan THE GREAT GAME - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After the Great Eastern Crisis broke out and the Russians sent an uninvited diplomatic mission to Kabul in 1878, Britain demanded that the ruler of Afghanistan (Sher Ali) accept a British diplomatic mission.^ Although the British had begun to show interest in Afghanistan as early as their 1809 treaty with Shuja, it was not until the reign of Dost Mohammad, first of the Muhammadzai rulers, that the opening gambits were played in what came to be known as the "Great Game."
  • Afghanistan THE GREAT GAME - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The British demanded that Dost Mohammad sever all contact with the Iranians and Russians, remove Vitkevich from Kabul, surrender all claims to Peshawar, and respect Peshawar's independence as well as that of Qandahar, which was under the control of his brothers at the time.
  • Afghanistan THE GREAT GAME - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current Issues, International Agreements,Population, Social Statistics, Political System 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC workmall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-1950s the new revisionist rulers in the Soviet Union, who had overthrown socialism, pushed to extend their influence by entering the “Great Game” in Afghanistan.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

.The mission was turned back and in retaliation a force of 40,000 men was sent across the border, launching the Second Anglo-Afghan War.^ The last Afghan-Anglo war ended in 1919.
  • Mumia Abu-Jamal, Afghanistan & the great game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.hartford-hwp.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some 30,000 Abdic loyalists fled to Serb-held territory across the border in Croatia.

^ David Petraeus, who turned the war around in Iraq and the new commander of the US and NATO forces in Afghanistan, Gen.
  • The GREAT GAME Folio - Yahoo! India News 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC in.news.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

.The war's conclusion left Abdur Rahman Khan on the throne, and he agreed to let the British maintain Afghanistan's foreign policy while he consolidated his position on the throne.^ The subsequent decade, during which Russia lost its foreign policy positions, and its former satellites and even provinces became U.S. and NATO allies, seemed to have buttressed this idea.
  • Russia-NATO: Return Of The Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.spacewar.com [Source type: News]

^ Although Britain did not achieve her aims she was able to secure control over the foreign policy of Afghanistan.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Policy-makers are now contemplating that maybe the foreign policy choices of the recent past haven’t been all that helpful in perpetuating the US position as the leader of the world.
  • http://www.silkroadinvestor.com/still-playing-the-great-game.html 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.silkroadinvestor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He managed to suppress internal rebellions with ruthless efficiency and brought much of the country under central control.
.Russian expansion brought about another crisis — the Panjdeh Incident — when they seized the oasis of Merv in 1884. The Russians claimed all of the former ruler's territory and fought with Afghan troops over the oasis of Panjdeh.^ This rapid and steady expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia alarmed the British, but there was little they could do about it.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1885 the two countries seemingly trembled on the brink of war when Russian and Afghan forces clashed at Panjdeh on the Russo-Afghan frontier.
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  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Another question, that perhaps only the Russians have the wisdom to answer, is what does the Western drive to occupy former Soviet republics say about our psychology?
  • League of the Scarlet Pimpernel: The Great Game 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.secessionist.us [Source type: Original source]

.On the brink of war between the two great powers, the British decided to accept the Russian possession as a fait accompli.^ The British Lion was particularly possessive of India, often called the Jewel in the Crown, and deeply suspicious of the Russian Bear's southward move into surrounding territories.
  • Classical Voice of North Carolina 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.cvnc.org [Source type: General]

^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Without any Afghan say in the matter, the Joint Anglo-Russian Boundary Commission agreed the Russians would relinquish the farthest territory captured in their advance, but retain Panjdeh.^ It would be a nightmare for Russian security if NATO were to gain a foothold in Kazakhstan,” he says.
  • Conn Hallinan: The Great Game in the Caucasus 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uzbekistan has agreed to provide land, air and rail facilities for the US and NATO. The Russians have now agreed to permit use of their territory even for military supplies to Afghanistan.
  • The Pioneer > Online Edition : >> Winning the Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.dailypioneer.com [Source type: News]

.The agreement delineated a permanent northern Afghan frontier at the Amu Darya, with the loss of a large amount of territory, especially around Panjdeh; however, Britain continued to have troubles in the region towards the end of the 1800s.^ In 1885 the two countries seemingly trembled on the brink of war when Russian and Afghan forces clashed at Panjdeh on the Russo-Afghan frontier.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1890–91 the British suspected Russian involvement "with the Rulers of the petty States on the northern boundary of Kashmir".[4] This was the reason for Hunza-Naga Campaign after which the British established control over Hunza and Nagar.^ At the same time, the Russians feared permanent British occupation in Central Asia as the British encroached northward, taking the Punjab, Sindh, and Kashmir.
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, Britain and Russia negotiated agreements that fixed the boundaries of British-controlled Afghanistan and Russian-controlled Turkistan.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The second immediate reason was the presence in Kabul in 1837 of a Russian agent, Captain P. Vitkevich, who was ostensibly there, as was the British agent Alexander Burnes, for commercial discussions.
  • Afghanland.com Afghanistan Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.afghanland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anglo-Russian Alliance

.In the run-up to World War I, both empires were alarmed by Germany's increasing activity in the Middle East, notably the German project of the Baghdad Railway, which would open up Iraq and Iran to German trade and technology.^ And here Engdahl again highlights the importance of Germany’s move eastward because, restricted by Britain’s control of the sea lanes, Germany cut a deal with the Ottoman Empire to build a railway from Berlin to Baghdad, and open up the Middle East to its products, a deal that the Brits could not in theory anyway, prevent.

^ In short, where the grand railway dreams of the previous century had faltered, the pipelines would establish the definitive link between India, Iran and Central Asia.
  • Diplomacy; Iran, The Great Game Revisited 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.india-today.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Continuing along the Russian perimeter, we can see US wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, possibly soon in Iran and maybe Pakistan, as part of a further strategy to control the perimeters of Russia and China, along with control of access to Middle Eastern oil in the bargain.
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ministers Alexander Izvolsky and Edward Grey agreed to resolve their long-standing conflicts in Asia in order to make an effective stand against the German advance into the region.^ But Britain managed to secure the support of Austria-Hungary, alarmed by Russia’s military advance into the Balkans, and they called Russia to order at the Congress of Berlin in 1878.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the European powers sought to push road and rail links into Central Asia, many states in the region feared that connectivity meant colonisation.
  • The GREAT GAME Folio - Yahoo! India News 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC in.news.yahoo.com [Source type: News]

^ This admission by itself calls into serious doubt Bloxham’s suitability to be making definitive assertions on the quality of the Ottoman Turkish campaign against the Ottoman Greeks.
  • The Greek Genocide 1914-23: Review of “The Great Game of Genocide” by Donald Bloxham as it pertains to Ottoman Greeks 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.greek-genocide.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 brought a close to the classic period of the Great Game.^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 19 th century, deadly British-Russian competition, then called the "Great Game", is still going on between America and Russia.
  • The Great Game (by Uri Avnery) - Media Monitors Network 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The collection of such intelligence was the essence of the Great Game and the story of the travels and adventures of British and Indian agents on the one hand and of Russians on the other is a romantic and fascinating one.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Russians accepted that the politics of Afghanistan were solely under British control as long as the British guaranteed not to change the regime.^ The British and the Russians signed treaties concerning Baku oil, Afghanistan and spheres of influence in Iran.
  • (6/2/2003) The "Great Game" Continues -- With U.S. In Charge 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.monitor.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently, Britain and Russia negotiated agreements that fixed the boundaries of British-controlled Afghanistan and Russian-controlled Turkistan.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ The term “the Great Game” was first used to describe the sparring between the British imperialists and Tsarist Russia over control of Afghanistan in the early part of the nineteenth century.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

.Russia agreed to conduct all political relations with Afghanistan through the British.^ The British wished to protect their Indian colony from a Russian invasion through Afghanistan and the Kashmir .
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the 1860s Russia began her advance into Turkistan and, fearing for the security of British India, in 1878-1880 Britain again attempted to assert her control over Afghanistan.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, Britain and Russia negotiated agreements that fixed the boundaries of British-controlled Afghanistan and Russian-controlled Turkistan.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The British agreed that they would maintain the current borders and actively discourage any attempt by Afghanistan to encroach on Russian territory.^ The British and the Russians signed treaties concerning Baku oil, Afghanistan and spheres of influence in Iran.
  • (6/2/2003) The "Great Game" Continues -- With U.S. In Charge 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.monitor.net [Source type: Original source]

^ Attention is now switching to Afghanistan, where British troops are serving, and dying, as they fight another insurgency and the Taliban stage a comeback.
  • The Great Game, Tricycle Theatre - Telegraph 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

^ This rapid and steady expansion of the Russian Empire into Central Asia alarmed the British, but there was little they could do about it.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Persia was divided into three zones: a British zone in the south, a Russian zone in the north, and a narrow neutral zone serving as buffer in between.^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Great Game of the past was the strategic rivalry between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia .The Russian Empire's expansion into Central Asia threatened to destroy the "jewel in the crown" of the British Empire, India.
  • 'Maaseed' Psyche and the Great Game - Associated Content 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: General]

In regards to Tibet, both powers agreed to maintain territorial integrity of this buffer state and "to deal with Lhasa only through China, the suzerain power".[5]

Criticism

.Gerald Morgan’s “Myth and Reality in the Great Game” approached the subject by examining various departments of the Raj to determine if there ever existed a British intelligence network in Central Asia.^ There was nothing the British could do short of renewing the Great Game.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - ninemsn Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC au.encarta.msn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

Morgan writes that evidence of such a network does not exist. .At best, efforts to obtain information on Russian moves in Central Asia were rare, ad hoc adventures.^ The Great Game - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Great Game is a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC encarta.msn.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Of course, Russian firms are not the only ones to benefit handsomely from Russia's and Central Asia’s enormous oil and gas reserves.
  • http://www.silkroadinvestor.com/still-playing-the-great-game.html 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.silkroadinvestor.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

At worst, intrigues resembling the adventures in Kim were baseless rumours and Morgan writes such rumors “were always common currency in Central Asia and they applied as much to Russia as to Britain.”[6]
.In his lecture “The Legend of the Great Game”, Malcolm Yapp says that Britons had used the term “The Great Game” in the late 1800s to describe several different things in relation to its interests in Asia.^ The Great Game” was a term used for the strategic rivalry and conflict between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for supremacy in Central Asia.
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The Term “The Great Game” was introduced into mainstream consciousness by British novelist Rudyard Kipling in his novel ‘Kim’ (1901).
  • The Great Game: Afghanistan | Tricycle 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.tricycle.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ For the centuries of the Great Game, Moscow vied for influence in Central Asia against the British empire, which sought to protect India and the access routes to the Raj.
  • Putin concedes new moves in the Great Game - Telegraph 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Yapp believes that the primary concern of British authorities in India was control of the indigenous population, not preventing a Russian invasion.^ The British and the Russians signed treaties concerning Baku oil, Afghanistan and spheres of influence in Iran.
  • (6/2/2003) The "Great Game" Continues -- With U.S. In Charge 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.monitor.net [Source type: Original source]

^ The British wished to protect their Indian colony from a Russian invasion through Afghanistan and the Kashmir .
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To hold India, the burdens of Empire had to be light enough and the benefits of Empire great enough, to make British rule acceptable to the subject population.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[7]
According to Yapp, “reading the history of the British Empire in India and the Middle East one is struck by both the prominence and the unreality of strategic debates.” [7]

British-Soviet rivalry in Afghanistan

Caption from a 1911 English satirical magazine reads: "If we hadn't a thorough understanding, I (British lion) might almost be tempted to ask what you (Russian bear) are doing there with our little playfellow (Persian cat)."
.The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 nullified existing treaties and a second phase of the Great Game began.^ For two decades thereafter, the US began playing the Great Game, (and initially very successfully) in Eurasia.
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keen to outdo Clinton's oil record, the Bush Administration took the new Great Game into its second round.

^ Great Game I intensified in the post-1917 Western attempt to foment counter-revolution in Russia, with the British empire in the forefront.
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Third Anglo-Afghan War of 1919 was precipitated by the assassination of the then ruler Habibullah Khan.^ At first he favored the British, but his gradual shift toward Russia prompted the Second Anglo-Afghan War.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

His son and successor Amanullah declared full independence and attacked British India's northern frontier. .Although little was gained militarily, the stalemate was resolved with the Rawalpindi Agreement of 1919. Afghanistan re-established its self-determination in foreign affairs.^ Today, having tortured and executed hundreds of prisoners-of-war, as well as looted foreign aid warehouses, the new heroes have quietly re-established their monopoly over the affairs of the nation, as well as the heroin trade.
  • The Great Game [for Middle East Oil] excerpted from the book The New Rulers of the World by John Pilger 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

.In May 1921, Afghanistan and the Russian Soviet Republic signed a Treaty of Friendship.^ (Another question, that perhaps only the Russians have the wisdom to answer, is what does the Western drive to occupy former Soviet republics say about our psychology?
  • League of the Scarlet Pimpernel: The Great Game 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.secessionist.us [Source type: Original source]

The Soviets provided Amanullah with aid in the form of cash, technology, and military equipment. .British influence in Afghanistan waned, but relations between Afghanistan and the Russians remained equivocal, with many Afghanis desiring to regain control of Merv and Panjdeh.^ The British wished to protect their Indian colony from a Russian invasion through Afghanistan and the Kashmir .
  • Great Game II: From Tallinn to Seoul and Tokyo, by Way ofKiev, the Declining American Superpower Lashes Out on the Borders of 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC home.earthlink.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The 19 th century, deadly British-Russian competition, then called the "Great Game", is still going on between America and Russia.
  • The Great Game (by Uri Avnery) - Media Monitors Network 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1850, the gap between the British and Russian Empires had narrowed to not much over 1000 miles, whereas it had been 4,000 miles in the early 18th Century.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The Soviets, for their part, desired to extract more from the friendship treaty than Amanullah was willing to give.^ The marginal split usually gives more than 90% to the host country.

^ The Smart Parts Ion paintball marker is a high end electronic gun for just a little more than the average entry level package price.
  • The Great Game Of Table Football 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.articlesbase.com [Source type: General]

^ With more than 30,000 members online you could find friendship and romance today.
  • The Great Game, Tricycle Theatre - Telegraph 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.telegraph.co.uk [Source type: News]

.The United Kingdom imposed minor sanctions and diplomatic slights as a response to the treaty, fearing that Amanullah was slipping out of their sphere of influence and realising that the policy of the Afghanistan government was to have control of all of the Pashtun speaking groups on both sides of the Durand Line.^ What goes against the grain is the feeble response of most governments, when it comes to China it's all kid gloves.
  • Tibet, the 'great game' and the CIA : IntentBlog 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

^ Then the "War on Terrorism" was started, the US conquered all of Afghanistan and installed their agents as the new government.
  • The Great Game (by Uri Avnery) - Media Monitors Network 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.mediamonitors.net [Source type: Original source]
  • Uri Avnery: The Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.counterpunch.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the NDA and UPA Governments deserve high credit for having fashioned a most imaginative aid programme in Afghanistan, which has resulted in India being seen as benevolent all across Afghanistan.
  • The Pioneer > Online Edition : >> Winning the Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.dailypioneer.com [Source type: News]

.In 1923, Amanullah responded by taking the title padshah — "king", and by offering refuge for Muslims who fled the Soviet Union, and Indian nationalists in exile from the Raj.^ Shah Rukh Khan hasn't reached the levels of popularity that Raj Kapoor enjoyed in the erstwhile Soviet Union but his appeal is still considerable.
  • Diplomacy; Iran, The Great Game Revisited 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.india-today.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the mid-1950s the new revisionist rulers in the Soviet Union, who had overthrown socialism, pushed to extend their influence by entering the “Great Game” in Afghanistan.
  • History of the Imperialist "Great Game" 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC sholajawid.org [Source type: News]

Amanullah's program of reform was, however, insufficient to strengthen the army quickly enough — in 1928 he abdicated under pressure. .The individual who most benefited from the crisis was Mohammed Nadir Shah, who reigned from 1929 to 1933. Both the Soviets and the British played the circumstances to their advantage: the Soviets getting aid in dealing with Uzbek rebellion in 1930 and 1931, while the British aided Afghanistan in creating a 40,000 man professional army.^ At the time of writing, an estimated 70,000 American cluster 'bomblets' lie unexploded in Afghanistan, already the most landmined country in the world.
  • The Great Game [for Middle East Oil] excerpted from the book The New Rulers of the World by John Pilger 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the NDA and UPA Governments deserve high credit for having fashioned a most imaginative aid programme in Afghanistan, which has resulted in India being seen as benevolent all across Afghanistan.
  • The Pioneer > Online Edition : >> Winning the Great Game 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.dailypioneer.com [Source type: News]

^ Increasingly distrustful of Dost Mohammed, the British plotted to install Shah Shujah (1780–1842) as puppet ruler of Afghanistan.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the advent of World War II came the temporary alignment of British and Soviet interests: In 1940, both governments pressured Afghanistan for the expulsion of a large German non-diplomatic contingent, which both governments believed to be engaging in espionage.^ World War II (1939-43) .
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There is a sense, including among some in the government, that the natural allies of Iran are Israel and Turkey, because they’re both non-Arab countries.
  • Columbia Magazine 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.columbia.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1913 the British government (again secretly) purchased a majority shareholding in the Anglo-Persian Oil company (now called British Petroleum) and from this point on “oil was at the core of British strategic interest” (p.

.Afghanistan complied in 1941. With this period of cooperation between the USSR and the UK, the Great Game between the two powers came to an end.^ In August, 1907, the Anglo-Russian Convention in St. Petersburg formally ended the Great Game, although the posturing and espionage continued.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rivalry between the two, whimsically entitled “ The Great Game ” in the British Press, ranged from Europe to the Far East.
  • BRITAIN V RUSSIA -THE GREAT GAME 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC myweb.tiscali.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ France and Britain, the two powers whose global positions have been undermined most by the end of the cold war, have sought to sustain their great-power status through intervention in Bosnia.

The New Great Game

.Recently there has been some recognition of the fact that the Great Game continues as a conflict between the United States, the United Kingdom and other NATO countries and the Russia, the People's Republic of China and other Shanghai Cooperation Organisation countries over the Central Asian oil pipelines.^ Caspian states join the great game .
  • Caspian states join the great game /Euromoney magazine 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.euromoney.com [Source type: News]
  • Caspian states join the great game /Euromoney magazine 19 September 2009 16:016 UTC www.euromoney.com [Source type: General]

^ In August, 1907, the Anglo-Russian Convention in St. Petersburg formally ended the Great Game, although the posturing and espionage continued.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The deep suspicion and resentment that many of the Islamic peoples of Iran, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and neighboring regions now harbor against Russia, Britain, and more recently the United States, may in part be explained by the region's experience with—and resistance to—the imperialism of the Great Game.
  • Great Game - TheTournament of Shadows 16 September 2009 23:023 UTC www.espionageinfo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8][9][10]

In popular culture

.

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Peter Hopkirk, The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia, Kodansha International, 1992, ISBN 4-7700-1703-0, p. 1
  2. ^ http://www.britishbattles.com/first-afghan-war/kabul-gandamak.htm
  3. ^ Quoted from Disraeli's letter to the Queen in: Mahajan, Sneh. British Foreign Policy, 1874-1914. Routledge, 2002. ISBN 0415260108. Page 53.
  4. ^ Forty-one years in India - From Subaltern To Commander-In-Chief, Lord Roberts of Kandahar - The Hunza-Naga Campaign
  5. ^ Quoted from: Hopkirk, Peter. The Great Game: The Struggle for Empire in Central Asia. ISBN 1568360223. Page 520.
  6. ^ * Morgan, Gerald, “Myth and Reality in the Great Game”, Asian Affairs, vol. 60, (February 1973) 64.
  7. ^ a b Yapp, Malcolm, “The Legend of the Great Game”, Proceedings of the British Academy, no. 111, 2001, 179–198
  8. ^ The "Great Game": Eurasia and the History of War
  9. ^ Welcome Back To the Great Game
  10. ^ The "New Great Game" in Eurasia is being fought in its "Buffer Zones"
  11. ^ DocsOnline Docsonline.tv

References

  • Johnson, Robert, Spying for Empire: The Great Game in Central and South Asia, 1757-1947, (London: Greenhill, 2006) ISBN 1-85367-670-5 [1]
  • Meyer, Karl and Brysac, Shareen,'Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Asia', Counterpoint, 1999 reprinted with new introduction on the Middle East by Basic Books, 2006 ISBN 0-349-11366-1
  • Naik, J.A., Soviet Policy Towards India, from Stalin to Brezhnev, (Delhi: Vikas Publications, 1970) 3–4.
  • Vogelsang, Willem. The Afghans, pp. 245–272. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford, 2002. ISBN 0-631-19841-5
  • von Tunzelmann, Alex, Indian Summer. Henry Holt and Company, LLC, New York, 2007. ISBN 078-0-8050-8073-5, ISBN 0-8050-8073-2

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

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