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The Hobbit
Directed by Guillermo del Toro
Produced by Peter Jackson (executive)
Mark Ordesky
Written by Guillermo del Toro
Peter Jackson
Fran Walsh
Philippa Boyens
J. R. R. Tolkien (Novel)
Starring Ian McKellen[1]
Andy Serkis[1]
Hugo Weaving[1]
Music by Howard Shore
Studio New Line Cinema
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Distributed by Warner Bros. (USA)
20th Century Fox (non-USA)
Release date(s) December 2011 (2011-12)
(Part 1)
December 2012 (2012-12)
(Part 2)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $300 million
Preceded by The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King

The Hobbit is an upcoming two-part film based on the novel of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. The film is in development for releases in December 2011 (Part 1) and December 2012 (Part 2) and will be directed by Guillermo del Toro, with Peter Jackson, director of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, serving as executive producer and co-writer. It is the director's intention to direct a film based on the entire novel The Hobbit and a sequel that will cover the intervening years between the prequel and The Fellowship of the Ring. [2]

Contents

Cast

So far the following cast members have been confirmed:

Development

See also: Development of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy

Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh expressed interest in 1995 in filming The Hobbit, which would be part one of a trilogy (the other two would have been based on The Lord of the Rings).[3] Frustration arose when Jackson's producer, Harvey Weinstein, discovered Saul Zaentz had production rights to The Hobbit, but distribution rights still belonged to United Artists (which had kept those rights, believing that filmmakers would probably adapt The Hobbit rather than The Lord of the Rings, and therefore wanted a profit).[4] The studio was on the market, so Weinstein's attempts to buy those rights were unsuccessful. Weinstein asked Jackson to press on with adapting The Lord of the Rings.[5] New Line Cinema eventually produced The Lord of the Rings, and their rights to film The Hobbit were set to expire in 2010.[6] In September 2006, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, owner of UA, expressed interest in teaming up with New Line and Jackson to make the prequel.[7]

In March 2005, Jackson launched a lawsuit against New Line, claiming he had lost revenue from merchandising, video, and computer games releases associated with The Fellowship of The Ring.[8] He did not seek a specific settlement, but requested an audit to see whether New Line had deprived him of money.[6] Although Jackson wanted it settled before he would make the film,[6] he felt the lawsuit was minor, and that New Line would still let him make The Hobbit.[9] New Line co-founder Robert Shaye was annoyed with the lawsuit and said in January 2007 that Jackson would never again direct a film for New Line, accusing him of being greedy.[10] MGM boss Harry Sloan halted development, as he wanted Jackson to be involved.[11] By August, after a string of flops, Shaye was trying to repair his relationship with the director. He said, "I really respect and admire Peter and would love for him to be creatively involved in some way in The Hobbit."[12] The following month, New Line was fined $125,000 for failing to provide requested accounting documents.[6]

On December 18, 2007, it was announced that Jackson would be executive producer of The Hobbit and its sequel. New Line and MGM will co-finance the film, and the latter studio will distribute the films outside North America – New Line's first ever such deal with another major studio.[13] Each film is budgeted at an estimated US$150 million,[14] which compares to the US$94 million budget for each of the films in Jackson's Lord of the Rings trilogy. After completion of the merger of New Line Cinema with Warner Bros. in February 2008, the films were announced as scheduled for release in Decembers 2011 and 2012.[11] Producer Mark Ordesky will return to supervise the prequels.[15] Jackson explained he chose not to direct because it would have been unsatisfying to compete with his previous films.[16]

That same month, the Tolkien Estate—through the Tolkien Trust—and HarperCollins Publishers filed a suit against New Line for breach of contract and fraud and demanded $220 million in compensation. The suit claimed New Line had only paid the Estate an upfront fee of $62,500, despite the trilogy earning an estimated $6 billion worldwide from box office receipts and merchandise sales. The suit claimed the Estate was entitled to 7.5% of all profits made by any Tolkien films, as established by prior deals. The suit also sought to block the filming of The Hobbit.[17][18]

Guillermo del Toro has said he was a fan of Jackson's trilogy and had discussed directing a film adaptation of Halo with him in 2005. Though that project stalled, they kept in contact.[16] In a 2006 interview Del Toro was quoted saying "I don't like little guys and dragons, hairy feet, hobbits, [...] I don't like sword and sorcery, I hate all that stuff".[19] After he signed on to direct in April 2008,[20] Del Toro posted on TheOneRing.net forums that he had been enchanted by The Hobbit as a child, but found that Tolkien's other books "contain[ed] geography and genealogy too complex for my prepubescent brain". In taking the job of director, Del Toro was now "reading like a madman to catch up with a whole new land, a continent of sorts – a cosmology created by brilliant philologist turned Shaman". He also posted that his appreciation of Tolkien was enhanced by his knowledge of the fantasy genre and the folklore research he had undertaken while making his own fantasy films.[16]

Pre-production began around August 2008, with Del Toro, Jackson, Walsh, and Philippa Boyens writing the scripts.[21] Del Toro collaborated with Jackson, Walsh and Boyens via videoconferencing, and flew every three weeks, back and forth from Los Angeles, California (where some of the designs were done)[20] to New Zealand to visit them.[22] Del Toro spent his mornings writing, and afternoons looking at material related to Tolkien to help him understand the writer's work. He watched World War I documentaries and asked for book recommendations from Jackson, who is a collector of World War I memorabilia. Del Toro felt Tolkien's experiences in that war influenced his stories.[23]

By November 2008, every week Del Toro, Jackson, Walsh and Boyens would realize something new about the story which continually changed the script.[24] The writing hours increased to twelve each day, as they dedicated three weeks to finally deciding the films' structures.[25] During the first few months of 2009, writing would start from 8:30 am and end at 3 pm when Del Toro would meet with Weta (i.e. Weta Workshop and Weta Digital film effects companies). Completion of the story outlines and treatments ended in March 2009, and the studios approved the start of writing the screenplay.[26] Filming will take place throughout 2010 in New Zealand, and Del Toro will renovate the Hobbiton sets in Matamata.[16] On his part, Jackson has kept the Rivendell scale model and the Bag End set (which he has used as a guest house) from the trilogy.[9] During the middle of the shoot, there will be a break which will allow Del Toro to edit The Hobbit while sets are altered for the second film.[27] The director expected the shoot to last 370 days.[28]

In September 2009, New Line and the Tolkien Estate reached a settlement, with New Line paying the Estate an undisclosed sum. J. R. R. Tolkien's son and literary executor Christopher Tolkien said in a statement: "New Line may now proceed with its proposed films of The Hobbit."[17][18]

In late November 2009, Peter Jackson revealed that he anticipated that the script for The Hobbit would be finished by the beginning of 2010, delaying the start of production until the middle of that summer (several months later than previously anticipated).[29] The announcement created doubts about whether the film would make its previously-announced release dates of December 2011 and December 2012.[29] Jackson reiterated that no casting decisions have been made.[29] On January 22, 2010, Alan Horn said the first film would likely not be released until the fourth quarter of 2012.[30]

Direction

The first film will stand on its own, and the second will be a transition and fusion with Peter's world. I plan to change and expand the visuals from Peter's, and I know the world can be portrayed in a different way. Different is better for the first one. For the second, I have the responsibility of finding a slow progression and mimicking the style of Peter.

Del Toro on tonal consistency with Jackson's trilogy[31]

Del Toro interprets The Hobbit as being set in a "world that is slightly more golden at the beginning, a very innocent environment" and the film would need to "[take] you from a time of more purity to a darker reality throughout the film, but [in a manner] in the spirit of the book".[20] He perceives the main themes as loss of innocence, which he likened to the experience of England after World War I, and greed, which he says Smaug and Thorin Oakenshield represent.[16] Bilbo Baggins reaffirms his personal morality during the story's third act as he encounters Smaug and the Dwarves' greed.[32] He added "The humble, sort of a sturdy moral fibre that Bilbo has very much represents the idea that Tolkien had about the little English man, the average English man",[33] and the relationship between Bilbo and Thorin would be the heart of the films.[34] The Elves will also be less solemn.[16]

Del Toro met concept artists John Howe and Alan Lee, Weta Workshop head Richard Taylor and make-up artist Gino Acevedo to keep continuity with the previous films,[20] and he has also hired comic book artists to complement Howe's and Lee's style on the trilogy,[35] including Mike Mignola and Wayne Barlowe, who began work around April 2009.[26] He has also considered looking at Tolkien's drawings and using elements of those not used in the trilogy.[33] As Tolkien did not originally intend for the magic ring Bilbo finds to be the all-powerful talisman of evil it is revealed to be in The Lord of the Rings, Del Toro will address its different nature in the story, but not so much as to draw away from the story's spirit.[32] Each Dwarf will need to look different from the others.[36] Del Toro will redesign the Goblins and Wargs[16] and the Mirkwood spiders will also look different from Shelob.[32] Del Toro felt the Wargs had to be changed because "the classical incarnation of the demonic wolf in Nordic mythology is not a hyena-shaped creature".[23]

Guillermo del Toro noted that John Howe's illustrations of Smaug "approximate" his vision of the character[37]

Del Toro also wants the animals to speak so Smaug's speech will not be incongruous, though he explained portraying the talking animals will be more about showing people can understand them.[32] Smaug will not have a "snub Simian [mouth] in order to achieve a dubious lip-synch",[16] and Del Toro notes that such is the attention given to him that he will be the first design begun and the last to be approved.[23] The director, whose Chinese zodiac sign is the Dragon, is fascinated by the mythological species and attempted to include one in Pan's Labyrinth, but was unable to for budget reasons. His favourite cinematic dragons are Maleficent in Sleeping Beauty and Vermithrax Pejorative from Dragonslayer.[16] He has also provided a foreword to Howe's portfolio book Forging Dragons, where he discussed the dragon's differing symbolism and roles in various cultures and legends.[38]

Ian McKellen and Andy Serkis (who played Gandalf and Gollum, respectively), have met Del Toro,[20] and ideally, he wants every actor (including Ian Holm, who played Bilbo in Rings) to reprise their roles,[35] although he acknowledged some may be unable to because of health problems; he would also consider having Holm narrate the films.[33] Del Toro, in an interview with BBC radio has confirmed that McKellen, Serkis and Hugo Weaving (who played Elrond) will reprise their roles.[1] All 13 Dwarves and Beorn will appear,[16] while Thorin's father Thráin II will also be featured.[26] Doug Jones—who portrayed various creatures in Hellboy, its sequel and Pan's Labyrinth – was interested in playing Thranduil, King of Mirkwood and Legolas' father, but del Toro said he wanted Jones for a different role.[37] Similarly, Hellboy star Ron Perlman is a person whom del Toro has "something in mind for".[16]

Del Toro and Jackson have a positive working relationship, where they will compromise on disagreements to the benefit of the film.[16] Del Toro believes he will be able to shoot all of the films himself,[39] although Jackson noted he had similar hopes for filming all of his trilogy, and has offered to help as second unit director. Del Toro will shoot the films in the trilogy's 2.35:1 aspect ratio, rather than his signature 1.85:1 ratio.[16] He hopes to collaborate again with cinematographer Guillermo Navarro.[28] Del Toro shares Jackson's passion for scale models and background paintings,[40] though he wants to increase the use of animatronics; "We really want to take the state-of-the-art animatronics and take a leap ten years into the future with the technology we will develop for the creatures in the movie. We have every intention to do for animatronics and special effects what the other films did for virtual reality."[20] Spectral Motion (Hellboy, Fantastic Four) are among those Del Toro wants to work with again.[28] Some characters will be created by mixing computer-generated imagery with animatronics, and some will solely be created with animatronics or animation. Gollum will be entirely digital again, as Del Toro noted "if it ain't broke, why fix it?"[40]

Del Toro and Jackson considered the sudden introduction to Bard the Bowman and Bilbo being unconscious during the Battle of the Five Armies to be "less cinematic moments" reminiscent of the novel's more "fairy tale world" than The Lord of the Rings, which they would change to make The Hobbit feel more like the trilogy. However, Del Toro considered some of these moments like Bilbo waking up to find the battle is over iconic and would require the "fairy tale logic [to] work as is".[26]

Second film

When you lay out [...] the story beats contained within the book (before even considering any apendix [sic] material) the work is enormous and encompasses more than one film. That's why we are thinking of the TWO INSTALLMENTS as parts of a single NARRATIVE. That's why I keep putting down the use of a "bridge" film (posited initially). I think the concept as such is not relevant anymore. I believe that the narrative and characters are rich enough to fit in TWO films.

A post by Del Toro on TheOneRing.net[41]

MGM expressed interest in a second film in 2006, set between The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.[42] Jackson concurred, stating "one of the drawbacks of The Hobbit is [that] it's relatively lightweight compared to Lord of the Rings... There [are] a lot of sections in which a character like Gandalf disappears for a while. From memory – I mean, I haven't read it for a while now – but I think he references going off to meet with the White Council, who are actually characters like Galadriel and Saruman and people who we see in Lord of the Rings. He mysteriously vanishes for a while and then comes back, but we don't really know what goes on."[9] Jackson was also interested in showing Gollum's journey to Mordor and Aragorn setting a watch on the Shire.[43]

After his hiring in 2008, Del Toro confirmed the sequel would be about "trying to reconcile the facts of the first movie with a slightly different point of view. You would be able to see events that were not witnessed in the first."[35] He also noted the story must be drawn from only what is mentioned in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, as they do not have the rights to The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales.[44] Del Toro also added (before writing began) that if they could not find a coherent story for the second film, they would just film The Hobbit, stating "The Hobbit is better contained in a single film and kept brisk and fluid with no artificial 'break point'."[45] By November 2008, he elaborated he felt the book was more detailed and eventful than people may remember.[46] Del Toro was faced with two possible places to split the story,[25] including Smaug's defeat. He noted the second film would need to end by leading directly into The Fellowship of the Ring.[47] In June 2009, Del Toro revealed he had decided where to divide the story based on comments from fans about signifying a change in Bilbo's relationship with the dwarves.[48]

The second film's story would also have depended on how many actors could have reprised their roles.[16] Christopher Lee, who played Saruman in Jackson's films, said he would have liked to have shown the Wizard's corruption by Sauron,[49] but he would not be comfortable flying to New Zealand at his age.[50]

Video games

References

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  2. ^ [[1]]
  3. ^ Brian Sibley (2006). Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: HarperCollins. pp. 313–16. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  4. ^ Tom Ambrose (March 2009). "The Return of the Ring". Empire: p. 67. 
  5. ^ Brian Sibley (2006). Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: HarperCollins. pp. 323–25. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  6. ^ a b c d Benjamin Svetkey (2007-10-04). "The Hobbit: Peace in Middle-Earth?". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20036782_20037403_20142132,00.html. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 
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  11. ^ a b Dade Hayes, Dave McNary (2008-02-28). "New Line in Warner's corner". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117981598.html?categoryid=10&cs=1. Retrieved 2008-02-29. 
  12. ^ Patrick Goldstein (2007-08-10). "THE BIG PICTURE: New Line's midlife crisis". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/movies/la-et-goldstein10aug10,0,7800308.story?coll=la-headlines-entnews. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  13. ^ Michael Fleming (2007-12-18). "'Hobbit' back on track as twin bill". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117977891.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  14. ^ Borys Kit (2008-01-27). "Del Toro doubles up for 'Hobbit'". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/news/e3i331d7d05b8008476b2fae087024a2b8e. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
  15. ^ Anne Thompson (2008-03-06). "Shaye kept New Line afloat". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117982001.html?categoryId=2508&cs=1&query=the+hobbit. Retrieved 2008-03-07. 
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "An Unexpected Party Chat transcript now available!". Weta Holics. 2008-05-25. http://www.wetanz.com/holics/index.php?itemid=695&catid=2. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  17. ^ a b Alex Dobuzinskis (2009-09-08). "Legal settlement clears way for "Hobbit" movie". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/entertainmentNews/idUSTRE5875BK20090908. 
  18. ^ a b "Legal path clear for Hobbit movie". BBC. 2009-09-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/8245300.stm. 
  19. ^ "Conversations: Guillermo del Toro". Salon.com. 2006-10-12. http://www.salon.com/ent/audiofile/2006/10/12/conversations_toro/. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f "Guillermo del Toro Chats with TORN About The Hobbit Films!". TheOneRing.net. 2008-04-25. http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2008/04/25/28747-guillermo-del-toro-chats-with-torn-about-the-hobbit-films/. Retrieved 2008-04-26. 
  21. ^ Nicole Sperling (2008-08-19). "Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens join Guillermo Del Toro penning The Hobbit". Entertainment Weekly. http://hollywoodinsider.ew.com/2008/08/the-hobbit.html. Retrieved 2008-08-20. 
  22. ^ Michael Fleming (2008-09-03). "Guillermo Del Toro booked thru 2017". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117991560.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  23. ^ a b c Max Evry (2008-10-05). "Guillermo del Toro on The Hobbit and Frankenstein". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/hobbitnews.php?id=49378. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  24. ^ Ryan Rotten (2008-11-12). "Guillermo del Toro Gives Hobbit Update". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=50460. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  25. ^ a b Guillermo del Toro (2008-11-16). "I promise to give you news". TheOneRing.net forums. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=149375;#149375. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  26. ^ a b c d Chris Hewitt (June 2009). "The Two Towers". Empire: pp. 137–140. 
  27. ^ Carl Cortez (2008-07-09). "Guillermo del Toro escapes 'Labyrinth' and ends right back into 'Hellboy'". iF Magazine. http://www.ifmagazine.com/feature.asp?article=2879. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  28. ^ a b c "Del Toro talks ‘Hobbit’ in Live Chat". BilboHobbit.com. 2008-11-27. http://bilbohobbit.com/del-toro-talks-hobbit-in-live-chat/. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  29. ^ a b c ]http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118011977.html?categoryid=1236&cs=1 McNary, Dave. "Jackson, del Toro Still Working on 'Hobbit' Scripts." Variety. November 30, 2009/
  30. ^ McNary, Dave (2010-01-22). "Leaner New Line ready for a tentpole again". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1118014180.html?categoryid=2520&cs=1. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  31. ^ Stuart Levine (2008-07-07). "Exclusive: Guillermo del Toro on 'Hellboy II'". Premiere. http://www.premiere.com/features/4642/exclusive-guillermo-del-toro-on-hellboy-ii-page4.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  32. ^ a b c d Joe Utichi (2008-07-11). "Guillermo del Toro - RT's Dinner and the Movies Interview". Rotten Tomatoes. http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/dinner_and_the_movies/news/1739826/guillermo_del_toro_rts_dinner_and_the_movies_interview. Retrieved 2008-07-12. 
  33. ^ a b c Shawn Adler (2008-07-02). "Guillermo Del Toro Answers 'Hobbit' Fans' Questions About Returning 'Rings' Cast, Religion And More". MTV.com. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1590278/story.jhtml. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  34. ^ Shawn Adler (2008-07-02). "Director Guillermo Del Toro Answers Your ‘Hobbit’ Questions". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/07/02/director-guillermo-del-toro-answers-your-hobbit-questions/. Retrieved 2008-07-02. 
  35. ^ a b c Shawn Adler (2008-04-28). "Guillermo Del Toro Addresses 'Hobbit' Fans' Concerns, Talks Possible Casting". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1586421/story.jhtml. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  36. ^ "xoanon" (2008-10-20). "Del Toro Interview Part 2: “This is the hardest movie I’ll probably ever do!”". TheOneRing.net. http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2008/10/20/30314-del-toro-interview-part-2-this-is-the-hardest-movie-i%e2%80%99ll-probably-ever-do/. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  37. ^ a b Josh Horowitz (2008-10-14). "Guillermo Del Toro Talks 'Hobbit' Casting, Creatures". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1596909/story.jhtml. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  38. ^ Guillermo del Toro (2008-10-15). "“SVNT DRACONES”". John Howe's official website. http://www.john-howe.com/news/comments.php?id=P239_0_1_0_C. Retrieved 2008-10-15. 
  39. ^ Shawn Adler (2008-10-08). "Guillermo Del Toro To Fly Solo On ‘Hobbit’ Directing Duties, Says No To Peter Jackson Assist". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/10/08/guillermo-del-toro-to-fly-solo-on-hobbit-directing-duties-says-no-to-peter-jackson-assist/. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  40. ^ a b Patrick Kolan (2008-08-19). "Guillermo Talks The Hobbit's Effects". IGN. http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/899/899973p1.html. Retrieved 2008-09-27. 
  41. ^ Guillermo del Toro (2008-11-08). "Hola". TheOneRing.net. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=147373;#147373. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 
  42. ^ "Hobbit, Crown, Panther News". IGN. 2006-11-14. http://movies.ign.com/articles/746/746019p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-17. 
  43. ^ Eric Vespe (2008-10-08). "Quint and Peter Jackson talk THE HOBBIT and a potential return to low budget horror!!!". Ain't It Cool News. http://www.aintitcool.com/node/30085. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  44. ^ "News of the Week". Sci Fi Weekly. 2008-07-07. http://www.scifi.com/sfw/news/sfw_news_20080707.html. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  45. ^ Guillermo del Toro (2008-05-26). "2 centavos". TheOneRing.net forum. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=101653;guest=3666153#101653. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  46. ^ A.C. Ferrante (2008-11-12). "Guillermo del Toro updates about The Hobbit status". iF Magazine. http://www.ifmagazine.com/new.asp?article=7125. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  47. ^ Shawn Adler (2008-10-07). "‘Hobbit’ Films Will Be One ‘Continuous Journey,’ Promises Guillermo Del Toro". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/10/07/hobbit-films-will-be-one-continuous-journey-promises-guillermo-del-toro/. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
  48. ^ Eric Ditzian (2009-06-05). "Guillermo Del Toro Rules Out Directing ‘Hobbit’ Bridge Film". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2009/06/05/exclusive-guillermo-del-toro-rules-out-directing-hobbit-bridge-film/. Retrieved 2009-06-08. 
  49. ^ Glen Ferris (2008-06-04). "Christopher Lee On The Hobbit". Empire Online. http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=22681. Retrieved 2008-06-04. 
  50. ^ Elisabeth Rappe (2008-07-13). "Looks Like Christopher Lee Might Not Return to Middle-Earth". Cinematical. http://www.cinematical.com/2008/07/13/christopher-lee-wont-return-to-middle-earth/. Retrieved 2008-07-14. 
  51. ^ Ben Fritz (2009-03-12). "Lord of the Rings game rights now at Warner Bros.". Variety. http://weblogs.variety.com/the_cut_scene/2009/03/lord-of-the-rings-ga.html. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 

External links


The template below has been deprecated (see discussion), and will soon be replaced automatically with the corresponding category.
Template:Infobox Film

The Hobbit is an upcoming two-film series based on the novel of the same name by J. R. R. Tolkien. The films are in development for release in December 2011 and December 2012. The films will be directed by Guillermo del Toro, with The Lord of the Rings film trilogy director Peter Jackson serving as executive producer and co-writer. Originally, the first film would have adapted The Hobbit and the second would have bridged the gap between this and The Lord of the Rings, but it is now the director's intention to split and expand the narrative of The Hobbit over both films.

Contents

Development

See also: Development of The Lord of the Rings film trilogy

Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh expressed interest in 1995 in filming The Hobbit, which would be part one of a trilogy (the other two would have been based on The Lord of the Rings).[1] Frustration arose when Jackson's producer, Harvey Weinstein, discovered Saul Zaentz had production rights to The Hobbit, but distribution rights still belonged to United Artists (which had kept those rights, believing that filmmakers would probably adapt The Hobbit rather than The Lord of the Rings, and therefore wanted a profit).[2] The studio was on the market, so Weinstein's attempts to buy those rights were unsuccessful. Weinstein asked Jackson to press on with adapting The Lord of the Rings.[3] New Line Cinema eventually produced The Lord of the Rings, and their rights to film The Hobbit were set to expire in 2010.[4] In September 2006, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, owner of UA, expressed interest in teaming up with New Line and Jackson to make the prequel.[5]

In March 2005, Jackson launched a lawsuit against New Line, claiming he had lost revenue from merchandising, video, and computer games releases associated with The Fellowship of The Ring.[6] He did not seek a specific settlement, but requested an audit to see whether New Line had deprived him of money.[4] Jackson felt the lawsuit was minor, and that New Line would still let him make the film,[7] although he wanted it settled before he would make the film.[4] New Line co-founder Robert Shaye was annoyed with the lawsuit and said in January 2007 that Jackson would never again direct a film for New Line, accusing him of being greedy.[8] MGM boss Harry Sloan halted development, as he wanted Jackson to be involved.[9] By August, after a string of flops, Shaye was trying to repair his relationship with the director. He said, "I really respect and admire Peter and would love for him to be creatively involved in some way in The Hobbit."[10] The following month, New Line was fined $125,000 for failing to provide requested accounting documents.[4]

On December 18, 2007, it was announced that Jackson would be executive producer of The Hobbit and its sequel. New Line and MGM will co-finance the film, and the latter studio will distribute the films outside North America – New Line's first ever such deal with another major studio.[11] Each film is budgeted at an estimated US$150 million,[12] which compares to the US$94 million budget for each of the films in Jackson's Lord of the Rings trilogy. After completion of the merger of New Line Cinema with Warner Bros. in February 2008, the films were announced as scheduled for release in Decembers 2011 and 2012.[9] Producer Mark Ordesky will return to supervise the prequels.[13] Jackson explained he chose not to direct because it would have been unsatisfying to compete with his previous films.[14]

Guillermo del Toro has said he was a fan of Jackson's trilogy and had discussed directing a film adaptation of Halo with him in 2005. Though that project stalled, they kept in contact.[14] In a 2006 interview Del Toro was quoted saying "I don't like little guys and dragons, hairy feet, hobbits, [...] I don't like sword and sorcery, I hate all that stuff".[15] After he signed on to direct in April 2008,[16] Del Toro posted on TheOneRing.net forums that he had been enchanted by The Hobbit as a child, but found that Tolkien's other books "contain[ed] geography and genealogy too complex for my prepubescent brain". In taking the job of director, Del Toro was now "reading like a madman to catch up with a whole new land, a continent of sorts – a cosmology created by brilliant philologist turned Shaman". He also posted that his appreciation of Tolkien was enhanced by his knowledge of the fantasy genre and the folklore research he had undertaken while making his own fantasy films.[14]

Pre-production began around August 2008, with Del Toro, Jackson, Walsh, and Philippa Boyens writing the scripts.[17] Del Toro collaborated with Jackson, Walsh and Boyens via videoconferencing, and flew every three weeks, back and forth from Los Angeles, California (where some of the designs were done)[16] to New Zealand to visit them.[18] Del Toro spent his mornings writing, and afternoons looking at material related to Tolkien to help him understand the writer's work. He watched World War I documentaries and examined Jackson's memorabilia about the war, including working reproductions of planes, tanks, cannons, ships and uniforms. Del Toro felt Tolkien's experiences in that war impacted his stories.[19]

By November 2008, every week Del Toro, Jackson, Walsh and Boyens would realise something new about the story which continually changed the script.[20] The writing hours increased to twelve each day, as they dedicated three weeks to finally deciding the films' structures.[21] During the first few months of 2009, writing would start from 8:30 am and end at 3 pm when Del Toro would meet with Weta (i.e. Weta Workshop and Weta Digital film effects companies). Completion of the story outlines and treatments ended in March 2009, and the studios approved the start of writing the screenplay.[22] Filming will take place throughout 2010 in New Zealand, and Del Toro will renovate the Hobbiton sets in Matamata.[14] On his part, Jackson has kept the Rivendell scale model and the Bag End set (which he has used as a guest house) from the trilogy.[7] During the middle of the shoot, there will be a break which will allow Del Toro to edit The Hobbit while sets are altered for the second film.[23] The director expected the shoot to last 370 days.[24]

Direction

The first film will stand on its own, and the second will be a transition and fusion with Peter's world. I plan to change and expand the visuals from Peter's, and I know the world can be portrayed in a different way. Different is better for the first one. For the second, I have the responsibility of finding a slow progression and mimicking the style of Peter.
—Del Toro on tonal consistency with Jackson's trilogy[25]

Del Toro interprets The Hobbit as being set in a "world that is slightly more golden at the beginning, a very innocent environment" and the film would need to "tak[e] you from a time of more purity to a darker reality throughout the film, but [in a manner] in the spirit of the book".[16] He perceives the main themes as loss of innocence, which he likened to the experience of England after World War I, and greed, which he says Smaug and Thorin Oakenshield represent.[14] Bilbo Baggins reaffirms his personal morality during the story's third act as he encounters Smaug and the Dwarves' greed.[26] He added "The humble, sort of a sturdy moral fibre that Bilbo has very much represents the idea that Tolkien had about the little English man, the average English man",[27] and the relationship between Bilbo and Thorin would be the heart of the films.[28] The Elves will also be less solemn.[14]

Del Toro met concept artists John Howe and Alan Lee, Weta Workshop head Richard Taylor and make-up artist Gino Acevedo to keep continuity with the previous films,[16] and he has also hired European comic book artists to complement Howe's and Lee's style on the trilogy,[29] including Mike Mignola and Wayne Barlowe, who began work around April 2009.[22] He has also considered looking at Tolkien's drawings and using elements of those not used in the trilogy.[27] As Tolkien did not originally intend for the magic ring Bilbo finds to be the all-powerful talisman of evil it is revealed to be in The Lord of the Rings, Del Toro will address its different nature in the story, but not so much as to draw away from the story's spirit.[26] Each Dwarf will need to look different from each other.[30] Del Toro will redesign the Goblins and Wargs[14] and the Mirkwood spiders will also look different from Shelob.[26] Del Toro felt the Wargs had to be changed because "the classical incarnation of the demonic wolf in Nordic mythology is not a hyena-shaped creature".[19]

's illustrations of Smaug "approximate" his vision of the character[31]]]

Del Toro also wants the animals to speak so Smaug's speech will not be incongruous, though he explained portraying the talking animals will be more about showing people can understand them.[26] Smaug will not have a "snub Simian [mouth] in order to achieve a dubious lip-synch",[14] and Del Toro notes that such is the attention given to him that he will be the first design begun and the last to be approved.[19] The director, whose Chinese zodiac sign is the Dragon, is fascinated by the mythological species and attempted to include one in Pan's Labyrinth, but was unable to for budget reasons. His favourite cinematic dragons are Maleficent in Sleeping Beauty and Vermithrax Pejorative from Dragonslayer.[14] He has also provided a foreword to Howe's portfolio book Forging Dragons, where he discussed the dragon's differing symbolism and roles in various cultures and legends.[32]

Ian McKellen and Andy Serkis (who played Gandalf and Gollum, respectively), have met Del Toro,[16] and ideally, he wants every actor (including Ian Holm, who played Bilbo in Rings) to reprise their roles,[29] although he acknowledged some may be unable to because of health problems; he would also consider having Holm narrate the films.[27] Del Toro, in an interview with BBC radio has stated that Hugo Weaving will also reprise his role as Elrond.[33] All 13 Dwarves and Beorn will appear,[14] while Thorin's father Thráin II will also feature.[22] Doug Jones—who portrayed various creatures in Hellboy, its sequel and Pan's Labyrinth – was interested in playing Thranduil, King of Mirkwood and Legolas' father, but del Toro said he wanted Jones for a different role.[31] Similarly, Hellboy star Ron Perlman is a person whom del Toro has "something in mind for".[14]

Del Toro and Jackson have a positive working relationship, where they will compromise on disagreements to the benefit of the film.[14] Del Toro believes he will be able to shoot all of the films himself,[34] although Jackson noted he had similar hopes for filming all of his trilogy, and has offered to help as second unit director. Del Toro will shoot the films in the trilogy's 2.35:1 aspect ratio, rather than his signature 1.85:1 ratio.[14] He hopes to collaborate again with cinematographer Guillermo Navarro.[24] Del Toro shares Jackson's passion for scale models and background paintings,[35] though he wants to increase the use of animatronics; "We really want to take the state-of-the-art animatronics and take a leap ten years into the future with the technology we will develop for the creatures in the movie. We have every intention to do for animatronics and special effects what the other films did for virtual reality."[16] Spectral Motion (Hellboy, Fantastic Four) are among those Del Toro wants to work with again.[24] Some characters will be created by mixing computer-generated imagery with animatronics, and some will solely be created with animatronics or animation. Gollum will be entirely digital again, as Del Toro noted "if it ain't broke, why fix it?"[35]

Del Toro and Jackson considered the sudden introduction to Bard the Bowman and Bilbo being unconscious during the Battle of the Five Armies to be "less cinematic moments" reminiscent of the novel's more "fairy tale world" than The Lord of the Rings, which they would change to make The Hobbit feel more like the trilogy. However, Del Toro considered some of these moments like Bilbo waking up to find the battle is over iconic and would require the "fairy tale logic [to] work as is".[22]

Second film

When you lay out [...] the story beats contained within the book (before even considering any apendix [sic] material) the work is enormous and encompasses more than one film. That's why we are thinking of the TWO INSTALLMENTS as parts of a single NARRATIVE. That's why I keep putting down the use of a "bridge" film (posited initially). I think the concept as such is not relevant anymore. I believe that the narrative and characters are rich enough to fit in TWO films.
—A post by Del Toro on TheOneRing.net[36]

MGM expressed interest in a second film in 2006, set between The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings.[37] Jackson concurred, stating "one of the drawbacks of The Hobbit is [that] it's relatively lightweight compared to Lord of the Rings... There [are] a lot of sections in which a character like Gandalf disappears for a while. From memory – I mean, I haven't read it for a while now – but I think he references going off to meet with the White Council, who are actually characters like Galadriel and Saruman and people that we see in Lord of the Rings. He mysteriously vanishes for a while and then comes back, but we don't really know what goes on."[7] Jackson was also interested in showing Gollum's journey to Mordor and Aragorn setting a watch on the Shire.[38]

After his hiring in 2008, Del Toro confirmed the sequel would be about "trying to reconcile the facts of the first movie with a slightly different point of view. You would be able to see events that were not witnessed in the first."[29] He also noted the story must be drawn from only what is mentioned in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, as they do not have the rights to The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales.[39] Del Toro also added (before writing began) that if they could not find a coherent story for the second film, they would just film The Hobbit, stating "The Hobbit is better contained in a single film and kept brisk and fluid with no artificial 'break point'."[40] By November 2008, he elaborated he felt the book was more detailed and eventful than people may remember.[41] Del Toro was faced with two possible places to split the story,[21] including Smaug's defeat. He noted the second film would need to end by leading directly into The Fellowship of the Ring.[42] In June 2009, Del Toro revealed he had decided where to divide the story based on comments from fans about signifying a change in Bilbo's relationship with the dwarves.[43]

The second film's story would also have depended on how many actors could have reprised their roles.[14] Christopher Lee, who played Saruman in Jackson's films, said he would have liked to have shown the Wizard's corruption by Sauron,[44] but he would not be comfortable flying to New Zealand at his age.[45]

Video games

Warner Bros. Interactive Entertainment have the rights to develop a video game based on The Hobbit following the expiration of Electronic Arts' The Lord of the Rings license in 2008. Traveller's Tales also created a demo for a Lego version of The Hobbit as a pitch to Jackson.[46]

References

  1. Brian Sibley (2006). Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: HarperCollins. pp. 313-16. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  2. Tom Ambrose (March 2009). "The Return of the Ring". Empire: p. 67. 
  3. Brian Sibley (2006). Peter Jackson: A Film-maker's Journey. London: HarperCollins. pp. 323-25. ISBN 0-00-717558-2. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Benjamin Svetkey (2007-10-04). "'The Hobbit': Peace in Middle-Earth?". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,20036782_20037403_20142132,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-05. 
  5. Stax (2006-09-11). "MGM Eyes Hobbit, T4". IGN. http://movies.ign.com/articles/732/732006p1.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  6. "Director sues over Rings profits". BBC News Online. 2005-03-02. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4312463.stm. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Steve Daly (2006-09-22). "Action Jackson". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1538494,00.html. Retrieved on 2007-10-05. 
  8. "Jackson ruled out of Hobbit film". BBC News Online. 2007-01-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6251099.stm. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Dade Hayes, Dave McNary (2008-02-28). "New Line in Warner's corner". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117981598.html?categoryid=10&cs=1. Retrieved on 2008-02-29. 
  10. Patrick Goldstein (2007-08-10). "THE BIG PICTURE: New Line's midlife crisis". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/news/movies/la-et-goldstein10aug10,0,7800308.story?coll=la-headlines-entnews. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  11. Michael Fleming (2007-12-18). "'Hobbit' back on track as twin bill". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117977891.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved on 2008-10-02. 
  12. Borys Kit (2008-01-27). "Del Toro doubles up for 'Hobbit'". The Hollywood Reporter. http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/hr/content_display/news/e3i331d7d05b8008476b2fae087024a2b8e. Retrieved on 2008-01-28. 
  13. Anne Thompson (2008-03-06). "Shaye kept New Line afloat". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117982001.html?categoryId=2508&cs=1&query=the+hobbit. Retrieved on 2008-03-07. 
  14. 14.00 14.01 14.02 14.03 14.04 14.05 14.06 14.07 14.08 14.09 14.10 14.11 14.12 14.13 "An Unexpected Party Chat transcript now available!". Weta Holics. 2008-05-25. http://www.wetanz.com/holics/index.php?itemid=695&catid=2. Retrieved on 2008-12-09. 
  15. "Conversations: Guillermo del Toro". Salon.com. 2006-10-12. http://www.salon.com/ent/audiofile/2006/10/12/conversations_toro/. Retrieved on 2008-06-04. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 "Guillermo del Toro Chats with TORN About ‘The Hobbit’ Films!". TheOneRing.net. 2008-04-25. http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2008/04/25/28747-guillermo-del-toro-chats-with-torn-about-the-hobbit-films/. Retrieved on 2008-04-26. 
  17. Nicole Sperling (2008-08-19). "Peter Jackson, Fran Walsh, Philippa Boyens join Guillermo Del Toro penning 'The Hobbit'". Entertainment Weekly. http://hollywoodinsider.ew.com/2008/08/the-hobbit.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-20. 
  18. Michael Fleming (2008-09-03). "Guillermo Del Toro booked thru 2017". Variety. http://www.variety.com/article/VR1117991560.html?categoryid=13&cs=1. Retrieved on 2008-09-06. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 Max Evry (2008-10-05). "Guillermo del Toro on The Hobbit and Frankenstein". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/hobbitnews.php?id=49378. Retrieved on 2008-10-05. 
  20. Ryan Rotten (2008-11-12). "Guillermo del Toro Gives Hobbit Update". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=50460. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  21. 21.0 21.1 Guillermo del Toro (2008-11-16). "I promise to give you news". TheOneRing.net forums. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=149375;#149375. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Chris Hewitt (June 2009). "The Two Towers". Empire: pp. 137-140. 
  23. Carl Cortez (2008-07-09). "Guillermo del Toro escapes 'Labyrinth' and ends right back into 'Hellboy'". iF Magazine. http://www.ifmagazine.com/feature.asp?article=2879. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 "Del Toro talks ‘Hobbit’ in Live Chat". BilboHobbit.com. 2008-11-27. http://bilbohobbit.com/del-toro-talks-hobbit-in-live-chat/. Retrieved on 2008-11-29. 
  25. Stuart Levine (2008-07-07). "Exclusive: Guillermo del Toro on 'Hellboy II'". Premiere. http://www.premiere.com/features/4642/exclusive-guillermo-del-toro-on-hellboy-ii-page4.html. Retrieved on 2008-07-08. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 Joe Utichi (2008-07-11). "Guillermo del Toro - RT's Dinner and the Movies Interview". Rotten Tomatoes. http://uk.rottentomatoes.com/m/dinner_and_the_movies/news/1739826/guillermo_del_toro_rts_dinner_and_the_movies_interview. Retrieved on 2008-07-12. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 Shawn Adler (2008-07-02). "Guillermo Del Toro Answers 'Hobbit' Fans' Questions About Returning 'Rings' Cast, Religion And More". MTV.com. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1590278/story.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-07-02. 
  28. Shawn Adler (2008-07-02). "Director Guillermo Del Toro Answers Your ‘Hobbit’ Questions". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/07/02/director-guillermo-del-toro-answers-your-hobbit-questions/. Retrieved on 2008-07-02. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Shawn Adler (2008-04-28). "Guillermo Del Toro Addresses 'Hobbit' Fans' Concerns, Talks Possible Casting". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1586421/story.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-04-30. 
  30. "xoanon" (2008-10-20). "Del Toro Interview Part 2: “This is the hardest movie I’ll probably ever do!”". TheOneRing.net. http://www.theonering.net/torwp/2008/10/20/30314-del-toro-interview-part-2-this-is-the-hardest-movie-i%e2%80%99ll-probably-ever-do/. Retrieved on 2008-10-20. 
  31. 31.0 31.1 Josh Horowitz (2008-10-14). "Guillermo Del Toro Talks 'Hobbit' Casting, Creatures". MTV. http://www.mtv.com/movies/news/articles/1596909/story.jhtml. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. 
  32. Guillermo del Toro (2008-10-15). "“SVNT DRACONES”". John Howe's official website. http://www.john-howe.com/news/comments.php?id=P239_0_1_0_C. Retrieved on 2008-10-15. 
  33. Brendon Connelly (2009-06-11). "Guillermo Del Toro Confirms Hugo Weaving For The Hobbit… And Much More". /film. http://www.slashfilm.com/2009/06/11/guillermo-del-toro-confirms-hugo-weaving-for-the-hobbit-and-much-more/. Retrieved on 2009-06-11. 
  34. Shawn Adler (2008-10-08). "Guillermo Del Toro To Fly Solo On ‘Hobbit’ Directing Duties, Says No To Peter Jackson Assist". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/10/08/guillermo-del-toro-to-fly-solo-on-hobbit-directing-duties-says-no-to-peter-jackson-assist/. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 Patrick Kolan (2008-08-19). "Guillermo Talks The Hobbit's Effects". IGN. http://uk.movies.ign.com/articles/899/899973p1.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-27. 
  36. Guillermo del Toro (2008-11-08). "Hola". TheOneRing.net. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=147373;#147373. Retrieved on 2008-11-25. 
  37. "Hobbit, Crown, Panther News". IGN. 2006-11-14. http://movies.ign.com/articles/746/746019p1.html. Retrieved on 2007-08-17. 
  38. Eric Vespe (2008-10-08). "Quint and Peter Jackson talk THE HOBBIT and a potential return to low budget horror!!!". Ain't It Cool News. http://www.aintitcool.com/node/30085. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. 
  39. "News of the Week". Sci Fi Weekly. 2008-07-07. http://www.scifi.com/sfw/news/sfw_news_20080707.html. Retrieved on 2008-09-30. 
  40. Guillermo del Toro (2008-05-26). "2 centavos". TheOneRing.net forum. http://newboards.theonering.net/forum/gforum/perl/gforum.cgi?post=101653;guest=3666153#101653. Retrieved on 2008-10-01. 
  41. A.C. Ferrante (2008-11-12). "Guillermo del Toro updates about The Hobbit status". iF Magazine. http://www.ifmagazine.com/new.asp?article=7125. Retrieved on 2008-11-12. 
  42. Shawn Adler (2008-10-07). "‘Hobbit’ Films Will Be One ‘Continuous Journey,’ Promises Guillermo Del Toro". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2008/10/07/hobbit-films-will-be-one-continuous-journey-promises-guillermo-del-toro/. Retrieved on 2008-10-08. 
  43. Eric Ditzian (2009-06-05). "Guillermo Del Toro Rules Out Directing ‘Hobbit’ Bridge Film". MTV Movies Blog. http://moviesblog.mtv.com/2009/06/05/exclusive-guillermo-del-toro-rules-out-directing-hobbit-bridge-film/. Retrieved on 2009-06-08. 
  44. Glen Ferris (2008-06-04). "Christopher Lee On The Hobbit". Empire Online. http://www.empireonline.com/news/story.asp?NID=22681. Retrieved on 2008-06-04. 
  45. Elisabeth Rappe (2008-07-13). "Looks Like Christopher Lee Might Not Return to Middle-Earth". Cinematical. http://www.cinematical.com/2008/07/13/christopher-lee-wont-return-to-middle-earth/. Retrieved on 2008-07-14. 
  46. Ben Fritz (2009-03-12). "Lord of the Rings game rights now at Warner Bros.". Variety. http://weblogs.variety.com/the_cut_scene/2009/03/lord-of-the-rings-ga.html. Retrieved on 2009-03-14. 

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