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The King and I
Poster for the original Broadway production
Music Richard Rodgers
Lyrics Oscar Hammerstein II
Book Oscar Hammerstein II
Basis Novel by Margaret Landon
Anna and the King of Siam
Productions 1951 Broadway
1953 West End
1956 Film
1977 Broadway revival
1979 West End revival
1985 Broadway revival
1996 Broadway revival
1999 Animated film
2000 West End revival
2002 UK National Tour
2004 US National Tour
2007 Asian Tour
2009 London Concert
Awards 1952 Tony Award for Best Musical

1996 Tony Award for Best Revival

The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. The plot comes from the memoirs of Anna Leonowens, who became school teacher to the children of King Mongkut of Siam in the early 1860s. Leonowens' story, The English Governess at the Siamese Court, was autobiographical, although her biographer, Susan Morgan, author of the 2008 biography Bombay Anna has discovered numerous inaccuracies and fabrications.[1][2]

The musical opened on Broadway in 1951 and was the sixth collaboration for the team of Rodgers and Hammerstein. It ran for 1,246 performances, winning the Tony Award for Best Musical, among other awards. It spawned numerous revivals and a popular 1956 film version.



In 1950, Gertrude Lawrence's business manager and attorney Fanny Holtzmann was looking for a new property for her client when the 1944 Margaret Landon book Anna and the King of Siam was sent to her by the William Morris agent who represented Landon. He thought a stage adaptation of the book would be an ideal vehicle for the actress. Holtzmann agreed, but proposed a musical version would be better. Lawrence wanted Cole Porter to write the score, but when he proved to be unenthusiastic about the suggestion, Holtzmann sent the book to Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Rodgers initially demurred because he felt Lawrence's vocal range was limited and she had a tendency to sing flat. But he realized the story had strong potential, and the two men agreed to write what ultimately became The King and I.[3]

Initially Rex Harrison was suggested for the king, a role he had essayed in the 1946 film adaptation of Landon's book, but the actor was scheduled to appear in the T.S. Eliot play The Cocktail Party in Edinburgh and London. Holtzmann then contacted Noël Coward, who had no interest in committing himself to a long run in a musical written by someone other than himself. Rodgers favored Alfred Drake, but the actor was willing to sign only for six months.[4]

Pre-rehearsal preparations began in the autumn of 1950. Hammerstein had wanted Joshua Logan to direct and co-write the book, but when Logan declined Hammerstein decided to write the book himself and hired John van Druten, who had worked with Lawrence years earlier, to direct. The rest of the creative team included choreographer Jerome Robbins, set and lighting designer Jo Mielziner, and costume designer Irene Sharaff. Auditions for the role of the king were scheduled, and the first candidate to walk on stage was Yul Brynner, who had appeared with Mary Martin in Lute Song and presently was hosting a weekly variety show for CBS. The producers were impressed with his authoritative stage presence and reading, and immediately offered him the role.[5]

The show, budgeted at $360,000, was the most expensive Rodgers and Hammerstein production to date. 20th Century Fox, which owned the film rights, contributed $40,000, and additional investors included Josh Logan, Mary Martin, Billy Rose, and Leland Hayward. Early in rehearsals, Lawrence realized the score was more complex than any she had sung in the past, and she feared she had taken on more than she could manage. Rodgers had composed her songs with her limited vocal range in mind, but she remained on edge and difficult to handle.[6]

When the pre-Broadway tour opened in New Haven on February 27, 1951, the show was nearly four hours long. Lawrence, suffering from laryngitis, had missed the dress rehearsal, but managed to make it through the first public performance. The Variety critic noted that despite her recent illness she "slinks, acts, cavorts, and in general exhibits exceedingly well her several facets for entertaining," but the Philadelphia Bulletin review observed her "already thin voice is now starting to wear a great deal thinner." [7]

The production moved on to Boston, where reviews were mediocre. Lawrence felt one of the first act's problems was the lengthy delay between her first and second musical numbers. Rodgers agreed she needed another song earlier in the act, and remembered a number originally written for Lieut. Joe Cable to sing to Liat in South Pacific that had been replaced by "Younger Than Springtime" before the show opened. He realized the lyrics were perfect for Anna to sing to her Siamese charges when she first meets them, and "Getting to Know You" was added to the score. Also in Boston, the dance sequence for "Shall We Dance?" was expanded in response to positive audience reaction to the segment.[8]

By the Broadway opening, all components of the musical had fallen into place, and the reviews were excellent. Brooks Atkinson called it "an original and beautiful excursion into the rich splendors of the Far East," while Richard Watts described it as "a show of a thousand delights with the magic of Gertrude Lawrence and a remarkably believable performance by Yul Brynner." The raves lifted Lawrence's spirits, and she prepared herself for a lengthy run as Anna, first on Broadway, then in the West End, and finally on film.[9]

The actress, however, was unaware she was dying from liver cancer, and her weakened condition was exacerbated by the demands of her role. At the age of 52, she was required to wear dresses weighing 75 pounds while walking or dancing a total of four miles during a 3½ hour performance eight times a week. Her weight dropped to 110 pounds, and she couldn't bear the heat in the theater during the summer months. Understudy Constance Carpenter began replacing her in matinee performances. In the fall, Lawrence's strength returned, and she resumed her full schedule, but by Christmas she was battling pleurisy and suffering from exhaustion and entered the hospital for a full week of tests. Just nine months before her death, the cancer still was not detected. In February 1952, bronchitis felled her for another week, and Lawrence's husband Richard Aldrich asked Rodgers and Hammerstein if they would consider closing the show Easter week to allow her an opportunity to recover fully. They denied his request, but agreed to replace her with Celeste Holm for six weeks during the summer. In the meanwhile, Lawrence's performances were becoming increasingly worse, prompting audiences to become audibly restive, and Rodgers and Hammerstein to prepare a letter, ultimately never delivered, advising her "eight times a week you are losing the respect of 1,500 people." [10]

In late August, Lawrence fainted following a matinee and was admitted to New York Hospital, where doctors diagnosed her as suffering from hepatitis. Her former son-in-law, Dr. Bill Cahan, suspected liver cancer might be a more accurate diagnosis, and early on the morning of September 6 doctors performed a biopsy of her liver. Lawrence slipped into a coma and died later that day. A subsequent autopsy revealed Cahan's suggestion of cancer had been correct. On the day of her funeral, The King and I cancelled its performance.[11] Carpenter permanently assumed the role of Anna and went on to play it for 620 performances.[12]


In Bangkok, Siam (which would later come to be known as Thailand), in 1862 a strong-willed, widowed schoolteacher, Anna Leonowens, arrives at the request of the King of Siam to tutor his many children. Anna’s young son, Louis, fears the severe countenance of the King’s “Prime Minister” the Kralahome, but Anna refuses to be intimidated ("Whistle A Happy Tune"), and even speaks to the Kralahome rather insultingly. The Kralahome escorts them to the palace; he rides on a carried chair, while Anna and her son follow on foot behind him. Anna is bristling to confront the King about his broken promise regarding a house for Louis and herself outside of the palace walls. As they await an audience, the King receives a gift from the king of Burma, a lovely girl named Tuptim, who is to become one of his wives. The King sends her off to join his other wives, dismissing the young man who delivered the gift, Lun Tha. It is made obvious that Lun Tha and Tuptim are in love. The King turns to go, but Anna marches up to him, demanding to be heard. She is taken aback by the King’s dominance, as he claps his hands and orders her to “stand here” to meet the royal children. Anna plans to depart on the waiting ship if she does not get what has been promised to her, but she is so taken with the children that she decides she will stay. But she announces that she will pursue the topic of the house later.

Over the next few weeks, Anna proceeds to teach the children songs, proverbs, and poems all having to do with how important it is to have your own house, in an attempt to remind the King of his promise. The King recognizes her subterfuge and refuses to supply the house. The handful of wives who also have been allowed to partake of Anna’s teaching continually refer to Anna as “Sir”. When she asks them why, Lady Thiang, the King’s number one wife, explains “because you scientific, not lowly like woman.” Tuptim reveals her secret love for Lun Tha to Anna, and Anna reminisces about her deceased husband, Tom ("Hello, Young Lovers").

The King is quite pleased with Anna’s teaching. His eldest son Prince Chulalongkorn has some concerns, however. The young prince asks his father when he will know he knows everything and thus be ready to rule. The King gives him hope, but when he is alone, reveals that he himself is troubled; he does not know how best to rule ("A Puzzlement"). In the meantime, Anna tells the children that she has grown to like them ("Getting To Know You"). Then she launches into a new lesson — geography — having just received a more accurate map from England. The new map shows Siam in its proper size in relation to other countries. She has to end her lesson prematurely, though, when Prince Chulalongkorn refuses to believe that Siam is so small and that there is such a substance as snow. His father rescues Anna by ordering the children to believe her.

The Kralahome demands that Anna cease encouraging the King to modernize; he foresees danger ahead because he thinks that the King will not be able to lead effectively if he loses his authoritarian style. When Anna disregards this warning, the Kralahome retorts by predicting she’ll become the King’s slave. As if to confirm this, the King sends for Anna in the middle of the night and demands that she take a letter. During this menial task, to which Anna submits because she is charmed by the King’s desire to write to Abraham Lincoln, a man whom she admires, the King extracts from Anna the promise that she will conform to the tradition of never letting her head be higher than the King’s. In spite of her scientific and liberal beliefs, Anna promises to comply.

During another confrontation between Anna and the King, he finally articulates the phrase that Anna least wants to hear, “You are my servant!” Now Anna can no longer pretend to herself that she has not submitted to the King’s will, and she threatens to leave, saying “I cannot stay in a country where a promise has no meaning.” Anna is awaiting the next available ship when Lady Thiang comes to seek Anna’s help in advising the King on a new matter of great urgency. Anna initially refuses, but Lady Thiang describes her own experiences with the King—she acknowledges that he does not always behave in an acceptable manner, but he can be very generous, which makes her keep loving him ("Something Wonderful"). Anna is moved, and decides to stay.

Anna agrees to go to the King and to protect his male ego by acting as though she is not there to help him. The problem is that rumors have reached Queen Victoria that the King of Siam is a barbarian. If that is the case, or even if the perception is generally accepted, then the Queen will have little trouble making Siam a protectorate. The King cleverly demands that Anna “guess” what he should do, thus opening the door for her to give him some much-needed advice. She guesses that he will entertain the British Ambassador and the prominent British citizens of Bangkok with a banquet, to demonstrate his civility. The King is elated and he rushes all of his women, Anna included, off to the Buddhist in order to pray for success. Amid his wishes and demands that Anna carry out an inordinate number of tasks in one week, he at last promises to give Anna her house.

The European style dinner and entertainment have the desired effect. Tuptim has written a play for the entertainment of the notables, an Asian-style version of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s 1852 novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, a book given to her by Anna. The guests find the King witty, love Tuptim’s play, and toast the continued sovereignty of Siam. The King has won. However, he is disturbed by the note of rebellion and disrespect which he and Anna have detected in Tuptim’s play. The cruel Simon of Legree, whom Tuptim has transformed into a King rather than the plantation owner he was in Stowe’s novel, drowns in the pursuit of the escaped slave Eliza. The King knows that Tuptim is unhappy in his court and resents her disrespectful play. Tuptim herself obviously knows she has overstepped the mark, as we learn later that she has disappeared. The King initiates a search of the palace so that he may reprimand her, but it turns out that she has fled with Lun Tha. As the guards continue their search, the King and Anna celebrate their victory by dancing a polka together ("Shall We Dance?"). They are abruptly interrupted by the guards carrying a screaming Tuptim. The King furiously prepares to beat her himself, but Anna appeals to him to contain his anger and refuses to leave the room. The King cannot bring himself to whip the girl in front of Anna and runs offstage. The Kralahome snarls at Anna that she has destroyed the King. At this painful moment more bad news arrives—the guards have found Lun Tha’s drowned body in the river.

Once again Anna is awaiting the arrival of a ship to take her home to England. Lady Thiang once again arrives to plead with Anna to overcome her pride and visit the King. This time the situation is more grave; he is dying, having refused nourishment for many weeks. Lady Thiang hands Anna a letter that the King has managed to write her. In it he declares his admiration for Anna, who has been “much trouble” but who has affected him greatly. She runs to his side.

The children are brought in to their father. One child recites a letter to Anna begging her not to leave. Anna decides to send Louis to the ship to retrieve their luggage—she will stay after all.

Young Prince Chulalongkorn fears being made King before he is ready. The dying King asks him what he would do first as a ruler. As the prince explains his proclamation abolishing the traditional kowtow, an idea clearly influenced by Anna, the King dies. Anna reverently kisses the hand of the dead king.

Song list

Act I
  • Overture — Orchestra
  • I Whistle a Happy Tune — Anna and Louis
  • My Lord and Master — Tuptim
  • Hello, Young Lovers — Anna
  • The March of the Siamese Children — Orchestra
  • Scene Before Curtain (Home Sweet Home) — Priests and Children
  • A Puzzlement — King
  • The Royal Bangkok Academy — Anna, Wives, and Children
  • Getting to Know You — Anna, Wives, and Children
  • We Kiss in a Shadow — Tuptim and Lun Tha
  • A Puzzlement (Reprise) — Louis and Prince Chululongkorn(Calum Macdonald)
  • Shall I Tell You What I Think of You? — Anna
  • Something Wonderful — Lady Thiang
  • Something Wonderful (Reprise) — Lady Thiang
  • Buddist Prayer/Act I finale — The King & Company
Act II
  • Entr'acte — Orchestra
  • Western People Funny — Lady Thiang and Wives
  • I Have Dreamed — Tuptim and Lun Tha
  • Hello, Young Lovers (Reprise) — Anna
  • The Small House of Uncle Thomas (Ballet) — Tuptim and Wives
  • Song of the King — King
  • Shall We Dance? — Anna and the King
  • I Whistle a Happy Tune (Reprise) — Anna

Musical analysis

The best-known songs from the musical are probably "I Whistle a Happy Tune," "Getting to Know You," "Hello, Young Lovers," and "Shall We Dance?" The most colorful number in the musical, visually (to Western audiences), is the ballet "Small House of Uncle Thomas," choreographed by Jerome Robbins.[13]

Rodgers and Hammerstein knew they were writing for stars — Gertrude Lawrence and Yul Brynner, the original Broadway leads — who were primarily actors rather than singers. Therefore, they reserved the sweeping, more challenging melodies for the characters of Tuptim and Lun Tha and kept the songs sung by the other leads simple.

Mary Martin, who had starred in South Pacific by Rodgers and Hammerstein a few years previously, was an investor in The King and I. When Gertrude Lawrence wanted to have a song with the children, Martin suggested that Rodgers and Hammerstein write new lyrics for "Suddenly Lovely," which had been cut out from South Pacific. The song then became "Getting to Know You." [14]


Original Broadway production

The musical opened on Broadway at the St. James Theatre on March 29, 1951. It ran for 1,246 performances and starred Yul Brynner as The King and Gertrude Lawrence as Anna. Both won Tony Awards for their performances. The production was also awarded the Tony Awards for Best Set and Costume design. Lawrence died the year after The King and I opened on Broadway at age 54.

Original London production

The show opened at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane in London's West End on October 8, 1953, with Valerie Hobson as Anna and Herbert Lom as the King.Martin Benson was the Kralaholme , and Muriel Smith portrayed Lady Thiang. The show ran for 926 performances.[15]

New York City Center revivals

The first revival of The King and I in New York was presented by the New York City Center Light Opera Company in April 1956 for three weeks, starring Jan Clayton and Zachary Scott, directed by John Fearnley with choreography by Jerome Robbins restaged by June Graham.[16] This company presented the musical again in May 1960 with Barbara Cook and Farley Granger, again directed by John Fearnley, in a limited engagement of three weeks (which had been extended from the original two weeks), or 23 performances.[17] The company presented the show in June 1963 with Eileen Brennan and Manolo Fabregas and directed by Fearnley.[18] [19] Michael Kermoyan played the King with Constance Towers in the City Center Light Opera production for three weeks in May 1968.[20]

Lincoln Center

The Music Theatre of Lincoln Center, with Rodgers as producer, presented the musical in July 1964 at the New York State Theatre with Rise Stevens and Darren McGavin, with Lee Venora as Tuptim and Michael Kermoyan as Kralahome. The director was Edward Greenberg with the Robbins choreography reproduced by Yuriko. This was the first production of the newly-formed Music Theatre, with a limited engagement of five weeks.[21] [22] [23]

1977 Broadway revival

Yul Brynner starred as The King in this production, and Constance Towers played Anna. Towers had previously performed in both The Sound of Music and Carousel, both by Rodgers and Hammerstein. Yuriko directed while June Angela played the role of Tuptim and Martin Vidnovic played Lun Tha. This presentation opened at the Uris Theatre (now the Gershwin Theatre) in May 1977. Brynner stated that he felt more comfortable as The King in this production, explaining that he was far too young for the role in the original production. He played the part over 4000 times in the course of his life. When Towers left the production, Angela Lansbury took over the role, and was nominated for a Drama Desk Award for her performance. The revival ran for 695 performances.

1979 London revival

The London Palladium played host to a new production of The King and I starring Brynner again and Virginia McKenna as Anna. Chitty Chitty Bang Bang star Sally Ann Howes took over the role of Anna later in the run.

1985 Broadway revival

Brynner appeared once more as The King, in this revival which opened at The Broadway Theatre on January 7, 1985 with Mary Beth Peil as Anna. The production was directed by Mitch Leigh and was nominated for two Tony Awards. Yul Brynner received a Tony Special Award "honoring his 4,525 performances in The King and I. It ran for 191 performances.

1996 Broadway revival

A new production of the show opened on Broadway on April 11, 1996 at the Neil Simon Theatre. It starred Lou Diamond Phillips as The King, Donna Murphy as Anna, Randall Duk Kim as Kralaholme, Jose Llana as Lun Tha, Joohee Choi as Tuptim and Taewon Kim as Lady Thiang. The production was directed by Christopher Renshaw and ran for 780 performances. It won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Musical and was nominated for eight Tony Awards winning four including Best Revival of a Musical, Best Leading Actress in a Musical (for Murphy) and Best Direction of a Musical (for Renshaw). This production was notable for having both the book and score of the show revised and adapted. Marie Osmond played the role of Anna later in the run.

2000 London revival

A production based on the 1996 Broadway revival opened on May 3, 2000 at the London Palladium. The cast included Elaine Paige (and subsequently Josie Lawrence) as Anna and Jason Scott Lee (and later Paul Nakauchi and Keo Woolford) as The King. This production was extremely well received and before the opening, the box office had already taken in excess of £7 million in ticket sales. The production closed on January 5, 2002 to make way for the musical Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. [24] The show went on tour in 2002 and 2003, with Marti Webb and Stefanie Powers as Anna.

2007 Asian tour

The musical made its Asia premiere in Shenzhen, China, on April 25, 2007. The tour continued to Hangzhou, China, as well as to Seoul, Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. The production starred Paul Nakauchi, formerly of the 2000 London revival production, as the King and Brianna Borger as Anna.

2009 London Revival

A fully-staged arena production, in-the-round, was performed at Royal Albert Hall in June 2009. The production was directed by Jeremy Sams and starred Lost actor Daniel Dae Kim as The King and Maria Friedman as Anna.[25]

Film and television versions

1956 film version

The musical was filmed in 1956 with Brynner re-creating his role opposite Deborah Kerr. The film won 5 Academy Awards and was nominated for four more. Brynner won an Oscar as Best Actor for his portrayal, and Kerr was nominated as Best Actress. The film also won for best music.

1999 Animated version

RichCrest Animation Studios released a new, animated adaptation of the musical in 1999. However, except for using some of the songs, the story was unrelated to the Rodgers and Hammerstein version.

Other film and television versions

A short-lived television series entitled Anna and the King was created in 1972, giving credit to Margaret Landon for the creation. Yul Brynner reprised his role in the series as the King while Samantha Eggar played Anna Leonowens (renamed Anna Owen; and in this version, Anna and her son Louis are depicted as American, rather than British).

There are two non-musical films based upon Anna Leonowens' story. In 1946, Rex Harrison and Irene Dunne starred in the film Anna and the King of Siam. In 1999, 20th Century Fox released another film entitled Anna and the King. This version starred Jodie Foster and Chow Yun-Fat.


There are numerous recordings of the musical available: the original Broadway and London cast recordings; the film soundtrack; the 1965 cast recording, the 1977 Broadway cast recording; the 1996 Broadway and 2000 London revival cast recordings; the 1992 Studio cast recording with Julie Andrews, Ben Kingsley and Lea Salonga.[26]

Reaction in Thailand

Most Thai were shocked by the portrayal of their revered nineteenth-century king, Mongkut, in the musical The King and I, due to historical inaccuracies. The stage and screen versions were based on Margaret Landon's 1944 book Anna and the King of Siam. To correct the record, well-known Thai intellectuals Seni and Kukrit Pramoj wrote the account The King of Siam Speaks in 1948. The Pramoj brothers sent their manuscript to the American politician and diplomat Abbot Low Moffat,[27] who drew on it for his biography Mongkut the King of Siam (1961). Moffat donated the Pramoj manuscript to the U.S. Library of Congress in 1961.[28]


  1. ^ "A Fresh Look at Anna Leonowens", ReviewOhio University, August 12, 2008
  2. ^ "Review:Bombay Anna "University of California Press, accessed January 31, 2010
  3. ^ Morley, Sheridan, Gertrude Lawrence. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill 1981. ISBN 0-07-043149-3 pp. 185-86
  4. ^ Morley, p. 188
  5. ^ Morley, pp. 188-89
  6. ^ Morley, p. 190
  7. ^ Morley, p. 191
  8. ^ Morley, p. 192
  9. ^ Morley, p. 193
  10. ^ Morley, pp. 191-96
  11. ^ Morley, pp. 197-98
  12. ^ "Constance Carpenter obituary",The New York Times, January 1, 1993
  13. ^ "The King and I: Notes on the Music" from
  14. ^ Playbill Happy Talk 18 Dec 1995
  15. ^
  16. ^ Atkinson, Brooks. "Theatre:'The King and I' in Fine Revival", The New York Times, April 19, 1956, p. 34
  17. ^ Atkinson, Brooks. "'The King and I':City Center Lengthens Current Engagement", The New York Times, May 22, 1960. p. X1
  18. ^ Funke, Lewis, "Theater: 'The King And I'; Eileen Brennan Stars at City Center", The New York Times, June 13, 1963, p. 28
  19. ^ Hischak, p. 150
  20. ^ (no author), "Entertainment Events: Theater:Opening Tonight", The New York Times, May 23, 1968, p. 56
  21. ^ Taubman, Howard, "Theater: 'The King and I' in New Surroundings; Lincoln Center Musical Troupe Makes Debut Rise Stevens Is Starred With Darren McGavin", The New York Times, July 7, 1964, p. 26
  22. ^ Hischak, p. 150
  23. ^ Suskin, Steven."On the Record"Rodgers & Hammerstein's The King and I and Flower Drum Song", August 16, 2009
  24. ^ "The King and I archives, London Palladium", retrieved March 7, 2010
  25. ^ Shenton, Mark."Lost Star Daniel Dae Kim and Maria Friedman to Head Royal Albert Hall King and I",, December 11, 2008
  26. ^ Kenrick, John."Comparative CD Reviews:Part III. The King and I", (Copyright 1998-2003), retrieved March 7, 2010
  27. ^ Finding Aid for the Abbot Low Moffat papers, 1929-1943 (APAP-063). Bonita L. Weddle, compiler, January 31, 2000. M. E. Grenander Department of Special Collections & Archives, University Libraries, University at Albany, State University of New York.
  28. ^ Southeast Asian Collection, Asian Division, Library of Congress


  • Hischak, Thomas S. The Rodgers and Hammerstein Encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007, ISBN 0313341400
  • Morgan, Susan. Bombay Anna: The Real Story and Remarkable Adventures of the King and I Governess, University of California Press, 2008, ISBN 978-0-520-25226-4

External links


Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

The King and I is a 1999 animated film.


"But I do not know how to be a king!" - Prince Chulalongkorn

"The lover. . .he is dead" - the Interpreter

"It's a puzzlement!" - The King

"A woman was made to please man. A man was made for woman to please." - The King

"No! It is a false lie!" - The King

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