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Nile
River
The Nile in Egypt
Name origin: "Nile"(Arabic: 'nīl) comes from the Greek word Neilos (Νεῖλος)
Countries  Ethiopia,  Sudan,  Egypt,  Uganda,  Democratic Republic of the Congo
Cities JinjaUganda, JubaSouthern Sudan, KhartoumSudan, CairoEgypt
Primary source White Nile
 - elevation 2,700 m (8,858 ft)
 - coordinates 2°16′55.92″S 29°19′52.32″E / 2.2822°S 29.3312°E / -2.2822; 29.3312
Secondary source Blue Nile
 - location Lake Tana, Ethiopia
 - coordinates 12°2′8.8″N 37°15′53.11″E / 12.035778°N 37.2647528°E / 12.035778; 37.2647528
Source confluence near Khartoum
Mouth
 - location Mediterranean Sea
 - elevation m (0 ft)
Length 6,650 km (4,132 mi)
Width km (5 mi)
Basin 3,400,000 km2 (1,312,747 sq mi)
Discharge
 - average 2,830 m3/s (99,941 cu ft/s)
.The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, an-nīl, Ancient Egyptian iteru or Ḥ'pī, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world.^ The Nile , longest river in the world, located in northeastern Africa .

^ VIDEO An overview of the importance of the Nile River to the development of North Africa.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Nile River, longest river in the world, located in northeastern Africa.

[1]
.The Nile has two major tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile, the latter being the source of most of the Nile's water and fertile soil, but the former being the longer of the two.^ While the White Nile at Khartoum is a river of almost constant volume, the Blue Nile has a pronounced flood season (late July to October) caused by the summer monsoon rains over the Ethiopian Plateau and the rapid runoff from its numerous tributaries; historically, it was this surge that contributed most to the annual Nile floods in Egypt.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The Blue Nile and White Nile meet in Khartoum; and the other side of Khartoum is the Omdurman Republic of Sudan.
  • The Nile Valley Civilization and the Spread of African Culture 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.africawithin.com [Source type: Original source]

.The White Nile rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source in southern Rwanda at 2°16′55.92″S 29°19′52.32″E / 2.2822°S 29.3312°E / -2.2822; 29.3312, and flows north from there through Tanzania, Lake Victoria, Uganda and southern Sudan, while the Blue Nile starts at Lake Tana in Ethiopia at 12°2′8.8″N 37°15′53.11″E / 12.035778°N 37.2647528°E / 12.035778; 37.2647528, flowing into Sudan from the southeast.^ The White and Blue Niles converge in Khartoum, in Sudan, and from there flow north to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • BLUE NILE 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The White Nile's flow is tempered by the natural perennial storage of the Great Lakes, of which Lake Victoria is the most important.
  • BLUE NILE 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From there it flows from the south down north.
  • The Nile Valley Civilization and the Spread of African Culture 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.africawithin.com [Source type: Original source]

.The two rivers meet near the Sudanese capital of Khartoum.^ In the fork of the two rivers stands Khartum ,' the capital of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan , whilst on the western bank of the White Nile is Omdurman , the former Mandist capital.

.The northern section of the river flows almost entirely through desert, from Sudan into Egypt, a country whose civilization has depended on the river since ancient times.^ An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Gondokoro the Nile is clear of the hill country, and enters a vast swamp-like expanse through which it flows with a very low slope and a very tortuous channel.

.Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, and nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along the banks of the river.^ Most infected birds were found in river valleys in the eastern part of the state.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Throughout your Nile River Cruise you will be accompanied by a knowledgeable tour guide who will provide in-depth insights and a comprehensive understanding of the ancient Egypt Kingdoms.

^ In pre-historic times, primeval forests covered the river banks when the river nile was a vast swamp composed of rushes, papyrus, and weeds.

.The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea.^ The White and Blue Niles converge in Khartoum, in Sudan, and from there flow north to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • BLUE NILE 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this junction-point the Niles flows North through Nubia and Egypt 1,900 miles and empties into the Mediterranean Sea, in latitude 32 degree North, through 2 mouths, the Rosetta, East of Alexandria, and the Damietta, West of Port Said.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the delta the Nile separates into two channels, the Rosetta and the Damietta , which join the Mediterranean at its south-east angle.

Contents

Etymology of the word Nile

Iteru.png
The word "Nile" comes from Greek Neilos (Νεῖλος), of unknown derivation. .In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or iteru, meaning "great river", represented by the hieroglyphs shown on the right (literally itrw, and 'waters' determinative).^ This treaty does not only bind Sudan to Egypts approval before undertaking any irrigation project, but also gave Egypt rights in the use of Lake Victoria and other water bodies around the river Nile.
  • The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI); Business as usual 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC nilebasin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The valley of the river is here very narrow, and the desert land in places comes right to the water's edge.

^ History of Astronomy - Me Pedia The Egyptians also used the rising of the star Sirius in the pre-dawn sky to mark the time when the Nile River could be expected to flood.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[2] In Coptic, the words piaro (Sahidic) or phiaro (Bohairic) meaning "the river" (lit. p(h).iar-o "the.canal-great") come from the same ancient name.

Tributaries and distributaries

Nile seen from Spot Satellite
East Africa, showing the course of the Nile River, with the Blue and White Niles marked in those colours
The Nile makes its way through the Sahara
Composite satellite image of the White Nile.
.The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometres (1,256,591 sq mi), about 10% of the area of Africa.^ It covers an area of about 300 square miles.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Are storm water catch basins significant breeding areas for West Nile virus mosquito vectors?
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who should wild game hunters contact for information about the risk for West Nile virus infection in specific geographic areas?
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3]
.There are two great tributaries of the Nile, joining at Khartoum: the White Nile, starting in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile, beginning in Ethiopia.^ It begins at Malakāl and joins the Blue Nile at Khartoum, receiving no tributaries of importance.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blue Nile upstream of Khartoum .
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the White Nile at Khartoum is a river of almost constant volume, the Blue Nile has a pronounced flood season (late July to October) caused by the summer monsoon rains over the Ethiopian Plateau and the rapid runoff from its numerous tributaries; historically, it was this surge that contributed most to the annual Nile floods in Egypt.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift, the southern part of the Great Rift Valley.^ It pointed out that the Western Rift Valley has a potential for 450 MW (Geothermal) compared to 250 MW proposed by Bujagali.
  • The Nile Basin Initiative (NBI); Business as usual 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC nilebasin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Below the Blue and White Nile confluence the only remaining major tributary is the Atbara River, which originates in Ethiopia north of Lake Tana, and is around 800 kilometres (500 mi) long.^ The river originates from two distinct geographical zones, the basins of the White and Blue Niles.
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^ White Nile itself, which is only about 800 cub.

^ The Blue Nile originates in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eretria, as do the other major tributaries of the Nile, the Atbara and the Sobat.
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.During the dry period of January to June, there is typically no flow from the Atbara River.^ And there it meets with the Atbara River in Atbara, Sudan.
  • The Nile Valley Civilization and the Spread of African Culture 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.africawithin.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Atbara River , the last tributary of the Nile, flows into the mainstream nearly 200 miles north of Khartoum.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Atbara contributes more than 10 percent of the total annual flow of the Nile, but almost all of this comes in the period of July to October.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It flows only while there is rain in Ethiopia and dries very rapidly. It joins the Nile approximately 300 kilometres (200 mi) north of Khartoum.
The Nile is unusual in that its last tributary (the Atbara) joins it roughly halfway to the sea. .From that point north, the Nile diminishes because of evaporation.^ Turning north-westward from this point the Nile basin crosses the mountainous region of Mfumbiro and includes that of Ruwenzori .

The course of the Nile in Sudan is distinctive. .It flows over six groups of cataracts, from the first at Aswan to the sixth at Sabaloka (just north of Khartoum) and then turns to flow southward for a good portion of its course, before again returning to flow north to the sea.^ The Atbara River , the last tributary of the Nile, flows into the mainstream nearly 200 miles north of Khartoum.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From the First Cataract, at Syene, the river flows smoothly at the rate of two or three miles an hour with a width of half a mile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Nyavarongo first flows north to about 1 ° 40' S., then turning in a sharp bend east and south, and on again reaching 2° 20' S., unites with the Akanyaru just west of 30° E. The Akanyaru, which comes from the southwest, has been sometimes considered the larger stream, but according to Dr Richard Kandt it carries decidedly less water, while its course is shorter than that of the Nyavarongo.

This is called the "Great Bend of the Nile".
.North of Cairo, the Nile splits into two branches (or distributaries) that feed the Mediterranean: the Rosetta Branch to the west and the Damietta to the east, forming the Nile Delta.^ At the beginning of the delta the Nile separates into two channels, the Rosetta and the Damietta , which join the Mediterranean at its south-east angle.

^ Of the two branches the Damietta is the more easterly.

^ A little north of Cairo it divides into two branches, one flowing to Rosetta and the other to Damietta, from which place the mouths are named.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Nile basin is complex, and because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions, evaporation and evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow.^ National Uses of Water Resources An estimated 246 million people live in the Nile River basin, half of whom are dependant on the Nile waters for survival.
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^ The Ethiopian statement points out that Egypt went ahead and built the Aswan Dam which has to depend on the Blue Nile waters, 'without even consulting Ethiopia.'"
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^ Turning north-westward from this point the Nile basin crosses the mountainous region of Mfumbiro and includes that of Ruwenzori .

White Nile

.The source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake itself has feeder rivers of considerable size.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eratosthenes was the first writer to hint at equatorial lakes as the sources of the river.

.The most distant stream—and thus the ultimate source of the Nile—emerges from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda, via the Rukarara, Mwogo, Nyabarongo and Kagera rivers, before flowing into Lake Victoria in Tanzania near the town of Bukoba.^ It is thought that approximately 30 million years ago the early Nile, then a much shorter stream, had its sources about latitude 18° to 20° N. Its main headstream may then have been the present Atbara River.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Atbara River , the last tributary of the Nile, flows into the mainstream nearly 200 miles north of Khartoum.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The river flows in a wide channel between broad swamps bordered by a belt of forest on either bank.

.The Nile leaves Lake Victoria at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda, as the Victoria Nile.^ The only outlet of Lake Victoria is at Ripon Falls (Owen Falls Dam) in Uganda.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other upstream riparians, Kenya and Tanzania, plan to use Lake Victoria on the White Nile for irrigation.
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.It flows for approximately 500 kilometres (300 mi) farther, through Lake Kyoga, until it reaches Lake Albert.^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combined waters of the Semliki and the Victoria Nile leave Lake Albert at the northern end and become the Albert Nile, which then flows into Sudan.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lake also receives water from the Semliki River, which originates in the Mufumbiru mountains in Zaire and flows through Lake Edward to Lake Albert.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In this manner the identity of the Victoria Nile with the river which issued from the Albert Nyanza was definitely established.

^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

.It then flows into Sudan, where it is known as the Bahr al Jabal ("River of the Mountain").^ The Mereb-Gash basin has mainly spate flows and its water reaches the Atbara River in Sudan only during extremely high floods.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

^ The combined waters of the Semliki and the Victoria Nile leave Lake Albert at the northern end and become the Albert Nile, which then flows into Sudan.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometres (445 mi) long, joins the Bahr al Jabal at a small lagoon called Lake No, after which the Nile becomes known as the Bahr al Abyad, or the White Nile, from the whitish clay suspended in its waters.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Less than half of the water entering the Sudd region flows out of it into the White Nile.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When the Nile flooded it left a rich silty deposit which fertilised the soil. .The Nile no longer floods annually since the completion of the Aswan Dam in 1970. From Lake No, the river flows to Khartoum.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ British administration led to the co-ordinated construction of dams and barrages throughout the length of the Nile, from the great lakes to points close to the river's two mouths at Rosetta and Damietta.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This morning's visits include Aswan's High Dam, which controls the Nile and is a major source of hydroelectric power in Egypt.
  • Pyramids & Nile Cruise - Discount Travel Vacation Packages By Friendly Planet 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.friendlyplanet.com [Source type: General]

.An anabranch river, the Bahr el Zeraf, flows out of the Nile's Bahr al Jabal section and rejoins the White Nile.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The right branch, or Bahr-el-Zeraf (Giraffe river), has a more easterly direction, and does not rejoin the main river until 50 in.

^ Less than half of the water entering the Sudd region flows out of it into the White Nile.
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.The term "White Nile" is used in both a general sense, referring to the entire river above Khartoum, and in a limited sense, describing the section between Lake No and Khartoum.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

^ The modern Egyptians commonly call the river El- Bahr , " the sea," a term also applied to the largest rivers, and the inundation " the Nile," En-Nil; and the modern Arabs call the river Bahr-en-Nil, " the river Nile."

.The flow rate of the Albert Nile at Mongalla is almost constant throughout the year and averages 1,048 m3/s (37,000 cu ft/s).^ Then begins the Victoria Nile which flows through Lake Kyoga into Lake Albert, also called Lake Mobutu Sesse Seko.
  • The Nile Basin 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.fao.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Blue Nile, or Abai as it is called in Abyssinia, rises in the Gojam highlands in 11 ° N. and 37° E., and flowing northwards 70 m.

^ The main natural channels flow through a swamp area waterlogged throughout the year, and are then flanked by grasslands flooded at high river and exposed when the river level drops.
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.After Mongalla, the Nile is known as the Bahr El Jebel, which enters the enormous swamps of the Sudd region of Sudan.^ Entering Sudan, the Albert Nile becomes the Bahr el Jebel.
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^ Less than half of the water entering the Sudd region flows out of it into the White Nile.
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^ Here, in a tropical region perennially watered by rain, is a wilderness of swamps known as the Sudd, in which the river loses half its waters.
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.More than half of the Nile's water is lost in this swamp to evaporation and transpiration.^ When the Nile below the swamps is at its lowest, the water acquires a green colour and a putrid taste and smell .

^ More than 99% of the animal cases of West Nile virus infection have been detected in horses.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ West Nile virus has been detected in more than 100 kinds of birds and many mammals, including horses, dogs, and cats.
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.The average flow rate in the Bahr El Jebel at the tails of the swamps is about 510 m3/s (18,000 cu ft/s).^ Entering Sudan, the Albert Nile becomes the Bahr el Jebel.
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^ It flows into the Sudd region, the great wetlands which are a maze of channels, lakes and swamps in southern Sudan, and which also receive water from the Bahr el Gazal River, originating in south-west Sudan.
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.From here it soon meets with the Sobat River and forms the White Nile.^ The Blue Nile pours out of Lake Tana, in the Ethiopian highlands, and passes over a series of cataracts and rapids to join the main stream of the river, the White Nile, at Khartoum.
  • The Nile River - History and Facts 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It is the colour of the Sobat water which gives its name to the White Nile.

^ This seems to be more explicitly the case for the White Nile River system.
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.The Bahr al Ghazal and the Sobat River are the two most important tributaries of the White Nile in terms of drainage area and discharge.^ The modern Egyptians commonly call the river El- Bahr , " the sea," a term also applied to the largest rivers, and the inundation " the Nile," En-Nil; and the modern Arabs call the river Bahr-en-Nil, " the river Nile."

^ Ripon Falls, in 15° 37' N., the White Nile is joined by its greatest eastern confluent the Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile.

^ Nero despatched two centurions on an expedition for the express purpose of exploring the Nile, and Seneca states that they reached a marshy impassable region, which may be easily identified with the country of the White Nile above the mouth of the Sobat.

.The Bahr al Ghazal's drainage basin is the largest of any of the Nile's sub-basins, measuring 520,000 square kilometres (200,000 sq mi) in size, but it contributes a relatively small amount of water, about 2 m3/s (71 cu ft/s) annually, due to tremendous volumes of water being lost in the Sudd wetlands.^ The modern Egyptians commonly call the river El- Bahr , " the sea," a term also applied to the largest rivers, and the inundation " the Nile," En-Nil; and the modern Arabs call the river Bahr-en-Nil, " the river Nile."

^ The indirect cause is the rain and melting snow on the equatorial mountains in Central Africa, which maintains steadily a great volume of water in the White Nile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ While in southern Sudan, the white Nile meanders for over a year through the Sudd swamp lands, where over half of its flow is lost to evaporation.
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.The Sobat River, which joins the Nile a short distance below Lake No, drains about half as much land, 225,000 km2 (86,900 sq mi), but contributes 412 cubic metres per second (14,500 cu ft/s) annually to the Nile.^ Lake No in the rains covers about 50 sq.

^ From this lake to the mouth of the Nile the distance is 2300 miles in a straight line --one eleventh the circumference of the globe.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Of this, 85% to 86% is from the Blue Nile, the Atbara and the Sobat, originating in the Ethiopian highlands, with only 14% originating from the Great Lakes region.
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[4] .When in flood the Sobat carries a large amount of sediment, adding greatly to the White Nile's color.^ This work was efficiently done by Ismail Ayub Pasha, and the White Nile was clear for large vessels when Gordon reached Khartum in 1874.

^ It is the colour of the Sobat water which gives its name to the White Nile.

^ Blue Nile 59% Atbara 13% Sobat 14% White Nile/Bahr-el-Jebel 14% The average annual flow of the Nile varies depending on the amount of rainfall, and has been declining steadily during the twentieth century.
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[5]
.The average flow of the White Nile at Malakal, just below the Sobat River, is 924 m3/s (32,600 cu ft/s); the peak flow is approximately 1,218 m3/s (43,000 cu ft/s) in early March and minimum flow is about 609 m3/s (21,500 cu ft/s) in late August.^ It consists of two rivers, the White Nile, which takes its rise in the Victoria Nyanza, and the Blue Nile, which rises in the Abyssinian Mountains.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Description: The Nile is formed by the junction of the White Nile and the Blue Nile in latitude 15 degree 45' North and longitude 32 degree 45' East.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

This fluctuation is due the substantial variation in the flow of the Sobat, which has a minimum flow of about 99 m3/s (3,500 cu ft/s) in August and a peak flow of over 680 m3/s (24,000 cu ft/s) in early March. .During the dry season (January to June) the White Nile contributes between 70% and 90% of the total discharge from the Nile.^ By means of it much of the irrigation of the land during the dry season is carried on from wells.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Insect repellents should be applied to clothing and skin while hunting during mosquito season and periods of West Nile virus activity.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Blue Nile

The Blue Nile Falls fed by Lake Tana near the city of Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.
Nile delta from space
.The Blue Nile (Ge'ez ጥቁር ዓባይ Ṭiqūr ʿĀbbāy (Black Abay) to Ethiopians; Arabic: النيل الأزرق‎; transliterated: an-Nīl al-Azraq) springs from Lake Tana in the Ethiopian Highlands.^ NILE - nil (Neilos, meaning not certainly known; perhaps refers to the color of the water, as black or blue.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The direct cause is torrential rains in the highlands of Abyssinia which send down the Blue Nile a sudden great increase in the volume of water.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Blue Nile rises in the highlands of Abyssinia, latitude 12 degree 30' North, long.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Blue Nile flows about 1,400 kilometres (870 mi) to Khartoum, where the Blue Nile and White Nile join to form the Nile.^ The length of the Blue Nile is about 850 m.

^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

^ Ripon Falls, in 15° 37' N., the White Nile is joined by its greatest eastern confluent the Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile.

.90% of the water and 96% of the transported sediment carried by the Nile[6] originates in Ethiopia, with 59% of the water from the Blue Nile (the rest being from the Tekezé, Atbarah, Sobat, and small tributaries).^ The Blue Nile originates in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eretria, as do the other major tributaries of the Nile, the Atbara and the Sobat.
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^ Bilateral moves also took place in 1991 and 1993, when Ethiopia signed agreements with Sudan and Egypt, respectively, to cooperate on the use of Nile waters.
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^ NILE - nil (Neilos, meaning not certainly known; perhaps refers to the color of the water, as black or blue.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The erosion and transportation of silt only occurs during the Ethiopian rainy season in the summer, however, when rainfall is especially high on the Ethiopian Plateau; the rest of the year, the great rivers draining Ethiopia into the Nile (Sobat, Blue Nile, Tekezé, and Atbarah) have a weaker flow.^ Ethiopia refused once again to participate, limiting the scope of the survey's information-gathering to only areas which contribute 15% of the Nile's flow at Aswan.
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^ Idrisi made both the Nile and the Niger issue from a great lake, the Niger flowing west, the Nile north.

^ The Blue Nile and the Atbara are subject to heavy seasonal fluctuations in flow as a result of the seasonal rains of the Ethiopian highlands.
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.The Blue Nile contributes approximately 80-90% of the Nile River discharge.^ The river originates from two distinct geographical zones, the basins of the White and Blue Niles.
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^ Bruce, however, acknowledged in his Travels that the Abiad (White Nile) at its confluence with the Blue Nile was the larger river.

^ At this period the discharge of the Blue Nile rises from less than 200 to over 10,000 cub.

.The flow of the Blue Nile varies considerably over its yearly cycle and is the main contribution to the large natural variation of the Nile flow.^ An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

^ Ethiopia refused once again to participate, limiting the scope of the survey's information-gathering to only areas which contribute 15% of the Nile's flow at Aswan.
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.During the wet season the peak flow of the Blue Nile will often exceed 5,663 m3/s (200,000 cu ft/s) in late August (a difference of a factor of 50).^ The Blue Nile, or Abai as it is called in Abyssinia, rises in the Gojam highlands in 11 ° N. and 37° E., and flowing northwards 70 m.

^ Nile issues from the lake between cliffs 200 and more ft.

^ At this period the discharge of the Blue Nile rises from less than 200 to over 10,000 cub.

.During the dry season the natural discharge of the Blue Nile can be as low as 113 m3/s (4,000 cu ft/s), although upstream dams regulate the flow of the river.^ At this period the discharge of the Blue Nile rises from less than 200 to over 10,000 cub.

^ By August the river in lower Egypt is full of dark red-brown sediment brought down by the Blue Nile and the Atbara from the plateaus of Abyssinia.

^ The Blue Nile, at its confluence at Khartum, begins to rise in June and is in flood from July to October; the Atbara is also in flood during the same months.

Before the placement of dams on the river the yearly discharge varied by a factor of 15 at Aswan. .Peak flows of over 8,212 m3/s (290,000 cu ft/s) would occur during late August and early September and minimum flows of about 552 m3/s (19,500 cu ft/s) would occur during late April and early May.^ From this point the natural road to Palestine would have been along the caravan route on the neck of land referred to above as now about 50 ft.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ January 2010 December 2009 November 2009 October 2009 September 2009 August 2009 July 2009 June 2009 May 2009 April 2009 March 2009 February 2009 .
  • NILE – 24/7 Wall St. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC 247wallst.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, most cases are contracted in July, August, and early September.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Yellow Nile

.The Yellow Nile is a former tributary that connected the Ouaddaï Highlands of eastern Chad to the Nile River Valley ca.^ Likewise nahar mitsrayim, "brook of Egypt," a border stream in no way connected with the Nile, has sometimes been mistaken for that river.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Two hundred miles below Khartum - at Ed-Darner - the Nile is joined by the last of its tributary streams - the Atbara or Bahr-el-Aswad (Black river).

^ In the fork of the two rivers stands Khartum ,' the capital of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan , whilst on the western bank of the White Nile is Omdurman , the former Mandist capital.

8000 to ca. 1000 BCE.[7] Its remains are known as the Wadi Howar. .The wadi passes through Gharb Darfur near the northern border with Chad and meets up with the Nile near the southern point of the Great Bend.^ An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Below Mruli, the fall in the bed levels of the Nile, which up to this point has been comparatively gradual, increases considerably.

^ But the great feature of the Victoria Nile are the Murchison Falls (named by Sir Samuel Baker , their discoverer, after Sir Roderick Murchison , the geologist), situated in 2° 18' N. and 31° 50' E. At this point the river rages furiously through a rockbound pass, and, plunging through a cleft less than 18 ft.

Lost headwaters

.Formerly Lake Tanganyika drained northwards along the African Rift Valley into the Albert Nile, making the Nile about 900 miles (1,400 km) longer, until blocked in Miocene times by the bulk of the Virunga Volcanoes.^ The mild symptoms of West Nile fever may last about a week, while the severe symptoms of West Nile encephalitis may last two weeks or longer.
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^ Arab writers of the 12th and 13th centuries make mention of the great lakes, and their reports served to revive the interest of Europe in the problem of the Nile.

^ About the same time Dalion, a Greek, is believed to have ascended the White Nile.

History

Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), an ancient map based on Herodotus' description of the world, circa 450 BCE.
Historic map of the River Nile by Piri Reis
.The Nile (iteru in Ancient Egyptian) has been the lifeline of civilization in Egypt since the Stone Age, with most of the population and all of the cities of Egypt resting along those parts of the Nile valley lying north of Aswan.^ However, persons over the age of 50 are most at risk of developing the severe symptoms of West Nile encephalitis.
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^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

^ The wide valley which the Nile enters at Gondokoro slopes so gradually towards the north that the river falls only some 182 ft.

Climate change at the end of the most recent ice age led to the formation the Sahara desert, possibly as long ago as 3400 BC.

The Eonile

.The present Nile is at least the fifth river that has flowed north from the Ethiopian Highlands.^ The Blue Nile rises in the highlands of Abyssinia, latitude 12 degree 30' North, long.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Celestial Nile A river of North Africa, the great river of Egypt.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Satellite imagery was used to identify dry watercourses in the desert to the west of the Nile.^ How will West Nile virus test results be used?
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^ The term West Nile virus is also now popularly used to describe the illness that can result from infection by the virus.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Test results are used to monitor the activity of West Nile virus and to help decide whether it is necessary to implement mosquito control activities.
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.An Eonile canyon, now filled by surface drift, represents an ancestral Nile called the Eonile that flowed during the later Miocene (23–5.3 million years before present).^ The land of Kemit , the Black Land later called Aigyptos (Egypt) by the Greeks was, as Herodotus rightly observed, the gift of the Nile.
  • 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted on: February 23, 2009 – 9:51 am in Analyst Calls , Consumer Goods , Internet , Luxury , Retail , Value Investing , NILE .
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^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

The Eonile transported clastic sediments to the Mediterranean; several natural gas fields have been discovered within these sediments.
.During the late-Miocene Messinian Salinity Crisis, when the Mediterranean Sea was a closed basin and evaporated to the point of being empty or nearly so, the Nile cut its course down to the new base level until it was several hundred feet below world ocean level at Aswan and 8,000 feet (2,400 m) below Cairo.^ Its surface is 1,292 feet below the surface of the Mediterranean Sea.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As the Nile cruiser moves south down the river, stopping at Edfu, Kom Ombo and Aswan, you can take in all the ancient architecture along the way.
  • Book Nile cruise holidays and Egypt cruises with thomascook.com 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: News]

^ Below Mruli, the fall in the bed levels of the Nile, which up to this point has been comparatively gradual, increases considerably.

This huge canyon is now full of later sediment, and underwater.
.Lake Tanganyika drained northwards into the Nile until the Virunga Volcanoes blocked its course in Rwanda.^ NILE, the longest river of Africa , and second in length of all the rivers of the globe, draining a vast area in north-east Africa, from the East African lake plateau to the shores of the Mediterranean.

The Nile was much longer at that time, with its furthest headwaters in northern Zambia.

The integrated Nile

.There are two theories in relation to the age of the integrated Nile.^ There are two reports of laboratory workers contracting the illness while handling West Nile virus-positive specimens.
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.The first one is that the integrated drainage of the Nile is of young age, and that the Nile basin was formerly broken into series of separate basins, only the most northerly of which fed a river following the present course of the Nile in Egypt and Sudan.^ Nile, as the one river of Egypt, including its collateral trenches; also the Tigris, as the main river of Assyria:-brook, flood, river, stream.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Likewise nahar mitsrayim, "brook of Egypt," a border stream in no way connected with the Nile, has sometimes been mistaken for that river.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Shihor or Sihor = "dark" 1) a river or canal on east border of Egypt and a branch of the Nile 7883 Shiychowr shee-khore' .
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

[8] .Said (1981) postulates that Egypt itself supplied most of the waters of the Nile during the early part of its history.^ Three chief branches unite to form the Kagera, and of these the most important for the volume of water carried is said to be the Nyavarongo.

^ The kinds expected to be important in transmission of West Nile virus are most active during July and August.
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^ Here they continue to this day, for the most part still entirely above the waters of the inundation--and usually above the reach of the infiltration.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The other theory is that the drainage from Ethiopia via rivers equivalent to the Blue Nile and the Atbara and Takazze flowed to the Mediterranean via the Egyptian Nile since well back into Tertiary times.^ The united stream preserves, however, the name of Atbara, and at its confluence with the Nile has a breadth in flood time of over 600 yds.

^ The " great river " was also a frequent name for 'the main stream, and this became the usual name of the Nile in late times as Ier-`o and continued in use amongst the Copts .

^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

[9]
.Salama (1987) suggested that during the Tertiary (65 million to 2.588 million years ago) there were a series of separate closed continental basins, with each basin occupying one of the major parts of the Sudanese Rift System: Mellut Rift, White Nile Rift, Blue Nile Rift, Atbara Rift and Sag El Naam Rift.^ One of the similar stocks that Rapuano rode up was Blue Nile Inc.
  • NILE – 24/7 Wall St. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC 247wallst.com [Source type: General]

^ There have been many changes in the branches and canals from the Nile in the Delta, and this one with many others has been lost altogether; but there is a tradition among the Bedouin of Wady el-`Arish to this day that once a branch of the Nile came over to that point.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By August the river in lower Egypt is full of dark red-brown sediment brought down by the Blue Nile and the Atbara from the plateaus of Abyssinia.

[10] .The Mellut Rift Basin is nearly 12 km deep at its central part.^ The south-eastern limits of the Nile basin extend nearly to the western escarpment of the eastern Rift valley - the dividing plateau being a narrow one.

This rift is possibly still active, with reported tectonic activity in its northern and southern boundaries. The Sudd swamps which form the central part of the basin may still be subsiding. .The White Nile Rift System, although shallower than Bahr al-Arab, is about 9 km deep.^ Ripon Falls, in 15° 37' N., the White Nile is joined by its greatest eastern confluent the Bahr-el-Azrak or Blue Nile.

^ The exploration of the Bahr-el-Ghazal by John Petherick , Miss Tinne and her companions, and others followed the opening up of the White Nile (see Bahr-El-Ghazal ).

^ White Nile itself, which is only about 800 cub.

.Geophysical exploration of the Blue Nile Rift System estimated the depth of the sediments to be 5–9 km.^ By August the river in lower Egypt is full of dark red-brown sediment brought down by the Blue Nile and the Atbara from the plateaus of Abyssinia.

.These basins were not interconnected until their subsidence ceased, and the rate of sediment deposition was enough to fill up the basins to such a level that the basins became connected.^ The banks have risen higher and higher and extended farther and farther back by the deposit of the sediment, until the valley of arable land varies in width in most parts from 3 or 4 miles to 9 or 10 miles.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The virus usually does not build up to high enough levels to be picked up by further mosquitoes, except in birds.
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.The Egyptian Nile became connected to with the Sudanese Nile, which captures the Ethiopian and Equatorial head waters during the current stages of tectonic activity in the Eastern, Central and Sudanese Rift Systems.^ The Infiltration: The ancient Egyptians were right in calling all the waters of Egypt the Nile, for wherever water is obtained by digging it is simply the Nile percolating through the porous soil.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The indirect cause is the rain and melting snow on the equatorial mountains in Central Africa, which maintains steadily a great volume of water in the White Nile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The amount of time required for testing and reporting results is variable and depends on the current priorities of the health departments and the pattern of West Nile virus activity.
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[11] .The connection of the different Niles occurred during cyclic wet periods.^ Insect repellents should be applied to clothing and skin while hunting during mosquito season and periods of West Nile virus activity.
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.The River Atbara overflowed its closed basin during the wet periods which occurred about 100,000 to 120,000 years ago.^ If so, Osarsiph would have lived 100 years after Akhenaton, the king who instituted the brief period of pharaonic monotheism in Egypt under the aegis of Aton.
  • 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The great peculiarity of the river is its annual overflow, caused by the periodical tropical rains.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Massey tells us that Chapter 64 of its Ritual dates back some 6,000 years ago to the first dynasty reign of K ING S EPTI .
  • 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Blue Nile was connected to the main Nile during the 70,000–80,000 years B.P. wet period.^ Blue Nile has suffered a miserable time of it since the highs last year.
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^ During the first three years of West Nile virus in the United States most cases of infected birds involved American crows.
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^ Additional communities may be treated during a bad mosquito year or if West Nile virus or other mosquito borne illnesses are active.
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The White Nile system in Bahr El Arab and White Nile Rifts remained a closed lake until the connection of the Victoria Nile to the main system some 12,500 years ago.^ White Nile, and which in honour of the queen of England he named Victoria Nyanza.

^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

Role in the founding of Egyptian civilization

.The Greek historian Herodotus wrote that "Egypt was the gift of the Nile". An unending source of sustenance, it provided a crucial role in the development of Egyptian civilization.^ Thus "Egypt is the gift of the Nile."
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The land of Kemit , the Black Land later called Aigyptos (Egypt) by the Greeks was, as Herodotus rightly observed, the gift of the Nile.
  • 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Silt deposits from the Nile made the surrounding land extremely fertile because the river overflowed its banks annually.^ The Location of Temples: Some of the early temples were located near the Nile, probably because of the deification of the river.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Making of Egypt: Cultivable Egypt is altogether the product of the Nile, every particle of the soil having been brought down by the river from the heart of the continent and deposited along the banks and especially in the delta at the mouth of the river.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The great peculiarity of the river is its annual overflow, caused by the periodical tropical rains.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Ancient Egyptians were able to cultivate wheat and other crops around the Nile.^ The Infiltration: The ancient Egyptians were right in calling all the waters of Egypt the Nile, for wherever water is obtained by digging it is simply the Nile percolating through the porous soil.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

Flax was grown, mostly for trade. Wheat was also traded; it was a crucial crop in the Middle East where famine was very common. This trading system secured the diplomatic relationship Egypt had with other countries, and contributed to Egypt's economic stability. .That far-reaching trade has been carried on along the Nile since ancient times can be seen from the Ishango bone, possibly the earliest known indication of Ancient Egyptian multiplication, which was discovered along the headwaters of the Nile (near Lake Edward, in northeastern Congo) and was carbon-dated to 20,000 BC.^ Though solar, by virtue of his Sethian character, Aton represented the ancient Mother-and-Son religious system dating back to pre-dynastic times.
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^ The current of the Nile is clearly discernible along the western shore of this lake, which is 3514 ft.

^ Seventy miles below the Ripon Falls the Nile enters a marshy lake of irregular outline, running mainly east and west, and known as Kioga (or Choga).

The Nile’s water attracted game such as water buffalo; and after the Persians introduced them in the 7th century BC, camels. These animals were killed for meat, and were captured, tamed and used for ploughing — or in the camels' case, travelling. Water was vital to both people and livestock. The Nile was also a convenient and efficient means of transportation for people and goods.
.The Nile was an important part of the ancient Egyptian spiritual life.^ The Infiltration: The ancient Egyptians were right in calling all the waters of Egypt the Nile, for wherever water is obtained by digging it is simply the Nile percolating through the porous soil.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

^ Explored in part by Egyptian government expeditions, the upper Nile as far south as Albert Nyanza became subject, between 1840 and 1882, to Egypt.

.The god named Hapy was the deification of the annual floods, and both he and the pharaoh were thought to control the flooding of the Nile.^ One of the gods of the Egyptian pantheon was Hapi, the Nile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The united stream preserves, however, the name of Atbara, and at its confluence with the Nile has a breadth in flood time of over 600 yds.

^ Commentators have thought Shihor in this case to be a name for the Nile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

The Nile was considered to be a causeway from life to death and the afterlife. .The east was thought of as a place of birth and growth, and the west was considered the place of death, as the god Ra, the Sun, underwent birth, death, and resurrection each day as he crossed the sky.^ In early times it divided the honors with Ra, the sun-god.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ J ESUS is said to resurrect from his death on the cross and ascend to his father in heaven.
  • 'Nile Genesis: the opus of Gerald Massey'. 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC gerald-massey.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, all tombs were located west of the Nile, because the Egyptians believed that in order to enter the afterlife, they must be buried on the side that symbolized death.^ The Nile as a God: If the Egyptians set out to worship Nature-gods at all, surely then the sun and the Nile first.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If local health officials decide to spray, this means that they have decided that the healths risks from West Nile virus or other mosquito borne illness outweigh the risk from exposure to the insecticide.
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^ Do all mosquitoes transmit West Nile virus?
  • Colorado State University Extension 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.ext.colostate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The search for the source of the Nile

Pliny the Elder speculated on the source of the Nile
Richard Francis Burton, Victorian explorer
Henry Morton Stanley confirmed the source of the Nile in 1872.
.Despite the attempts of the Greeks and Romans (who were unable to penetrate the Sudd), the upper reaches of the Nile remained largely unknown.^ This work was efficiently done by Ismail Ayub Pasha, and the White Nile was clear for large vessels when Gordon reached Khartum in 1874.

^ The river did not long remain free, for in 1878 Emin Pasha was unable to ascend the Bahr-el-Jebel from the south on account of sudd.

^ As already stated, the sudd above the Sobat confluence seems to have stopped the Roman centurions sent by the emperor Nero to explore the Nile.

Various expeditions failed to determine the river's source, thus yielding classical Hellenistic and Roman representations of the river as a male god with his face and head obscured in drapery. .Agatharcides records that in the time of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, a military expedition had penetrated far enough along the course of the Blue Nile to determine that the summer floods were caused by heavy seasonal rainstorms in the Ethiopian Highlands, but no European of antiquity is known to have reached Lake Tana.^ The united stream preserves, however, the name of Atbara, and at its confluence with the Nile has a breadth in flood time of over 600 yds.

^ NILE - nil (Neilos, meaning not certainly known; perhaps refers to the color of the water, as black or blue.
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^ The Blue Nile, at its confluence at Khartum, begins to rise in June and is in flood from July to October; the Atbara is also in flood during the same months.

.Europeans learned little new information about the origins of the Nile until the 15th and 16th centuries, when travelers to Ethiopia visited not only Lake Tana, but the source of the Blue Nile in the mountains south of the lake.^ From two separate inner African lakes Lake Tana in Ethiopia, source of the Blue Nile, and Lake Victoria in Uganda, source of the White Nile two riverine arteries converged at modern Khartoum to form the mainstream Nile that brought mud and silt with annual regularity to the northeast African country of Kemit bounded by the Mediterranean on the north, the Red Sea on the east, and the Sahara Desert of the west.
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^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
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^ It consists of two rivers, the White Nile, which takes its rise in the Victoria Nyanza, and the Blue Nile, which rises in the Abyssinian Mountains.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Although James Bruce claimed to have been the first European to have visited the headwaters (Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile, 1790), modern writers give the credit to the Jesuit Pedro Páez.^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

^ In the last-named year James Bruce reached Abyssinia, and in November 1772 he arrived in Egypt, having visited the source of the Blue Nile and followed it, in the main, to its confluence with the White Nile.

^ It was not, however, till the 17th century that the sources of the Blue Nile were visited by Europeans.

.Páez’ account of the source of the Nile (History of Ethiopia, circa 1622) was not published in full until the early 20th century.^ Outside the Gospels, there is no authentic reference to the man Jesus and his supposed history as portrayed by the Gospels by any contemporary commentator until the 2nd century.
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^ He managed to get some of his early poems published in small journals and he continued to publish poetry until the end of his life.
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The work is a long and vivid account of Ethiopia. .The account is however featured in several works of Páez’ contemporaries, including Balthazar Telles (Historia geral da Ethiopia a Alta, 1660), Athanasius Kircher (Mundus Subterraneus, 1664) and by Johann Michael Vansleb (The Present State of Egypt, 1678).^ The present author began reading Masseys works in 1971 and, after 1981, wrote several review articles on the Masseyan opus.
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.Europeans had been resident in the country since the late 15th century, and it is possible one of them had visited the headwaters even earlier but was unable to send a report of his discoveries out of Ethiopia.^ It was not, however, till the 17th century that the sources of the Blue Nile were visited by Europeans.

.Jerónimo Lobo describes the source of the Blue Nile, visiting shortly after Pedro Páez.^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They appear also to have known 'the Blue Nile up to its source and the White Nile as far south as the Bahr-el-Ghazal confluence.

His account is also utilized by Balthazar Telles.
The White Nile was even less understood, and the ancients mistakenly believed that the Niger River represented the upper reaches of the White Nile; for example, Pliny the Elder wrote that the Nile had its origins "in a mountain of lower Mauretania", flowed above ground for "many days" distance, then went underground, reappeared as a large lake in the territories of the Masaesyli, then sank again below the desert to flow underground "for a distance of 20 days' journey till it reaches the nearest Ethiopians." [12] A merchant named Diogenes reported the Nile's water attracted game such as water buffalo.
.Lake Victoria was first sighted by Europeans in 1858 when the British explorer John Hanning Speke reached its southern shore whilst on his journey with Richard Francis Burton to explore central Africa and locate the great Lakes.^ In spite of great difficulties he made his way to Uganda , on the north-west of Victoria Nyanza, and (without exploring the lake) succeeded in reaching its outlet.

^ The White Nile, the principal branch of the North, rises in Victoria Nyanza, a great lake in Central Africa, a few miles North of the equator, long.
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^ Captain (Sir Richard) Burton and Speke had gone inland from Zanzibar to investigate the reports concerning the vast lake which Rebmann and Krapf had called the Sea of Unyamwezi.

.Believing he had found the source of the Nile on seeing this "vast expanse of open water" for the first time, Speke named the lake after the then Queen of the United Kingdom.^ White Nile, and which in honour of the queen of England he named Victoria Nyanza.

^ The united stream preserves, however, the name of Atbara, and at its confluence with the Nile has a breadth in flood time of over 600 yds.

^ [See the special article] Any great collection of waters, as the river Nile ( Isaiah 19:5 ) and the Euphrates.
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.Burton, who had been recovering from illness at the time and resting further south on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, was outraged that Speke claimed to have proved his discovery to have been the true source of the Nile when Burton regarded this as still unsettled.^ The question of the sources of the Nile opens up a time-honoured controversy (see under Story of Discovery below).

^ E., following the crest of the hills which dominate the north-eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika and the eastern shores of Lake Kivu .

^ Captain (Sir Richard) Burton and Speke had gone inland from Zanzibar to investigate the reports concerning the vast lake which Rebmann and Krapf had called the Sea of Unyamwezi.

.A very public quarrel ensued, which not only sparked a great deal of intense debate within the scientific community of the day, but much interest by other explorers keen to either confirm or refute Speke's discovery.^ Secretariat a great horse could run all day wheras his father, Bold Ruler, had a great deal of trouble beyond a mile and an eighth.
  • Pioneerof the Nile | Kentucky Derby 135 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.kentuckyderby.com [Source type: Original source]

The well known British explorer and missionary David Livingstone failed in his attempt to verify Speke's discovery, instead pushing too far west and entering the Congo River system instead. .It was ultimately the Welsh-American explorer Henry Morton Stanley who confirmed the truth of Speke's discovery, circumnavigating Lake Victoria and reporting the great outflow at Ripon Falls on the Lake's northern shore.^ In spite of great difficulties he made his way to Uganda , on the north-west of Victoria Nyanza, and (without exploring the lake) succeeded in reaching its outlet.

^ Stanley, in 1875, circumnavigated Victoria Nyanza, setting at rest the doubt thrown on Speke's statement that it was a huge sheet of water,' but proving Speke mistaken in believing the nyanza to have more than one outlet.

^ To what they referred when they reported a great mass of water falling from between two rocks is not so readily determined.

European involvement in Egypt goes back to the time of Napoleon. The Laird Shipyard of Liverpool sent an iron steamer to the Nile in the 1830s. .With the completion of the Suez Canal and the British takeover of Egypt in the 1870s, more British river steamers followed.^ Shihor or Sihor = "dark" 1) a river or canal on east border of Egypt and a branch of the Nile 7883 Shiychowr shee-khore' .
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The line of this branch of the Nile overflow was in early times used for a canal, which has recently been opened to furnish fresh water to Suez, and the depression is followed by the railroad.
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.The Nile is the natural navigation channel in the area; Access to Khartoum and Sudan was via steamer.^ The Blue Nile is navigable for steamers during flood time from its confluence at Khartum to Roseires at the foot of the Abyssinian hills, a distance of 426 m.

.The Siege of Khartoum was ameliorated with steamers: Purpose built sternwheelers were shipped from England and steamed up the river to re-take the city.^ From this point northward the river has built up a delta of 140 miles on each side, over which it spreads itself and empties into the sea through its many mouths.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

After this came regular steam navigation of the river. .With British Forces in Egypt in the First World War and the inter-war years, river steamers provided both security and sightseeing to the Pyramids and Luxor.^ His idea in this disposition of his Force was, first to secure the Victory, and then to make the most of it, according to future circumstances.

^ The first volume of A Book of the Beginnings was devoted primarily to tracing the origins of the culture, language, and religion of the British Celts to Kam(t), i.e., Egypt, and Africa.
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^ The rising of the surface of the land, and at the same time of the bed of the river, from the inundation lifted both Egypt and its great river, but left the temples down at the old level.
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Steam navigation remained integral to the two countries as late as 1962—Sudan steamer traffic was a lifeline as few railways or roads were built to that country. Most paddle steamers have been retired to shorefront service, but modern diesel tourist boats remain on the river.

The modern era

The confluence of the Kagera and Ruvubu rivers near Rusumo Falls, part of the Nile's upper reaches.
Dhows on the Nile
The Nile passes through Cairo, Egypt's capital city
.The Nile was, and still is, used to transport goods to different places along its long path.^ At eight o'clock the strange Ship (still continuing to have the good fortune of the wind) had approached us within a long random shot, and had Neapolitan Colours .

.Winter winds in this area blow up river, so ships could travel up river effortlessly by using a sail, and down river using the flow of the river.^ The Admiral knew that the Enemy had sailed with a N. W. wind, which naturally led him to conclude that their course was up the Mediterranean.

.While most Egyptians still live in the Nile valley, the construction of the Aswan High Dam (completed in 1970) to provide hydroelectricity ended the summer floods and their renewal of the fertile soil.^ Thus the Land of Kemit was born of and renewed yearly by the Nile wellsprings in the womb of Africa so that it might live and tell Africas story.
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^ Thus at length the riddle of the Nile was read, though much was still to do in the matter of scientific survey, and in the exploration of the valley of the Sobat (q.v.

^ A thousand years of history would be quite sufficient to teach Egyptians that the Nile was still making Egypt.
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.The Nile supports much of the population living along its banks, enabling Egyptians to live in otherwise inhospitable regions of the Sahara.^ Aswan Aswan sits on the eastern bank of the Nile and is a relaxed city, famed for its sunshine, beautiful scenery and distinctly Egyptian atmosphere.
  • Book cheap holidays and Nile Cruises and find holiday deals 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: General]

^ In the fork of the two rivers stands Khartum ,' the capital of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan , whilst on the western bank of the White Nile is Omdurman , the former Mandist capital.

^ Without the Nile flood, Egypt would not exist; not surprisingly, the Nile itself was deified by the people who created the pharaonic civilization along its northern banks.
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.The flow of the river is disturbed at several points by the Cataracts of the Nile, which are sections of faster-flowing water with many small islands, shallow water, and rocks, which form an obstacle to navigation by boats.^ Nile, which is now known as the Bahr-el - Jebel , or Mountain river, flows in a generally northerly direction.

^ Reduced to its simplest expression, the Nile system may be said to consist of a great steady flowing river fed by the rains of the tropics, controlled by the existence of a vast head reservoir and several areas of repose, and annually flooded by the accession of a great body of water with which its eastern tributaries are flushed.

^ They paddled up the lake to the point where a large river coming from the east poured its waters into the lake.

.The Sudd wetlands in Sudan also forms a formidable obstacle for navigation and flow of water, to the extent that Sudan had once attempted to dig a canal (the Jonglei Canal) to bypass the swamps.^ At Cairo the 1 In ancient times the delta was watered by seven branches; five of these branches are now canals not always navigable.

[13]
Cities on the Nile include Khartoum, Aswan, Luxor (Thebes), and the Giza – Cairo conurbation. .The first cataract, the closest to the mouth of the river, is at Aswan to the north of the Aswan Dams.^ The mouth of the river, after the last elevation of the land in Pluvial times, was at first not far from the latitude of Cairo.
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^ That first met with on descending the river from Khartum is the 6th (or Shabluka) cataract.

^ From the First Cataract, at Syene, the river flows smoothly at the rate of two or three miles an hour with a width of half a mile.
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.The Nile north of Aswan is a regular tourist route, with cruise ships and traditional wooden sailing boats known as feluccas providing trips on the river.^ The general result of the work carried on from the north was that by 1858 the Nile system was known as far south as the rapids at Bedden.

^ NILE, the longest river of Africa , and second in length of all the rivers of the globe, draining a vast area in north-east Africa, from the East African lake plateau to the shores of the Mediterranean.

^ The wide valley which the Nile enters at Gondokoro slopes so gradually towards the north that the river falls only some 182 ft.

.In addition, many cruise ships ply the route between Luxor and Aswan, stopping in at Edfu and Kom Ombo along the way.^ Edfu and Kom Ombo Further south towards Aswan is the Edfu Temple.
  • Book cheap holidays and Nile Cruises and find holiday deals 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: General]

^ A cruise is the perfect way to see the wonders of the River Nile and to explore the many ancient monuments and fascinating sights along the way.
  • Book cheap holidays and Nile Cruises and find holiday deals 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.thomascook.com [Source type: General]

.It used to be possible to sail on these boats all the way from Cairo to Aswan, but security concerns have shut down the northernmost portion for many years.^ After the Victory had been secured in the Van, such British Ships as were in a condition to move, had gone down upon the fresh Ships of the Enemy, which occasioned these renewals of the fight, all of which terminated with the same happy success in favour of our Flag.

^ Malathion is an insecticide that has been used for many years to fog for mosquito adults, as well as to control a number of other pest insects.
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.Drought during the 1980s led to widespread starvation in Ethiopia and Sudan, but Egypt was protected from drought by water impounded in Lake Nasser.^ A north wind would have blown the water from the Bitter Lakes southward, and owing to the quantity of water impounded would have increased the depth of the water in the narrow passage from the southern end of Suez.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.Beginning in the 1980s techniques of analysis using hydrology transport models have been used in the Nile to analyze water quality.^ The line of this branch of the Nile overflow was in early times used for a canal, which has recently been opened to furnish fresh water to Suez, and the depression is followed by the railroad.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

.The usage of the Nile River has been closely associated with the politics of East Africa and the Horn of Africa for many decades.^ Cases of West Nile virus have been found in Africa, Europe, west and Central Asia, and the Middle East.
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^ Shihor or Sihor = "dark" 1) a river or canal on east border of Egypt and a branch of the Nile 7883 Shiychowr shee-khore' .
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Immediately below Dufile the Kuku mountains on the west and the Arju range on the east close in upon the river, which, from an average width of 700 yds., narrows to 230 yds.

.Various countries, including Uganda, Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya have complained about Egyptian domination of the Nile water resources.^ An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country.
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^ The Nile is also the principal river included in the phrase nahare kush, "rivers of Ethiopia" ( Isa 18:1 ).
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The source of the Ruvuvu is in about 2° 55' S., 291° E., but its most southern tributary, and the most distant stream sending its waters towards the Nile, is the Lavironza.

.The Nile Basin Initiative is a program to promote equal usage and peaceful cooperation between the Nile Basin states.^ The Guder, with a south to north course, rises in the mountains which form the watershed between the Nile and the Lake Rudolf basin.

[14] However, many still feel the Egyptian domination of the waters causes economic obstacles in the area.

Modern achievements and exploration

.The White Nile Expedition, led by South African national Hendri Coetzee, became the first to navigate the Nile's entire length.^ The ancient Egyptians, as is apparent from the records on their monuments, were acquainted with the main stream as far south as the junction of the White and Blue Niles.

^ To Bruce, nevertheless, belongs the honour of being the first white man to trace the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.

^ Khartum, being the first white man to do so since the 1st century A.D. Then followed three Egyptian expeditions sent in 1839-41 and 1842 by Mehemet Ali up the White Nile.

.The expedition began at the source of the Nile in Uganda on 17 January 2004 and arrived safely at the Mediterranean in Rosetta, four and a half months later.^ At the beginning of the delta the Nile separates into two channels, the Rosetta and the Damietta , which join the Mediterranean at its south-east angle.

National Geographic released a feature film about the expedition in late 2005 entitled The Longest River.
.On 28 April 2004, geologist Pasquale Scaturro and his partner, kayaker and documentary filmmaker Gordon Brown became the first people to navigate the Blue Nile, from Lake Tana in Ethiopia to the beaches of Alexandria on the Mediterranean.^ From two separate inner African lakes Lake Tana in Ethiopia, source of the Blue Nile, and Lake Victoria in Uganda, source of the White Nile two riverine arteries converged at modern Khartoum to form the mainstream Nile that brought mud and silt with annual regularity to the northeast African country of Kemit bounded by the Mediterranean on the north, the Red Sea on the east, and the Sahara Desert of the west.
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^ By August the river in lower Egypt is full of dark red-brown sediment brought down by the Blue Nile and the Atbara from the plateaus of Abyssinia.

^ To Bruce, nevertheless, belongs the honour of being the first white man to trace the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.

.Though their expedition included a number of others, Brown and Scaturro were the only ones to remain on the expedition for the entire journey.^ When the number of infected birds and mosquitoes reaches a certain level then transmission to other animals, including humans and horses, occurs.
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^ At some point the number of infected mosquitoes becomes great enough that transmission to other animals, including horses and humans, starts to occur.
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^ When the number of infected birds and mosquitoes reach a certain level then transmission of the virus to other animals, including humans and horses, starts to occur.
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They chronicled their adventure with an IMAX camera and two handheld video cams, sharing their story in the IMAX film Mystery of the Nile and in a book of the same title. .The team was forced to use outboard motors for most of their journey, and it was not until 29 January 2005 when Canadian Les Jickling and New Zealander Mark Tanner reached the Mediterranean Sea, that the river had been paddled for the first time under human power.^ Mediterranean shore in the Pluvial times, the river was very much shortened.
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^ The water in the Victoria Nyanza begins to rise in January, the rise becomes marked in June, is at its height in July, the level of the water reaching its lowest at the end of November.

^ Kaffir festival of female puberty, it was the woman-nature that made the primaeval revelation, and was the first teller of time; the demonstrator of periodicity in its most attractive and most mystical aspect.
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.A team led by South Africans Peter Meredith and Hendri Coetzee on 30 April 2005, became the first to navigate the most remote headstream, the remote source of the Nile, the Akagera river, which starts as the Rukarara in Nyungwe forest in Rwanda.^ Eratosthenes was the first writer to hint at equatorial lakes as the sources of the river.

^ The " great river " was also a frequent name for 'the main stream, and this became the usual name of the Nile in late times as Ier-`o and continued in use amongst the Copts .

^ Gerald Massey became (and still is) one of the most important and essential resources in the African-centered scholarly re-examination that ensued.
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Crossings

Crossings from Khartoum to the Mediterranean Sea

  • Aswan Bridge, [[Aswan]
  • Luxor Bridge, Luxor
  • Suhag Bridge, Suhag
  • Assiut Bridge, Assiut
  • Al Minya Bridge, Minya
  • Al Marazeek Bridge, Helwan
  • First Ring Road Bridge (Moneeb Crossing), Cairo
  • Abbas Bridge, Cairo
  • University Bridge, Cairo
  • Qasr El Nile Bridge, Cairo
  • 6th of October Bridge, Cairo
  • Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo (removed)
  • New Abu El Ela Bridge, Cairo
  • Imbaba Bridge, Cairo
  • Rod Elfarag Bridge, Cairo
  • Second Ring Road Bridge, Cairo

Crossings from Rwanda to Khartoum

Images of the Nile

Media

See also

References

  1. ^ River Encarta (Accessed 3 October 2006). Archived 2009-11-01.
  2. ^ What did the ancient Egyptians call the Nile river? Open Egyptology. (Accessed 17 October 2006)
  3. ^ EarthTrends: The Environmental Information Portal
  4. ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 276, 287–288. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  5. ^ "Sobat River". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.library.eb.com/eb/article-9068426. Retrieved 2008-01-21. 
  6. ^ Marshall et al., Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental and climatic change from Lake Tana, source of the Blue NilePDF (247 KiB), 2006
  7. ^ Keding, B (2000). "New data on the Holocene occupation of the Wadi Howar region (Eastern Sahara/Sudan)." Studies in African Archaeology 7, 89–104.
  8. ^ Said, R. (1981). The geological evolution of the River Nile. Springer Verlag.
  9. ^ Williams, M.A.J. and Williams, F. (1980). Evolution of Nile Basin. In M.A.J. Williams and H. Faure (eds), The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 207–224.
  10. ^ Salama, R.B. (1987). "The evolution of the River Nile, The buried saline rift lakes in Sudan". J. African Earth Sciences 6 (6): 899–913. doi:10.1016/0899-5362(87)90049-2. 
  11. ^ Salama, R.B. (1997). Rift Basins of Sudan. African Basins, Sedimentary Basins of the World. 3. Edited by R.C. Selley (Series Editor K.J. Hsu) p. 105–149. ElSevier, Amsterdam.
  12. ^ Natural History, 5.10
  13. ^ Shahin, Mamdouh (2002). Hydrology and Water Resources of Africa. Springer. pp. 286–287. ISBN 140200866X. ; online at Google Books
  14. ^ The Nile Basin Initiative

Annotated bibliography

.The following is an annotated bibliography of key written documents for the Western exploration of the Nile.^ The exploration of the Bahr-el-Ghazal by John Petherick , Miss Tinne and her companions, and others followed the opening up of the White Nile (see Bahr-El-Ghazal ).

1600s
  • Historia da Ethiopia, Pedro Páez (aka Pero Pais), Portugal, 1620
A Jesuit missionary who was sent from .Goa to Ethiopia in 1589 and remained in the area until his death in 1622. Credited with being the first European to view the source of the Blue Nile which he describes in this volume.^ To Bruce, nevertheless, belongs the honour of being the first white man to trace the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.

^ The direct cause is torrential rains in the highlands of Abyssinia which send down the Blue Nile a sudden great increase in the volume of water.
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^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Voyage historique d'Abissinie, Jerónimo Lobo (aka Girolamo Lobo), Piero Matini, Firenze; 1693
One of the most important and earliest sources on Ethiopia and the Nile. Jerónimo Lobo (1595-1687), a .Jesuit priest, stayed in Ethiopia, mostly in Tigre, for 9 years and travelled to Lake Tana and the Blue Nile, reaching the province of Damot.^ Thence they travelled down the Nile to Gondokoro, reached on the 15th of February 1863.

^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

^ In the last-named year James Bruce reached Abyssinia, and in November 1772 he arrived in Egypt, having visited the source of the Blue Nile and followed it, in the main, to its confluence with the White Nile.

When the Jesuits were expelled from the country, he too had to leave and did so via Massaua and Suakin. "He was the best expert on Ethiopian matters. .After Pais, Lobo is the second European to describe the sources of the Blue Nile and he did so more exactly than Bruce" (transl.^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this period the discharge of the Blue Nile rises from less than 200 to over 10,000 cub.

from Henze).
1700s
.
  • Travels to Discover the Source of the Nile in the Years – 1768, 1770, 1771, 1772, and 1773, James Bruce of Kinnaird.^ Between 1625 (the date of Lobo's visit) and 1770, some attempts were made by French and other travellers to explore the Blue Nile, but they ended in failure.

    ^ In the last-named year James Bruce reached Abyssinia, and in November 1772 he arrived in Egypt, having visited the source of the Blue Nile and followed it, in the main, to its confluence with the White Nile.

    ^ Bruce, however, acknowledged in his Travels that the Abiad (White Nile) at its confluence with the Blue Nile was the larger river.

    J. Ruthven for G. GJ. and J. Robinson et al., Edinburgh, 1790 (5 Volumes)
With time on his hands and at the urging of a friend, Bruce composed this account of his travels on the African continent, including comments on the history and religion of Egypt, an account of Indian trade, a history of Abyssinia, and other material. .Although Bruce would not be confused with "a great scholar or a judicious critic, few books of equal compass are equally entertaining; and few such monuments exist of the energy and enterprise of a single traveller" (DNB).^ Victory so great, and at a moment of such seeming confusion."

"The result of his travels was a very great enrichment of the knowledge of geography and ethnography" (Cox II, p. .389.) Bruce was one of the earliest westerners to search for the source of the Nile.^ The south-eastern limits of the Nile basin extend nearly to the western escarpment of the eastern Rift valley - the dividing plateau being a narrow one.

^ (The rivers which enter Albert Edward and Albert Nyanzas and, with those lakes, form the western sources of the Nile, are dealt with under Albert Nyanza and Albert Edward Nyanza .

.In November of 1770 he reached the source of the Blue Nile, and though he acknowledged that the White Nile was the larger stream, he claimed that the Blue Nile was the Nile of the ancients and that he was thus the discoverer of its source.^ The White Nile is the larger branch.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They appear also to have known 'the Blue Nile up to its source and the White Nile as far south as the Bahr-el-Ghazal confluence.

^ This work was efficiently done by Ismail Ayub Pasha, and the White Nile was clear for large vessels when Gordon reached Khartum in 1874.

The account of his travels was written twelve years after his journey and without reference to his journals, which gave critics grounds for disbelief, but the substantial accuracy of the book has since been amply demonstrated.
1800-1850
St. John traveled extensively in Egypt and Nubia in 1832-33, mainly on foot. He gives a very interesting picture of Egyptian life and politics under Mohammed Ali, a large part of volume II deals with the Egyptian campaign in Syria.
.
  • Travels in Ethiopia Above the Second Cateract of the Nile; Exhibiting the State of That Country and Its Various Inhabitants Under the Dominion of Mohammed Ali; and Illustrating the Antiquities, Arts, and History of the Ancient Kingdom of Meroe, G.A.Hoskins.^ An ancient canal conveyed the waters of the Nile to the Red Sea, flowing through the Wadi-t Tumeylat and irrigating with its system of water-channels a large extent of country.
    • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The country comprised between the Nile proper, the Atbara and the Blue Nile is identified with the island of Meroe of ancient history.

    Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, London; 1835.
  • Modern Egypt and Thebes: Being a Description of Egypt; Including Information Required for Travellers in That Country, Sir Gardner Wilkinson, John Murray, London, 1843
The first known English travelers guide to the Lower Nile Basin.
1850-1900
.
  • Lake Regions of Central Equatorial Africa, with Notices of The Lunar Mountains and the Sources of the White Nile; being The Results of an Expedition Undertaken under the Patronage of Her Majesty's Government and the Royal Geographical Society of London, In the Years 1857-1859, Sir Richard Burton.^ The question of the sources of the Nile opens up a time-honoured controversy (see under Story of Discovery below).

    ^ Captain (Sir Richard) Burton and Speke had gone inland from Zanzibar to investigate the reports concerning the vast lake which Rebmann and Krapf had called the Sea of Unyamwezi.

    ^ Nero despatched two centurions on an expedition for the express purpose of exploring the Nile, and Seneca states that they reached a marshy impassable region, which may be easily identified with the country of the White Nile above the mouth of the Sobat.

    W. Clowes , London; 1860
Sir Richard Burton's presentation of his expedition with John Speke. Ultimately, Burton's view of the sources of the Nile failed and Speke's prevailed.
  • Travels, researches, and missionary labours, during eighteen years' residence in eastern Africa. Together with journeys to Jagga, Usambara, Ukambani, Shoa, Abessinia, and Khartum; and a coasting voyage from Mombaz to Cape Delgado. .With an appendix respecting the snow-capped mountains of eastern Africa; the sources of the Nile; the languages and literature of Abessinia And eastern Africa, etc.^ The indirect cause is the rain and melting snow on the equatorial mountains in Central Africa, which maintains steadily a great volume of water in the White Nile.
    • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Blue Nile rises in the mountains of Abyssinia and is the chief source of the deposit which the Nile brings to Egypt.
    • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A merchant named Diogenes returning (about A.D. 50) from the east coast of Africa told a Syrian geographer, Marinus of Tyre , that journeying inland for twentyfive days he reached the neighbourhood of two great lakes and a range of snow mountains whence the Nile drew its sources.

    etc.
    , Rev Dr. J. Krapf, Trubner and Co, London; 1860; Tickner & Fields, Boston; 1860
Krapf went to East Africa in the service of the English Church Missionary Society, arriving at .Mombasa, Kenya in 1844 and staying in East Africa until 1853. While stationed there he was the first to report the existence of Lake Baringo and a sighting of the snow-clad Kilimanjaro.^ There is a published report of West Nile virus isolated from a dog in southern Africa (Botswana) in 1982.
  • Update on West Nile Virus, October 2002 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ His two southern lakes, he conceived, were fed by the melting of snows on a range of mountains running east and west for upwards of 500 m.

^ NILE, the longest river of Africa , and second in length of all the rivers of the globe, draining a vast area in north-east Africa, from the East African lake plateau to the shores of the Mediterranean.

Krapf, during his travels, collected information from the Arab traders operating inland from the coast. .From the traders Krapf and his companions learned of great lakes and snow-capped mountains, which Krapf claimed to have seen for himself, much to the ridicule of English explorers who could not believe the idea of snow on the equator.^ The White Nile, the principal branch of the North, rises in Victoria Nyanza, a great lake in Central Africa, a few miles North of the equator, long.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The snow-capped range of Ruwenzori occupies - at least in part - the position assigned to the Mountains of the Moon, with which chain Kilimanjaro and Kenya may also be plausibly identified.

^ His two southern lakes, he conceived, were fed by the melting of snows on a range of mountains running east and west for upwards of 500 m.

However, Krapf was correct and had seen Mounts Kilimanjaro and Kenya, the first European to do so.
.
  • Egypt, Soudan and Central Africa: With Explorations From Khartoum on the White Nile to the Regions of the Equator, Being Sketches from Sixteen Years' Travel, John Petherick.^ To Bruce, nevertheless, belongs the honour of being the first white man to trace the Blue Nile to its confluence with the White Nile.

    ^ The Name 2 Sources of the Nile 3 The Region of Swamps 4 The White Nile 5 The Blue Nile 6 The Atbara 7 Lower River and Delta 8 Hydrography 9 Navigation 10 The Removal of Sudd 11 Authorities .

    ^ The Celestial Nile A river of North Africa, the great river of Egypt.
    • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

    William Blackwood, Edinburgh; 1861
Petherick was a well known Welsh traveler in East Central Africa where he had adopted the profession of mining engineer. This work describes sixteen years of his travel throughout Africa. In 1845 he entered the service of Mehemet Ali, and was employed in examining Upper Egypt, Nubia, the Red Sea coast and Kordofan in an unsuccessful search for coal. .In 1848 he left the Egyptian service and established himself at El Obeid as a trader and was, at the same time made British Consul for the Sudan.^ A trigonometrical survey of the upper river was begun by Colonel M. G. Talbot , director of Sudan surveys, in 190o, and other surveys were made by Captain H. G. Lyons , director-general of the Egyptian survey department.

^ The rising of the surface of the land, and at the same time of the bed of the river, from the inundation lifted both Egypt and its great river, but left the temples down at the old level.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

In 1853 he removed to Khartoum and became an ivory trader. .He traveled extensively in the Bahr-el-Ghazal region, then almost unknown, exploring the Jur, Yalo and other affluents of the Ghazal and in 1858 he penetrated the Niam-Niam country.^ Bahr-el-Ghazal coming from the south-west.

^ The seasonal supply of the Bahr-el-Ghazal does not vary very greatly, the maximum levels occurring in November and December.

^ Between Albert Nyanza and the swamp region the Bahr-el-Jebel is joined by many streams.

Petherick's additions to the knowledge of natural history were considerable, being responsible for the discovery of a number of new species. .In 1859 he returned to England where he became acquainted with John Speke, then arranging for an expedition to discover the source of the Nile.^ In his journey he had discovered the Kagera river, now known to be the most remote headstream of the Nile, a fact of which Speke was uncertain, though he recognized that it was the largest river entering the nyanza.

^ Explored in part by Egyptian government expeditions, the upper Nile as far south as Albert Nyanza became subject, between 1840 and 1882, to Egypt.

While in England, Petherick married and published this account of his travels. He got the idea to join Speke in his travels, and in this volume is an actual subscription and list of subscribers to raise money to send Petherick to join Speke. His subsequent adventures as a consul in Africa were published in a later work.
.
  • Journal of the Discovery of the Source of the Nile, John Hanning Speke.^ The question of the sources of the Nile opens up a time-honoured controversy (see under Story of Discovery below).

    Blackwood, Edinburgh, 1863; Harper & Brothers, New York; 1864
Speke had previously made an expedition with Sir Richard Burton under the auspices of the Indian government, during which Speke was convinced that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Burton, however, disagreed and ridiculed Speke's account. Speke set off on another expedition, recounted here, in the company of Captain Grant. During the course of this expedition he not only produced further evidence for his discoveries but also met up with Sir .Samuel Baker and provided him with essential information which helped Baker in his discovery of the Albert Nyanza.^ At Gondokoro Speke and Grant met Mr (afterwards Sir Samuel) Baker 1 and his wife - a Hungarian lady - who had journeyed thither to afford the explorers help.

The importance of Speke's discoveries can hardly be overestimated. .In discovering the source reservoir of the Nile he succeeded in solving the problem of all ages; he and Grant were the first Europeans to cross Equatorial Eastern Africa and gained for the world a knowledge of about 500 miles (800 km) of a portion of Eastern Africa previously totally unknown.^ The Nile as a God: If the Egyptians set out to worship Nature-gods at all, surely then the sun and the Nile first.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All residents of areas where virus activity has been identified are at risk of getting West Nile encephalitis; persons over 50 years of age have the highest risk of severe disease.
  • Update on West Nile Virus, October 2002 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ West Nile virus has been commonly found in humans and birds and other vertebrates in Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, but until 1999 had not previously been documented in the Western Hemisphere.
  • Update on West Nile Virus, October 2002 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

External links


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

.
The great river of Egypt; frequently referred to in the Bible.
^ The great river of egypt .
  • Nile - definition from Biology-Online.org 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.biology-online.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, one surviving wonder is in Egypt; The Great Pyramids along the banks of the River Nile, the longest river in the world.

^ As is evident, most of the great cities and wonders in ancient Egypt and neighboring Sudan were built along the banks of the Nile River.
  • Nekhebet.com - The Nile River 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nekhebet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Authorized Version everywhere renders the word employed, "ye'or," by "river." "Ye'or" has no Semitic etymology (as, e.g., Lagarde and Fr. Delitzsch have claimed), but is a transliteration of late Egyptian "yoor," earlier "y(e?)tor" = "river." .The plural is used of the branches of the Nile in the delta (seven large branches in antiquity, and many small canals), to which especially Isa 7:18 and Ezek 29:3 (alluding to their defensive value; comp.^ Seven branches of the Nile once ran through the Delta.
  • Nile River - the lifeline of Egypt 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.all-about-egypt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Here the Nile branches into many small streams and two major ones--the Rosetta and Damietta--which meander to the Mediterranean Sea.
  • The Nile 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC egyptworld.8k.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The many Coho that will be cruising all along the local beaches will become very agressive,especially on the days with wind and a small chop in the water.

Isa 33:21, xxxvii. 25) refer. Only in Dan 12:5, 6, 7 the expression is used of the Tigris. In Job 28:10 it refers apparently in some technical sense to mines.
.That Egypt's existence depended exclusively on the Nile and its yearly inundations in summer (caused by the spring rains in the mountains of Abyssinia) is indicated in Gen 41:2; that it furnished even all the drinking-water is shown by Ex 7:18, 21, 24, and Ps 7844.^ All of Egypt depended on the Nile for water, food, and transportation.
  • Egypt Tours: Nile Cruises including Luxor-Aswan with Red sea and Lake Nasser 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.summittoursegypt.com [Source type: General]

^ The county plans a berm to protect Nile Road and stop the water from inundating the several homes along its south end.
  • Nile Valley in a state of upheaval | Yakima Herald-Republic Online 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.yakima-herald.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In a desert region, where it only rains a handful of times a year, the Nile River presents the only consistent source of water required to sustain the necessities of civilization, such as agriculture and drinking water.
  • Nekhebet.com - The Nile River 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.nekhebet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Therefore the Prophets used the symbolical threat against Egypt, "I will make the rivers dry" (Ezek 30:12; similarly Isa 19:6), to express complete annihilation.^ No visit to Egypt is really complete without taking the time to enjoy a cruise down the river Nile.
  • Egypt Nile Cruise Ship, Nile Cruises Luxor Aswan, Holiday Offers 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.elegantvoyage.com [Source type: News]

^ About 85% of the Nile's waters originate in Ethiopia and Eretria, while the majority of the river's water is used in the Sudan and Egypt.
  • BLUE NILE 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Egypt's use of national water resources The Nile River delta fields in Egypt have probably been cultivated continuously for longer than any other fields on Earth.
  • BLUE NILE 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.american.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The great volume of water is referred to in Amos 8:8 and Jer 46:8; and the abundance of fish, in Ezek 29:3 (comp.^ The indirect cause is the rain and melting snow on the equatorial mountains in Central Africa, which maintains steadily a great volume of water in the White Nile.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Bible Map: Nile River 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The direct cause is torrential rains in the highlands of Abyssinia which send down the Blue Nile a sudden great increase in the volume of water.
  • NETBible: Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC net.bible.org [Source type: Original source]
  • Bible Map: Nile River 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC bibleatlas.org [Source type: Original source]

Num 11:5).
.The ancient Egyptians were acquainted with little more than one-half of the long course of the Nile; the primitive view was that its sources were in the rocks of the first cataract, and that one branch, the Nile proper, flowed north through Egypt, the other south through Ethiopia to the Indian Ocean.^ In the past, the Nile flowed on a different course.
  • Nile cruise deals | Egypt Vacations | Nile cruises, tours 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.roadtoegypt.com [Source type: General]

^ The Nile River flows north.
  • Hapi (the Nile River) Egyptian God 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.teenwitch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is generally agreed that the Nile has several sources rather than one.
  • Nile River (river, Africa) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tears of Isis or the blood of Osiris was the origin ascribed to it in mythology.^ There is some myth which says that the Nile is the tears of goddess Isis on her lovely husband god Osiris cause of his murder.
  • Travel Tours to Egypt, The River Nile of Egypt, Nile Cruise & Felucca ride in Cairo, Luxor & Aswan 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.memphistours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a god, the Nile (Ḥo'pi) was worshiped in the form of a blue or green, androgynous, fat figure, bringing water, fowl, and fish.^ The main headstreams, the Blue Nile and the White Nile, join at Khartoum in Sudan to form the Nile proper.
  • Nile Definition | Definition of Nile at Dictionary.com 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC dictionary.reference.com [Source type: General]
  • Nile - Dictionary definition and pronunciation - Yahoo! Education 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC education.yahoo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Performing a yearly miracle, by bringing a great flood of water and fertile soil to a desert, the Nile gave mankind its first great civilisation - Ancient Egypt.
  • BBC - Science & Nature - The Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ NE Africa, formed at Khartoum, Sudan, by the juncture of the Blue Nile , flowing from N Ethiopia, c.
  • Nile - Definition of Nile at YourDictionary.com 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.yourdictionary.com [Source type: General]

Hymns, prayers, and statues show that Egypt was correctly considered as "a gift of the Nile." As the number of cubits required for a sufficient rise in summer, the ancient writers mostly mention sixteen (for Memphis?); always, however, dikes, canals, and irrigating-machines had to assist agriculture (comp. .Deut 11:10 on the hard work of the Egyptian peasants in irrigating their fields).^ In contrast to (other historic) civilizations, early Egyptian society did not centrally manage state irrigation works.
  • http://www.waterhistory.org/histories/nile/t1.html 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.waterhistory.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The identification of the Nile with the River Gihon flowing out of paradise (Gen 2:13) is very old, being found in Ecclus.^ The Nile River flows north.
  • Hapi (the Nile River) Egyptian God 18 September 2009 9:09 UTC www.teenwitch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the center flowed the Nile River.

^ An epic tale of time and place The longest river on the planet, the Nile flows from the heart of the continent, through a land with a history as rich as the river is long.
  • BBC - Science & Nature - The Nile 15 January 2010 4:04 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

(Sirach) xxvi. 27, in Josephus, and in many later writers. By modern critics generally this identification is understood to be due to a confusion of Ethiopia and Babylonia caused by the ambiguous name Cush.
This entry includes text from the Jewish Encyclopedia, 1906.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 11, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Nile, which are similar to those in the above article.








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