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The Quatermass Xperiment

Original 1955 British Quad Poster
Directed by Val Guest
Produced by Anthony Hinds
Written by Richard Landau
Val Guest
Starring Brian Donlevy
Jack Warner
Richard Wordsworth
Margia Dean
Music by James Bernard
Cinematography Walter Harvey
Editing by James Needs
Distributed by Exclusive Films
Release date(s) 26 August 1955
Running time 82 minutes
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Budget £42,000
Followed by Quatermass 2

The Quatermass Xperiment (US title: The Creeping Unknown) is a 1955 British science fiction horror film. Made by Hammer Film Productions, it was based on the 1953 BBC Television serial The Quatermass Experiment written by Nigel Kneale. It was directed by Val Guest and stars Brian Donlevy as the eponymous Professor Bernard Quatermass. Jack Warner, Richard Wordsworth and Margia Dean appear in supporting roles.

The plot of the film involves the return to Earth of astronaut Victor Carroon (Wordsworth), who has become the first man in space in a rocket ship of Quatermass's design. However, it becomes very clear that something infected Carroon during the flight, and he rapidly begins mutating into an alien organism which, if it spores, will destroy humanity. Quatermass and his associates have just a few hours to track the creature down and prevent an apocalypse.

The film presents a heavily compressed version of the events of the original television serial. The most significant plot change occurs at the climax of the film. In the television version, Quatermass appeals to the last vestiges of Carroon's humanity and convinces him to commit suicide in order to save the world. In the film, Quatermass kills the creature by electrocution. This change, along with Donlevy's brusque interpretation of the title role, upset Nigel Kneale who frequently criticised the film. In his approach to making the fantastic nature of the film's plot convincing to audiences, Val Guest aimed to employ a high degree of realism, directing the film in the manner more akin to that of a newsreel.

The film enjoyed a highly successful release in the United Kingdom, forming one half of the highest grossing double bill release of 1955. It was also the first Hammer production to attract the attention of a major distributor in the United States, in this case United Artists who distributed the film under the title The Creeping Unknown. The film received a mixed critical reception on its initial release but in the intervening years has come to be viewed as a classic of the genre. Particular praise is reserved for the tortured performance of Richard Wordsworth as the possessed Victor Carroon.

Its success led to Hammer producing an increasing number of horror films, including two sequels Quatermass 2 (1957) and Quatermass and the Pit (1967), leading to them becoming synonymous with the genre. The Quatermass Xperiment is widely regarded as the first of these "Hammer Horrors".

Contents

Plot

A rocket crashes in a field in England. The emergency services arrive. Also at the scene is Professor Bernard Quatermass (Brian Donlevy), the scientist who built and launched the rocket. Shortly after the launch, all contact with the rocket and its three occupants – Carroon, Reichenheim and Greene – was lost. Opening the rocket's hatch, they find only Carroon (Richard Wordsworth). There is no sign of the other two crew members. Carroon appears to be in shock, unable to speak except to mouth the words "Help me". While Quatermass and his assistant, Briscoe (David King-Wood), try to learn what has happened to the rocket and its crew, Carroon's wife, Judith (Margia Dean), breaks her husband out of the hospital he is being kept in. But Carroon has been changed by something the rocket encountered on its journey: he is now able to absorb any living thing he comes into contact with. Following a car crash, he flees from the horrified Judith. A manhunt, conducted by Inspector Lomax (Jack Warner), gets under way. Hiding out at the London docks, Carroon encounters a little girl (Jane Asher) but through sheer willpower leaves her unharmed, making instead for a zoo where he absorbs many of the animals. By now, Carroon has lost any appearance of humanity. Quatermass and Briscoe track the creature to Westminster Abbey. Examination of tissue samples taken from Carroon has led Quatermass to conclude that the alien creature that has taken him over will eventually cause him to spore, endangering all of humanity as the organisms spread. With the assistance of a television crew working at the Abbey, Quatermass succeeds in killing the creature by electrocution. He leaves the scene, determined to start again.

Production

Origins

The Quatermass Experiment was a six part serial broadcast by BBC Television in 1953. Written by Manx author Nigel Kneale, it was an enormous success with critics and audiences alike, later described by film historian Robert Simpson as “event television, emptying the streets and pubs”.[1] Among its viewers was Hammer Films producer Anthony Hinds, who was immediately keen on buying the rights to make a film version.[2] Hammer contacted the BBC on 24 August 1953, two days after the transmission of the final episode, to enquire about the film rights.[3] Another who saw the potential for a film adaptation was the serial's writer, Nigel Kneale. At his urging, the BBC touted the scripts around a number of producers, including the Boulting Brothers and Frank Launder and Sidney Gilliat.[4] Kneale even met with Sidney Gilliat to discuss the scripts but Gilliat was reluctant to buy the rights as he felt any film adaptation would inevitably receive a restrictive ‘X’ Certificate from the British Board of Film Censors (BBFC).[5] Hammer were not so reticent, deciding from the outset that they would deliberately pursue an ‘X’ Certificate for the film.[6] Because Nigel Kneale was a BBC employee at the time, the rights to The Quatermass Experiment were held in their entirety by the BBC and Kneale received no extra payment for the sale of the film rights.[7] This was a matter of some resentment for Kneale for many years until the BBC made an ex-gratia payment of £3,000 in 1967, in recognition of his creation of Quatermass.[8]

Writing

The first draft of the film screenplay was done by Richard Landau, an American screenwriter who had worked on six previous Hammer productions, including Spaceways (1953), the company's first foray into science fiction.[9] The script was refined further by director Val Guest.[10] One of Guest's key contributions to the script was to tailor the dialogue to suit the brusqe style of star Brian Donlevy.[11] Further stylistic changes were sought by the BBC who retained a script approval option after the sale of the rights and asked Nigel Kneale to work on their suggested changes, much to his indignation.[12] When the draft script was submitted to the BBFC for comment, Board Secretary Arthur Watkins replied, “I must warn you at this stage that, while we accept this story in principle for the ‘X’ category, we could not certificate, even in that category, a film treatment in which the horrific element was so exaggerated as to be nauseating and revolting to adult audiences”.[13] The BBFC were particularly concerned with how graphic the depiction of Caroon's transformation into the alien creature would be.[14]

The original television version consisted of six forty-minute episodes whereas the film version runs to just 82 minutes. The film's screenplay, therefore, condenses many of the events of the original – for example, the opening thirty minutes of the television version are covered in just two minutes in the film.[15] Some characters from the television version, such as the journalist James Fullalove, are omitted altogether, while Judith Carroon disappears about halfway through the film.[16] Similarly, a subplot involving an affair between Briscoe and Judith Carroon is also left out.[17] However, the change which aggravated Nigel Kneale the most was the dropping of the notion that Carroon has absorbed not only the bodies but the memories and the personalities of his two fellow astronauts.[18] This change leads to the most significant difference between the two versions: in the television version, Quatermass makes an appeal to the last vestiges that remain of the three astronauts absorbed by the creature, convincing it to commit suicide before it can spore whereas in the film version Quatermass kills the creature by electrocution.[19] Val Guest defended this change believing it was "filmically a better end to the story".[15] He also felt it unlikely that Donlevy's gruff interpretation of Quatermass would lend itself to talking the creature into submission.[15]

Casting

A scene from near the end of the film, as Briscoe (David King-Wood, 2nd from left), Quatermass (Brian Donlevy, 3rd from left) and a television crew observe the mutated creature in Westminster Abbey
  • Brian Donlevy as Quatermass: As was common for Hammer productions at the time,[15] an American star was brought in to provide appeal to American audiences and help the film find distribution there.[20] Brian Donlevy was chosen by American producer Robert L. Lippert, who helped finance the film – as he had many of Hammer's earlier films with the same casting stipulation – and would distribute the British Hammers in the USA in exchange for the Hammer distribution arm, Exclusive Films, handling Lippert's films in the UK.[21] Donlevy had been nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Beau Geste (1939).[22] He was best known for his appearances in a number of Preston Sturges comedies, most notably The Great McGinty (1940).[23] Donlevy's brusque portrayal of Quatermass is very different to that of Reginald Tate in the television version and was not to Nigel Kneale's liking, who later remarked, “I may have picked Quatermass's surname out of a phone book, but his first name was carefully chosen: Bernard, after Bernard Lovell, the creator of Jodrell Bank. Pioneer, ultimate questing man. Donlevy played him as a mechanic, a creature with a completely closed mind”.[24] Responding to Kneale's criticisms, Guest said, "Nigel Kneale was expecting to find Quatermass like he was on television, a sensitive British scientist, not some American stomping around, but to me Donlevy gave it absolute reality".[23] By this stage in his career, Donlevy was suffering from alcoholism; it was some weeks into the shoot before Val Guest became aware that the flask of coffee he always carried on set was laced with brandy.[15] He reprised the role of Quatermass in Quatermass 2 (1957) and continued to act until his death in 1972.[22]
  • Richard Wordsworth as Victor Carroon: Wordsworth was the great-great-grandson of the poet William Wordsworth.[28] He was cast by Val Guest because "he had the right sort of face for the part".[29] Wordsworth was best known at the time for his work in the theatre.[28] His performance in The Quatermass Xperiment is frequently compared with that of Boris Karloff in Frankenstein (1931).[30] Val Guest, aware of the risk of an actor going over the top with the part, directed Wordsworth to "hold back just a mite of what you're feeling".[15] Summing up Wordsworth's performance, film critic Bill Warren said, "All Carroon's anguish and torment are conveyed in one of the best mime performances in horror and science fiction films... A sequence in which he is riding in a car with his wife is uncanny: only the alien is visible for a long moment".[31] Wordsworth went on to appear in three more Hammer films, The Camp on Blood Island (1958), The Revenge of Frankenstein (1958) and The Curse of the Werewolf (1961).[32] He died in 1993.
  • Margia Dean as Judith Carroon: A former beauty queen,[33] Margia Dean was allegedly cast on account of her association with then 20th Century Fox president Spyros Skouras: according to executive producer Michael Carreras, "Skouras had a girlfriend who was an actress and he wanted her in pictures, but he didn't want her in pictures in America, because of the tittle-tattle or whatever, so he set it up though his friend Bob Lippert".[34] Dean, however, was no stranger to Lippert; by the time The Quatermass Xperiment had been produced, she'd appeared in over twenty of the pictures produced for Lippert in the US.

Among the other actors that appear in the film are Thora Hird, Gordon Jackson, David King-Wood, Harold Lang, Lionel Jeffries and Sam Kydd, many of whom appeared regularly in films directed by Val Guest.[15] The Quatermass Xperiment was also an early role for Jane Asher who appears as the little girl encountered by Carroon when he is on the run.[35]

Filming

Assigned to direct the film was Val Guest. Guest began his career co-writing comedies such as Oh, Mr Porter! (1927) and Ask a Policeman (1939) before moving into directing with Miss London Ltd (1943).[36] His first directing job for Hammer was on Life With The Lyons (1954) and he went on to direct their first two colour features: The Men of Sherwood Forest (1954) and Break in the Circle (1954).[37] Guest had little interest in science fiction and was unenthusiastic about directing the film: he reluctantly took copies of Nigel Kneale's television scripts with him on holiday in Tangiers and only began reading them after being teased for being "ethereal" by his wife.[38] Impressed by what he read, and pleased to be offered the opportunity to break away from directing comedy films, he took the job.[15] In his approach to directing the film, Guest sought to make "a slightly wild story more believable"[15] by creating a "science fact" film, shot "as though shooting a special programme for the BBC or something".[38] To this end, Guest employed a cinéma vérité style, making extensive use of hand-held camera, even on set, an unusual technique for the time which horrified several of the technicians employed on the film.[38]

Filming began on 12 October 1954 with a night shoot at Chessington Zoo[14] and continued from 18 October 1954 into December.[39] The budget was £42,000, low even by the standards of Hammer at the time.[14] Special effects technician Les Bowie recalled, "We did Quatermass on a budget so low it wasn't a real budget. I did it for wages not as a proper effects man who gets allocated a certain budget for a movie".[40] Most of the location shooting was done around the Windsor area.[23] The scenes at the start of the film of the emergency services rushing to the rocket crash site were filmed, much to the annoyance of the locals, in the village of Bray, Berkshire where Hammer's studios were located.[23] The field in which the scenes of the crashed rocket were shot was at Water Oakley Farm, near Bray.[23] It was originally intended to make the crash site look more spectacular by setting fire to the corn field but bad weather put paid to this idea.[41] The scene where Carroon encounters the little girl was filmed at the East India Docks in London.[15] For the shot of the lights of London going out when the electricity is diverted to Westminster Abbey, an agreement was made with one of the engineers at Battersea Power Station to turn off the lights illuminating the outside of the building; however the engineer misunderstood and briefly cut all the power along the River Thames.[23] The rest of the film was shot at Hammer's Bray Studios, including the scenes set in Westminster Abbey; the Abbey refused permission to film there.[19] A sense of scale was given to the Westminster scenes by the use of matte paintings.[15]

Partly because of the concerns raised by the BBFC and partly on account of the low budget, Guest kept the creature largely off-screen for much of the film, feeling that the audience's imaginations would fill in the blanks more effectively than he and the special effects team could deliver on-screen.[15] For the climactic scenes at Westminster Abbey, however, effects designer Les Bowie created a monster from tripe and rubber and photographed it against a model of the Abbey.[42]

Music

Originally hired to compose the music for the film was John Hotchkiss. When Hotchkiss fell ill, Anthony Hinds asked conductor John Hollingsworth to recommend a replacement. Hollingsworth suggested James Bernard, with whom he had recently worked on a BBC radio production of The Duchess of Malfi. Feeling that the science fiction theme of the film required a mood of “otherwordliness”, Bernard created a score that made heavy use of strings and percussion.[43] Remarking on the effectiveness of the score, the film critic John Brosnan noted, "Of prime importance, is the contribution of the soundtrack, in this case supplied by James Bernard who never wrote a more unnerving, jangly score".[29] Several cues were released on CD by GDI Records on a compilation titled The Quatermass Film Music Collection.[44] Bernard went on to compose the scores for many of Hammer's horror films, including The Curse of Frankenstein (1957), Horror of Dracula (1958), The Kiss of the Vampire (1962), The Plague of the Zombies (1966) and The Devil Rides Out (1968).[45]

Reception

Cinema release

As expected, The Quatermass Xperiment received an ‘X’ Certificate from the BBFC,[39] restricting admission to persons over the age of sixteen.[46] Whereas most other studios were nervous of this new certificate, Hammer, who had noticed the success of the similarly ‘X’-rated Les Diaboliques (1954),[47] chose to exploit it in the title of the film.[34] "X is not an unknown quantity" was the tagline Exclusive Films, Hammer's distribution arm, used to sell the film to cinema managers.[48] On subsequent re-releases, the film reverted to the title The Quatermass Experiment.[34]

The Quatermass Xperiment premièred on 26 August 1955 at the London Pavilion on Piccadilly Circus.[49] The supporting feature was The Eric Winstone Band Show.[34] The film went on general release in the United Kingdom on 20 November 1955 in a double bill with the French film Rififi.[50] This became the most successful double bill release of 1955 in the UK.[51] In the United States, the film was initially retitled Shock!; this was later changed to The Creeping Unknown when United Artists took over distribution of the film in March 1956.[34] United Artists packaged the film in a double bill with The Black Sleep.[34] In total, Hammer made a profit of $3 million from The Quatermass Xperiment.[52]

Critical response

The Times newspaper gave the film a generally favourable assessment: their critic wrote, "Mr. Val Guest, the director, certainly knows his business when it comes to providing the more horrid brand of thrills... The first part of this particular film is well up to standard. Mr. Brian Donlevy, as the American scientist responsible for the experiment, is a little brusque in his treatment of British institutions but he is clearly a man who knows what he is doing. Mr. Jack Warner, representing Scotland Yard, is indeed a comfort to have at hand when Things are on the rampage."[53] Other reactions were more mixed: William Whitebait in the New Statesman called the film "better than either War of the Worlds or Them"[49] while the reviewer in The Manchester Guardian praised "a narrative style that quite neatly combines the horrific and the factual".[54] On a less positive note, Frank Jackson of Reynolds News quipped, "That TV pseudo-science shocker The Quatermass Xperiment has been filmed and quitermess they've made of it too"[49] and Patrick Gibbs of the Daily Telegraph found that the film "gives the impression that it originated in the strip of some horror comic. It remains very horrid and not quite coherent".[54] Another critic who wasn't impressed with the film was François Truffaut, who wrote in Cahiers du cinéma, “This one is very, very bad, far from the small pleasure we get, for example, from the innocent science fiction films signed by the American Jack Arnold... The subject could have been turned into a good film, not lacking in spice; with a bit of imagination... None of this is in this sadly English film”.[55]

Legacy

While The Quatermass Xperiment was not Hammer's first science fiction film, it was their first foray into the horror genre. It was also the first film to bring the company to the attention of major film distributors: in this case United Artists.[56] Hammer quickly sought to capitalise on the huge success of the film with a sequel. They approached Nigel Kneale with a proposal for a new Quatermass story, to be titled X the Unknown (again capitalising on the ‘X’ Certificate in the title).[57] Kneale refused permission to use Quatermass, however, but the film went ahead nonetheless with a newly created scientist character, very much in the Quatermass mould, played by Dean Jagger.[58] Quatermass did eventually return to cinema screens in Quatermass 2 (1957) and Quatermass and the Pit (1967) both of which were based on Nigel Kneale serials originally presented by BBC Television.[59] Three of the four films Hammer made in 1956 – X the Unknown, Quatermass 2 and The Curse of Frankenstein – were horror films and over the following twenty years the company became best known for their “Hammer Horror” productions.[60][61]

The Quatermass Xperiment has continued to be largely well regarded by critics and film historians in the years since its release. Writing in Science Fiction in the Cinema, John Baxter said, “In its time, The Quatermass Experiment was a pioneering sf film... Brian Donlevy was stiff but convincing... Much of the film is saved, however, by Richard Wordsworth... one of the finest such performances since Karloff's triumphs of the Thirties.”[62] This view is echoed by John Brosnan in The Primal Screen: "One of the best of all alien possession movies",[63] he writes, "Not since Boris Karloff as Frankenstein's monster has an actor managed to create such a memorable, and sympathetic, monster out of mime alone".[29] Bill Warren in Keep Watching The Skies! finds that "the buildup is slightly too long and too careful"[64] but also writes, "It's an intelligent, taut and well-directed thriller; it showcases Nigel Kneale's ideas well; it's scary and exciting. It was made by people who cared about what they were doing, who were making entertainment for adults. It is still one of the best alien invasion films".[65] Steve Chibnall, writing for the British Film Institute's Screenonline, describes The Quatermass Xperiment as "one of the high points of British SF/horror cinema."[66] The horror fiction writer Stephen King praised the film as one of his favourite horror movies from between 1950 and 1980 in his non-fiction book Danse Macabre in 1991.[67] The film director John Carpenter, who later collaborated unsuccessfully with Nigel Kneale on the film Halloween III: Season of the Witch (1982), has claimed that The Quatermass Xperiment "had an enormous, enormous impact on me—and it continues to be one of my all-time favourite science-fiction movies."[68]

Some critics, such as Philip French of The Observer,[69] have noted that the plot of the 1999 Johnny Depp movie The Astronaut's Wife bears similarities to that of The Quatermass Xperiment, although it is not known whether the film really was an inspiration or whether this is coincidence.

DVD release

The Quatermass Xperiment was released on region 2 DVD by DD Video in 2003. It contained a number of extra features including a commentary by director Val Guest and Hammer historian Marcus Hearn as well as an interview with Val Guest and an original trailer.[70]

Notes

  1. ^ "Quatermass creator dies, aged 84". BBC News Online. 2006-11-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/6105578.stm. Retrieved 2007-01-26.  
  2. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p.8.
  3. ^ Pixley, p. 14.
  4. ^ Murray, p. 36.
  5. ^ Murray, p.36-37.
  6. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 9.
  7. ^ Murray, p.37.
  8. ^ Murray, p. 98.
  9. ^ Kinsey, p.32.
  10. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 11.
  11. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 17.
  12. ^ Murray, p. 43.
  13. ^ Kinsey, p.33.
  14. ^ a b c Kinsey, p.34.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Hearn & Guest, DVD Commentary.
  16. ^ Murray, p. 44.
  17. ^ Warren, p. 250.
  18. ^ Kinsey, p. 32.
  19. ^ a b Hearn & Rigby, p.10
  20. ^ Murray, p.45.
  21. ^ Kinsey, p. 22.
  22. ^ a b Brian Donlevy at the Internet Movie Database
  23. ^ a b c d e f Kinsey, p. 35.
  24. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 7.
  25. ^ Kinsey, p.36.
  26. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 14.
  27. ^ Jack Warner at the Internet Movie Database
  28. ^ a b Hearn & Rigby, p. 15.
  29. ^ a b c Brosnan, p. 74.
  30. ^ See, for example, Baxter, p. 96; Brosnan, p. 74; Warren, p. 253.
  31. ^ Warren, p. 253.
  32. ^ Richard Wordsworth at the Internet Movie Database
  33. ^ "The Private Life and Times of Margia Dean". www.glamourgirlsofthesilverscreen.com. http://www.glamourgirlsofthesilverscreen.com/show/62/Margia+Dean/index.html. Retrieved 2008-12-14.  
  34. ^ a b c d e f Hearn & Barnes, p. 17.
  35. ^ Jane Asher at the Internet Movie Database
  36. ^ Val Guest at the Internet Movie Database
  37. ^ Hearn & Barnes, p.27.
  38. ^ a b c Val Guest Interview. [The Quatermass Xperiment DVD Special Feature]. London: DD Video. 2003.  
  39. ^ a b Hearn & Barnes, p. 16.
  40. ^ Brosnan, p. 75.
  41. ^ Kinsey, p.37.
  42. ^ Kinsey, p. 37.
  43. ^ Kinsey, p. 38.
  44. ^ "The Quatermass Film Music Collection". www.SoundtrackCollector.com. http://www.soundtrackcollector.com/catalog/soundtrackdetail.php?movieid=10084. Retrieved 2008-11-30.  
  45. ^ James Bernard at the Internet Movie Database
  46. ^ Brooke, Michael. "The X Certificate". Screenonline. London: British Film Institute. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/film/id/591679/. Retrieved 2008-11-23.  
  47. ^ Bansak, p. 499.
  48. ^ Hearn & Barnes, p. 18.
  49. ^ a b c Kinsey, p. 39.
  50. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p. 19.
  51. ^ "Profitable Films: British Successes". The Times. 1955-12-15. p. 5.  
  52. ^ Bansak, p. 500.
  53. ^ "Back To The Moulin Rouge: Jean Renoir's New Film". The Times. 1955-08-29. p. 10.  
  54. ^ a b Hearn & Rigby, p. 18.
  55. ^ Dixon, p. 79-80.
  56. ^ Hearn & Barnes, p. 13.
  57. ^ Kinsey, p. 41.
  58. ^ Hearn & Barnes, p. 18-19.
  59. ^ Hearn & Barnes, p. 20-21.
  60. ^ Kinsey, p.41
  61. ^ Hearn & Rigby, p.5.
  62. ^ Baxter, p. 96.
  63. ^ Brosnan, p. 72.
  64. ^ Warren, p. 252.
  65. ^ Warren, p. 254.
  66. ^ Chibnall, Steve. "Guest, Val (1911-2006)". Screenonline. http://www.screenonline.org.uk/people/id/471342/index.html. Retrieved 2007-05-07.  
  67. ^ Murray, p. 153.
  68. ^ Murray, p. 154.
  69. ^ French, Philip (1999-11-28). "Arts: OTHER FILMS: We've waited 40 years for this. Was it worth it?". The Observer. p. 10.  
  70. ^ The Quatermass Xperiment DVD. DD Video. DD06157.

References and further reading

  • Bansak, Edward G. (2003). "22. Dark Legacy". Fearing The Dark: The Val Lewton Career. McFarland. pp. 492–530. ISBN 9780786417094.  
  • Baxter, John (1970). Science Fiction in the Cinema. London/New York: The Tantivy Press/A.S. Barnes & Co. ISBN 0302004769.  
  • Brosnan, John (1991). The Primal Screen. A History of Science Fiction Film. London: Orbit. ISBN 0-356-20222-4.  
  • Dixon, Wheeler Winston (1983). "3. A Passion for the Cinema". The Early Film Criticism of François Truffaut. With translations by Ruth Cassel Hoffman, Sonja Kropp and Brigitte Formentin-Humbert. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. pp. 79–80. ISBN 9780253318077.  
  • Hearn, Marcus; Alan Barnes (2007) [1997]. The Hammer Story. The Authorised History of Hammer Films (2nd ed.). London: Titan Books. ISBN 9781845761851.  
  • Hearn, Marcus; Val Guest. (2003). The Quatermass Xperiment DVD Commentary. [The Quatermass Xperiment DVD Special Feature]. London: DD Video.  
  • Hearn, Marcus; Jonathan Rigby (2003). The Quatermass Xperiment. Viewing Notes. London: DD Video. DD06157.  
  • Kinsey, Wayne (2002). Hammer Films. The Bray Studio Years. London: Reynolds & Hearn. ISBN 978-1-903111-44-4.  
  • Murray, Andy (2006). Into The Unknown: The Fantastic Life of Nigel Kneale. London: Headpress. ISBN 1-900-486-50-4.  
  • Pixley, Andrew (2005). The Quatermass Collection – Viewing Notes. London: BBC Worldwide. BBCDVD1478.  
  • Warren, Bill (1982). Keep Watching The Skies! American Science Fiction Movies of the Fifties. Volume I: 1950-1957. Jefferson, North Carolina and London: McFarland Classics. ISBN 0-7864-0479-5.  

External links








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