The Queen of Spades (opera): Wikis

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Operas by
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Tchaikovsky.jpg

The Voyevoda (1868)
Undina (1869)
The Oprichnik (1874)
Vakula the Smith (1876)
Eugene Onegin (1879)
The Maid of Orleans (1881)
Mazeppa (1884)
Cherevichki (1887)
The Enchantress (1887)
The Queen of Spades (1890)
Iolanta (1892)

The Queen of Spades, Op. 68 (Russian: Пиковая дама, Pikovaya dama) is an opera in 3 acts (7 scenes) by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composer's brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story of the same name by Alexander Pushkin. The premiere took place in 1890 in St. Petersburg, Russia.

Contents

Composition history

The management of the Imperial Theatre offered a commission to Tchaikovsky to write an opera based on the plot sketch by Ivan Vsevolozhsky in 1887/88. After turning it down initially, Tchaikovsky accepted it in 1889. Toward the end of that year, he met with the theater's managers to discuss the material and sketch out some of the scenes.

He completed the full score of the opera in Florence in only 44 days. Later on, working with the tenor who was to perform the lead character's part, he created two versions of Herman’s aria in the seventh scene, using two different keys. The changes can be found in the proof sheets and inserts for the first and second editions of the printed version of the score.

While composing the music, Tchaikovsky actively edited the libretto, changing some of the text and adding his own lyrics to two arias.

Performance history

Pyotr Tchaikovsky with Nikolay and Medeya Figner, who sang the roles of Hermann and Liza in the premiere of The Queen of Spades, 1890.

Herman, the lead character, sings in all seven scenes. This requires great skill and endurance of the performer. The part was written with the notable Russian tenor Nikolay Figner in mind, who performed the role at the premiere. His wife Medea Mei-Figner created the role of Liza.

The composer himself took part in the preparation of the Saint Petersburg premiere. Critics gave rave reviews. Tchaikovsky later wrote, "Figner and the Saint Petersburg orchestra... have made true miracles."

The premiere's success was tremendous. The opera was just as successful at the Kiev premiere twelve days later. The Bolshoi Theatre premiere took place the following year. Tchaikovsky was extremely pleased with his effort.

St. Petersburg Premiere (World Premiere)

Kiev Premiere

  • Date: 31 December (O.S. 19 December), 1890
  • Place:
  • Conductor: Iosif Pribik

Moscow Premiere

Other Notable Performances

Roles

Role Voice type St. Petersburg premiere,
19 December (O.S. 7 December) 1890
(Conductor: Eduard Nápravník)
Kiev premiere,
31 December (O.S. 19 December) 1890
(Conductor: Iosif Pribik)
Bolshoy Theatre, Moscow premiere,
4 November 1891
(Conductor: Ippolit Al'tani)
Herman tenor Nikolay Figner Mikhail Medvedev Mikhail Medvedev
Count Tomsky baritone Ivan Melnikov Dementyev Bogomir Korsov
Prince Yeletsky baritone Yakovlev Tartakov Pavel Khokhlov
Chekalinsky tenor Vasilyev II
Surin bass Frey
Chaplitsky tenor Kondraki
Narumov bass Sobolev
Master of Ceremonies tenor Yefimov
Countess mezzo-soprano Mariya Slavina Mariya Smirnova Aleksandra Krutikova
Liza soprano Medea Mei-Figner Aleksandra Matsulevich Mariya Deysha-Sionitskaya
Polina contralto Mariya Dolina Gnucheva
Governess mezzo-soprano Maria-Wilhelmina Pilz (Pilts)
Masha soprano Yunosova
Boy-Commander spoken
Prilepa soprano Olga Olgina
Milovzor contralto Fride (Friede)
Zlatogor baritone Klimov II
Chorus, silent roles: Nursemaids, governesses, wet-nurses, strollers, children, gamblers
Act 2 Intermezzo
Prilepa, or Chlöe soprano
Milovzor, or Daphnis contralto
Zlatogor, or Plutus baritone
Chorus, silent roles: Cupid, Hymen, shepherds and shepherdesses

Note: The contralto roles of Milovzor and Polina and the baritone roles of Zlatogor and Tomsky can be performed by the same singers. Prilepa has occasionally been double cast with Liza.

Synopsis

Time: The close of the 18th century

Place: St. Petersburg, Russia

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Act 1

Scene 1

During the reign of Catherine the Great (1762-96), children are at play in a St. Petersburg summer park pretending to be soldiers. Two soldiers — Tsurin and Chekalinsky — enter, the former complaining about his bad luck at gambling. They remark that another soldier, Herman, seems obsessed with the gaming table but never bets, being frugal and methodical. Herman appears with Tomsky, who remarks that his friend hardly seems like his old self: is anything bothering him? Herman admits he is in love with a girl above his station whose name he does not even know. When Prince Yeletsky, an officer, strolls into the park, Chekalinsky congratulates him on his recent engagement. Yeletsky declares his happiness while Herman, aside, curses him enviously. Yeletsky points out his fiancée, Liza, who has just appeared with her grandmother, the old Countess, once known as the Venus of Moscow. Catching sight of Herman, the two women note they have seen him before, staring at them with frightening intensity. Herman realizes that Liza is his unknown beloved. When Yeletsky and the women leave, Herman is lost in thought as the other officers discuss the Countess: known as the Queen of Spades, she succeeded at gambling in her youth by trading amorous favors for the winning formula of Count St. Germain in Paris. Tomsky says only two men, her husband and, later on, her young lover, ever learned her secret, because she was warned by an apparition to beware a "third suitor" who would try to force it from her. Musing on the magical three cards, the others lightly suggest that such a combination would solve Herman's problems. Threatened by approaching thunder, all leave except Herman, who vows to learn the Countess' secret.

Scene 2

At home, Liza plays the spinet as she and her friend Pauline sing a duet about evening in the countryside. Their girlfriends ask to hear more, so Pauline launches into a sad ballad, followed by a dancelike song. As the merriment increases, Liza remains pensively apart. A Governess chides the girls for indulging in unbecoming folk dancing and asks the visitors to leave. Pauline, the last to go, urges Liza to cheer up; Liza replies that after a storm there is a beautiful night and asks the maid, Masha, not to close the French windows to the balcony. Alone, Liza voices her unhappiness with her engagement; she has been stirred by the romantic look of the young man in the park. To her shock, Herman appears on the balcony. Claiming he is about to shoot himself over her betrothal to another, he begs her to take pity on him. When the Countess is heard knocking, Liza hides Herman and opens the door to the old woman, who tells her to shut the windows and go to bed. After the Countess retires, Liza asks Herman to leave but is betrayed by her feelings and falls into his embrace.

Act 2

Scene 1

Not long afterward, at a masked ball, Herman's comrades comment on his obsession with the secret of the winning cards. Yeletsky passes with Liza, noting her sadness and reassuring her of his love. Herman receives a note from Liza, asking him to meet her later. Tsurin and Chekalinsky sneak up behind him, muttering he is the "third suitor" who will learn the Countess' secret, then melt into the crowd as Herman wonders whether he is hearing things. The master of ceremonies announces a tableau of shepherdesses. Liza slips Herman the key to her grandmother's room, saying the old woman will not be there the next day, but Herman insists on coming that very night. Thinking fate is handing him the Countess' secret, he leaves. The guests' attention turns to the imminent arrival of Catherine the Great, for which a polonaise by O. Kozlovsky is played and sung in greeting.


Scene 2

Herman slips into the Countess' room and looks in fascination at her portrait as a young woman. Their fates, he feels, are linked: one of them will die because of the other. He conceals himself as the old lady approaches. The Countess deplores the manners of today and reminisces about her youth, singing "Je crains de lui parler la nuit" (Laurette’s Aria) from Grétry's Richard Coeur-de-Lion. As she dozes off, Herman stands before her. She awakens in horror as he pleads with her to tell him her secret. When she remains speechless, he grows desperate and threatens her with a pistol — at which she dies of fright. Liza rushes in, only to learn that the lover to whom she gave her heart was more interested in the Countess' secret. She orders him out and falls sobbing.

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Act 3

Scene 1

In his room at the barracks, as the winter wind howls, Herman reads a letter from Liza, who wants him to meet her at midnight by the river bank. He imagines he hears the chorus chanting at the Old Countess' funeral, then is startled by a knock at the window. The old woman's ghost appears, announcing that against her will she must tell him the secret so that he can marry and save Liza. Dazed, Herman repeats the three cards — three, seven, ace.

Scene 2

By the Winter Canal, Liza waits for Herman: it is already near midnight, and though she clings to a forlorn hope that he still loves her, she sees her youth and happiness swallowed in darkness. At last he appears, but after uttering words of reassurance, he starts to babble wildly about the Countess and her secret. No longer even recognizing Liza, he rushes away. Realizing that all is lost, she throws herself into the icy waters.

Scene 3

At a gambling house, Herman's fellow officers are finishing supper and getting ready to play faro. Yeletsky, who has not gambled before, joins the group because his engagement has been broken: "unlucky in love, lucky at cards." Tomsky entertains the others with a song. Then Chekalinsky leads a traditional gamblers' song. Settling down to play, they are surprised when Herman arrives, wild and distracted. Yeletsky senses a confrontation and asks Tomsky to be his second if a duel should result. Herman, intent only on betting, starts with 40,000 rubles. He bets the three and wins, upsetting the others with his maniacal expression. Next he bets the seven and wins again. At this he takes a wine glass and declares that life is but a game. Yeletsky accepts his challenge to bet on the next round. Herman bets the ace but is confronted by Yeletsky with the winning card — the queen of spades. Seeing the Countess' ghost, Herman takes his own life, asking Yeletsky's forgiveness and Liza's as well. The others pray for his tormented soul.

Principal arias and numbers

Act 1

Aria: "I don't even know her name" «Я имени ее не знаю» (Herman)
Aria: "Once in Versailles (Three Cards)" «Однажды в Версале (Три Карты)» (Tomsky)
Arioso: "Why these tears" «Откуда эти слëзы» (Liza)
Aria: "Forgive me, celestial creature" «Прости, небесное созданье» (Herman)

Act 2

Aria: "I love you beyond measure" «Я вас люблю» (Yeletsky)

Act 3

Arioso: "I am worn out by grief" «Ax! истoмилacь я гopeм» (Liza)
Song: "If pretty girls could fly like birds" «Если б милые девицы» (Tomsky)
Aria: "What is our life? A game!" «Что наша жизнь? Игра!» (Herman)

Instrumentation

Source: www.tchaikovsky-research.net

  • Strings: Violins I, Violins II, Violas, Cellos, Double Basses
  • Woodwinds: Piccolo, 2 Flutes, 2 Oboes, Cor Anglais, 2 Clarinets (B-flat, A), Bass Clarinet (B-flat), 2 Bassoons
  • Brass: 4 Horns (F), 2 Trumpets (B-flat, A), 3 Trombones, Tuba
  • Percussion: Timpani, Snare Drum, Bass Drum
  • Other: Harp, Piano

References in popular culture

"Life is but a game" (Russian: «Что наша жизнь? Игра!», literally, "What is our life? A game!") a quote from Act 3 of the opera, became a proverb in Russian. What? Where? When?, a trivia game and one of the most popular TV-shows in Russia and former Soviet countries, starts with a musical quotation from the opera, Hermann singing the phrase "Life is but a game."

External links


Simple English

The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, pronounced Pi-KO-va-ya DA-ma) is an opera by Tchaikovsky. It is based on a short story by Alexander Pushkin. Sometimes it is known by its German title Pique Dame.

When Tchaikovsky went to Paris in 1876, he saw a production of Bizet’s opera Carmen. He liked the story's themes of love and of bad fate. The idea of fate is important to the opera Carmen and also to Tchaikovsky’s The Queen of Spades. Tchaikovsky wrote some of his greatest music in this opera. Some of it is very graceful, and is similar to Mozart. In other places it is very romantic, with harmonies that he had learned by studying the operas of Wagner.

The story of the opera

Hermann, a young officer, sees a beautiful girl in the park and falls in love with her although he does not know her. His friend tells him that the girl’s name is Lisa, and that her grandmother is an old countess who used to gamble (play cards for money) when she was young. He says that the grandmother used to be known as the "Queen of Spades", and that she knows a secret: she knows about the three cards which will always win the card game.

Hermann can only think of one thing: he wants to find out the secret of the three cards so that he can gamble and win lots of money. Then he will be able to marry Lisa. He hides himself in the grandmother’s bedroom. When the grandmother goes to bed, he jumps out in front of her and tells her he wants to know the three cards. She is so scared that she dies before she can speak.

Later, the ghost of the grandmother comes to Hermann and tells him the three secret cards: Three, Seven, Ace. Hermann’s mind is now on one thing: he must go and play cards and win. Lisa drowns herself. Hermann gambles all his money. The first two cards are the Three and the Seven, but the third card is not the Ace, it is the Queen of Spades. The old grandmother’s ghost comes again to Hermann. Hermann kills himself.

The writing of the opera

Tchaikovsky’s brother Modest helped him to prepare the libretto (words) for the opera. They changed some of Pushkin’s story, making the love scenes important because he thought they would be good with emotional music. They also made it very dramatic by making Lisa drown herself in a canal and Hermann die at the gaming table. This is different to what happens in Pushkin’s story.

Tchaikovsky wrote the opera very quickly. It took him just six weeks to sketch it (write the basic ideas). Then he spent a short time in Rome and when he returned, he wrote it out for orchestra in another six weeks.

Some of the music is quite Classical (Rococo) in character. At other times it can sound very Russian. In the supernatural scenes, Tchaikovsky uses the whole-tone scale like Glinka did in his operas.

The opera was first performed at the Mariinsky Theatre in St Petersburg on 19 December 1890.


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