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The Simpsons Season 3
Simpsons s3.png
The Simpsons Season 3 DVD
Series The Simpsons
Country of origin USA
Network Fox
Original run September 19, 1991 (1991-09-19)
August 27, 1992 (1992-08-27)
No. of episodes 24
DVD release date August 26, 2003 (Boxset)
Previous season 2
Next season 4

The Simpsons' third season originally aired on the Fox network between September 19, 1991 and May 7, 1992. The show runners for the third production season were Al Jean and Mike Reiss who executive produced 22 episodes the season, while two other episodes were produced by James L. Brooks, Matt Groening and Sam Simon. An additional episode, Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?, aired in August, after the official end of the third season and is included on the Season 3 DVD set. Season three won six Primetime Emmy Awards for " Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" and also received a nomination for "Outstanding Animated Program" for the episode "Radio Bart". The complete season was released on DVD in region 1 on August 26, 2003, region 2 on October 6, 2003, and in region 4 on October 22, 2003.

Contents

Production

Al Jean and Mike Reiss, who had written for The Simpsons since the start of the show, took over as show runners this season. Their first episode as show runners was "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" and they felt a lot of pressure about running the show.[1] They also ran the following season and Jean would return as executive producer in season 13. There were two episodes, "Kamp Krusty" and "A Streetcar Named Marge", that were produced at the same time, but aired during season four as holdover episodes.[2] Two episodes that aired during this season, "Stark Raving Dad" and "When Flanders Failed", were executive produced during the previous season by James L. Brooks, Matt Groening and Sam Simon.

Carlos Baeza and Jeffrey Lynch received their first directing credits this season.[3] Alan Smart, an assistant director and layout artist, would receive his only directing credit. One-time writers from this season include Robert Cohen, Howard Gewirtz, Ken Levine and David Isaacs. Bill Oakley and Josh Weinstein, who would later become executive producers, became a part of the writing staff to replace Jay Kogen and Wallace Wolodarsky both of whom had decided to leave the next season.[4] The current arrangement of the theme song was introduced during this season.

The season premiere episode was "Stark Raving Dad", which guest starred Michael Jackson as the speaking voice of Leon Kompowsky. One of Jackson's conditions for guest starring was that he voiced himself under a pseudonym.[5] While he recorded the voice work for the character, all of his singing was performed by Kipp Lennon,[6] because Jackson wanted to play a joke on his brothers.[5] Michael Jackson's lines were recorded at a second session by Brooks.[7] The January 30, 1992 rerun of the episode featured a brief alternate opening, which was written in response to a comment made by then-President of the United States George H. W. Bush. On January 27, 1992 Bush made a speech during his re-election campaign where he said, "we are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to make American families a lot more like The Waltons and a lot less like The Simpsons."[8] The writers decided that they wanted to respond by adding a response to the next broadcast of The Simpsons, which was a rerun of "Stark Raving Dad" on January 30. The broadcast included a new tongue-in-cheek opening where they watch Bush's speech. Bart replies "hey, we're just like the Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too".[9][10]

"Homer at the Bat" is the first episode in the series to feature a large supporting cast of guest stars. The idea was suggested by Sam Simon, who wanted an episode filled with real Major League Baseball players.[7] They did manage to get nine players who agreed to guest star and they were recorded over a period of six months.[6] Several new characters were introduced this season, including Lunchlady Doris, Fat Tony, Legs and Louie, Rabbi Hyman Krustofski, Lurleen Lumpkin and Kirk and Luann Van Houten.[11]

Reception

In 2003, Entertainment Weekly published a list of its 25 favorite episodes and placed "Homer at the Bat", "Flaming Moe's" and "Radio Bart" at 15th, 16th and 20th positions, respectively.[12] IGN.com made a list of the best guest appearances in the show's history, and placed Aerosmith at 24, Spinal Tap at 18, the "Homer at the Bat" baseball players at 17, Jon Lovitz at eight, and Michael Jackson at number five.[13] IGN would later name "Flaming Moe's" the best episode of the third season.[14] Chris Turner, the author of the book Planet Simpson, believes that the third season marks the beginning of "the Golden Age" of The Simpsons and pinpoints "Homer at the Bat" as the first episode of the era.[15]

Awards

1992 was The Simpsons' most successful year at the Primetime Emmy Awards, with the series receiving six Emmys, all for " Outstanding Voice-Over Performance", a category which is juried rather than competitive. The recipients were: Nancy Cartwright as Bart Simpson in "Separate Vocations"; Dan Castellaneta as Homer Simpson in "Lisa's Pony"; Julie Kavner as Marge Simpson in "I Married Marge"; Jackie Mason as Rabbi Hyman Krustofski in "Like Father, Like Clown"; Yeardley Smith as Lisa Simpson in "Lisa the Greek"; and Marcia Wallace as Edna Krabappel in "Bart the Lover".[16] Mason is the only irregular guest star from the show to win an Emmy.[17] The series received three other Emmy nominations: for "Outstanding Animated Program" with the episode "Radio Bart"; for "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Music Composition for a Series (Dramatic Underscore)" (Alf Clausen) and "Outstanding Individual Achievement in Sound Mixing for a Comedy Series or a Special" (Brad Brock, Peter Cole, Anthony D'Amico, Gary Gegan), both for the episode "Treehouse of Horror II".[16]

The series also won an Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production,[18] an Environmental Media Award nomination for "Best Television Episodic Comedy" for the episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington",[19] and a People's Choice Award nomination for "Favorite Series Among Young People".[20]

List of episodes

Key
  • In the # column:
    • The first number refers to the order it aired during the entire series.
    • The second number refers to the episode number within its season.
  • The production code refers to the code assigned to the episode by the production team. The first two characters refer to the season the episode was made for: 7F for season two, 8F for season three. The second number is the order the episode was produced, not the airing order.[21]
# Title Directed by Written by Original airdate Prod. code
36 – 1 "Stark Raving Dad" Rich Moore Al Jean & Mike Reiss September 19, 1991 (1991-09-19) 7F24
Homer's sanity is called into question when he arrives at work wearing a pink shirt. After Bart takes Homer's mental stability test for him, Homer is committed to a mental hospital where he meets a big, hulking bald man who says his name is Michael Jackson. Meanwhile, Lisa is depressed over her upcoming eighth birthday, but is very happy in the end to receive a song that is written specially for her birthday.
Special guest star: Michael Jackson (under the pseudonym of "John Jay Smith") and Kipp Lennon.[22] 
37 – 2 "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington" Wes Archer George Meyer September 26, 1991 (1991-09-26) 8F01
While reading a copy of Reading Digest, Homer finds an entry form for an essay contest for which Lisa signs up. When she successfully wins the contest, she and the family travel to Washington, DC where the finals are to be held. Here, Lisa bears witness to the seedy underbelly of politics and becomes bitterly disappointed after learning of a bribery scandal involving Springfield's state congressman. In her final essay, she disdains and condemns the government system, which leads to the arrest of the the corrupt congressman. While she fails to win the contest, her faith in government is restored.[23] 
38 – 3 "When Flanders Failed" Jim Reardon Jon Vitti October 3, 1991 (1991-10-03) 7F23
Homer makes a wish for Ned Flanders to be a financial failure. The wish comes to life when Flanders's store catering to left handed people goes out of business, causing the Flanders family to end up financially in trouble. When finding out that Ned’s house is to be repossessed, Homer feels guilty and decides to help by telling all the left-handed population of Springfield about the Leftorium and calling in a few favors from his friends. This helps Ned keep the store and get his house back. Meanwhile, Bart goes to the Japanese bartender Akira and takes karate lessons, but quits after he discovers that it is not as interesting as he had expected it to be.[24] 
39 – 4 "Bart the Murderer" Rich Moore John Swartzwelder October 10, 1991 (1991-10-10) 8F03
After having a terrible day at school, Bart stumbles upon the "Legitimate Businessman's Social Club" Mafia bar where the leader, Fat Tony, hires him to work as their permanent bartender. However, when Principal Skinner ends up missing for nearly a week, Bart is immediately blamed for murdering him, causing Bart to get sent to court. As Bart is about to get convicted, the principal shows up which leads to Bart being cleared of all the charges.
Guest star: Joe Mantegna, Neil Patrick Harris.[25] 
40 – 5 "Homer Defined" Mark Kirkland Howard Gewirtz October 17, 1991 (1991-10-17) 8F04
Homer accidentally saves the Springfield Nuclear Power Plant and is ashamed when people mistake him for a hero. When another impending meltdown threatens the Shelbyville plant, he is asked to perform his heroic deeds once again. He is lucky again, but this time he is derided as a lucky imbecile, even more so than he was hailed as a hero. Meanwhile, Luann Van Houten forbids Milhouse to be friends with Bart as she feels Bart is a bad influence on her son.
Guest stars: Magic Johnson, Chick Hearn and Jon Lovitz.[26] 
41 – 6 "Like Father, Like Clown" Brad Bird & Jeffrey Lynch Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky October 24, 1991 (1991-10-24) 8F05
When Krusty comes over to the Simpsons’ house for dinner, he reveals to them that he is of Jewish heritage, and that his father, Rabbi Krustofski disowned him for pursuing an a career in comedy, and not a successful career as a rabbi. Krusty starts to fall apart and Bart and Lisa decide to contact the rabbi and convince him to forgive Krusty. The rabbi at first refuses to see Krusty, but Bart convinces him to do so, and the two reuinte.
Guest star: Jackie Mason.[27] 
42 – 7 "Treehouse of Horror II" Jim Reardon Al Jean, Mike Reiss
Jeff Martin, George Meyer
Sam Simon, John Swartzwelder
October 31, 1991 (1991-10-31) 8F02
When Homer, Bart, and Lisa eat a ton of candy, the three begin having various nightmares:
Lisa's nightmare: The Simpsons visit Morocco and find a monkey's paw that makes all their wishes come true – with dire consequences.
Bart's nightmare: The town of Springfield must think happy thoughts or suffer the powers of Bart's twisted imagination.
Homer's nightmare: Mr. Burns kills Homer so he can transplant his brain into a robot's to create a super-efficient worker.[28] 
43 – 8 "Lisa's Pony" Carlos Baeza Al Jean & Mike Reiss November 7, 1991 (1991-11-07) 8F06
When Lisa requires a new saxophone reed for her talent recital, she asks Homer, who immediately promises to buy her one. Though when Homer breaks his promise, he makes up for it by giving Lisa the one thing she had always wanted, a pony named Princess. With a new pony in the house, Homer struggles with two jobs to cover the cost. Lisa, upon seeing what Homer must go through to pay for the pony, decides to sell it.
Guest star: Frank Welker.[29] 
44 – 9 "Saturdays of Thunder" Jim Reardon Ken Levine & David Isaacs November 14, 1991 (1991-11-14) 8F07
After taking a fatherhood quiz, Homer realizes that he knows nothing about Bart, and in the result, strives to be a better father after learning that Bart is one of the racers in the Soapbox Derby. Their entry is not very good, and Bart decides to drive Martin Prince's much nicer racer. Homer is at first devastated, but decides that he must be a good father and support Bart. Bart later goes on to win the race.[30] 
45 – 10 "Flaming Moe's" Alan Smart & Rich Moore Robert Cohen November 21, 1991 (1991-11-21) 8F08
One night at Moe's Tavern, Homer tells Moe Szyslak of a secret alcoholic cocktail made with cough syrup and fire that he calls "Flaming Homer". When Moe tries Homer's recipe in the bar, he finds it boosts his business and patronage, so Moe steals the recipe from Homer. Later, Moe is about to sell the recipe for $1,000,000 but Homer comes and divulges the secret ingredient, only to find out that Moe was planning to split the million with him.
Guest stars: Aerosmith.[31] 
46 – 11 "Burns Verkaufen der Kraftwerk" Mark Kirkland Jon Vitti December 5, 1991 (1991-12-05) 8F09
The stock in the Nuclear Plant skyrockets amid rumors of a takeover meaning that all the workers get rich, except for Homer who has sold his for a mere $25 and fears that he'll lose his job. The rumors prove true as two German businessmen buy the plant from Mr. Burns for $100 million and fire Homer for incompetence. Mr. Burns decides to buy the plant back when he discovers that his former employees no longer fear him.
Guest star: Phil Hartman.[32] 
47 – 12 "I Married Marge" Jeffrey Lynch Jeff Martin December 26, 1991 (1991-12-26) 8F10
After worrying that she may yet again be pregnant, Marge drives to Dr. Hibbert's office. While anxiously waiting, Homer begins to tell Bart, Lisa, and Maggie about how he and Marge got married at a quickie wedding chapel, and how he attempted to prove to Marge's sisters that he can provide for their upcoming child.[33] 
48 – 13 "Radio Bart" Carlos Baeza Jon Vitti January 9, 1992 (1992-01-09) 8F11
When Bart's birthday party turns into a disaster, he uses an AM radio Homer gave him to play pranks on other citizens. He decides to throw a radio down an old well and tricks the town into thinking a little boy is stuck in it. At first he is successful, but he realizes that he left a "property of Bart Simpson" label on the radio and goes to retrieve it. Bart becomes trapped in the well and while the town decides to leave him there, Homer frantically tries to rescue him.
Guest star: Sting.[34] 
49 – 14 "Lisa the Greek" Rich Moore Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky January 23, 1992 (1992-01-23) 8F12
Homer begins to bond with Lisa after learning her unique and convenient ability to pick winning American football teams. When Lisa finds out Homer has only been using her for gambling, she refuses to speak to her father until he fully understands her.[35] 
50 – 15 "Homer Alone" Mark Kirkland David M. Stern February 6, 1992 (1992-02-06) 8F14
The family's dependence on Marge causes Marge to suffer a nervous breakdown during her early morning errands, and she decides to go to a spa resort to calm down. Homer, meanwhile has to care for the troublesome Maggie while Bart and Lisa spend their time with their spinster aunts, Patty and Selma. The entire family realizes how much they need Marge to take care of things, and everybody is happy when she eventually returns from the spa.
Guest star: Phil Hartman.[36] 
51 – 16 "Bart the Lover" Carlos Baeza Jon Vitti February 13, 1992 (1992-02-13) 8F16
When a yo-yo craze sweeps over Springfield Elementary School, Bart's inept yo-yo happens to break a fish tank, killing the class goldfish. Edna Krabappel sentences Bart to a month of detention. Bart decides to write phony love letters to her under the guise of a man who responded to her personal ad. Meanwhile, Homer tries to cut back on swearing after Flanders complains that Todd is picking up on the foul language.[37] 
52 – 17 "Homer at the Bat" Jim Reardon John Swartzwelder February 20, 1992 (1992-02-20) 8F13
The Springfield Nuclear Power Plant softball team proves to be a huge success with Homer as their official star player. But after Mr. Burns makes a bet with Shelbyville Nuclear Power Plant owner Aristotle Amadopoulis, he hires nine professional baseball players to fill out the team. However, eight of those ringers fall victim to separate misfortunes, and Burns is forced to turn to his regular employees, who win the game.
Guest stars: Wade Boggs, José Canseco, Roger Clemens, Ken Griffey, Jr., Don Mattingly, Steve Sax, Mike Scioscia, Ozzie Smith, Terry Cashman and Darryl Strawberry.[38] 
53 – 18 "Separate Vocations" Jeffrey Lynch George Meyer February 27, 1992 (1992-02-27) 8F15
The school makes the students take an aptitude test, and it ends up suggesting Bart become a policeman and Lisa become a homemaker instead of a professional jazz musician. While Lisa becomes a troublemaker, Bart improves his grades and behavior and is chosen to be Principal Skinner's newest hall monitor.
Guest star: Steve Allen.[39] 
54 – 19 "Dog of Death" Jim Reardon John Swartzwelder March 12, 1992 (1992-03-12) 8F17
Santa's Little Helper (SLH) falls ill and the family must make budget cuts in order to pay for his operation. Although the dog's life is saved, the family begins treating him badly so he runs away. SLH ends up in the possession of Mr. Burns, who trains him to become a vicious attack dog. Bart stumbles across the new SLH and is attacked, but SLH recognizes Bart and decides to stop the attack.[40] 
55 – 20 "Colonel Homer" Mark Kirkland Matt Groening March 26, 1992 (1992-03-26) 8F19
After his behavior at the movie theater embarrasses Marge, Homer and Marge have a large argument, causing Homer to head to a redneck bar where he meets a beautiful barmaid named Lurleen Lumpkin with a talent for singing. Homer becomes her manager and does everything he can to make Lurleen famous, but it takes a very long time for him to notice Lurleen has fallen in love with him. With Marge already upset and thinking Homer's the one with the roving eyes, it's time for him to decide on his romantic future.
Guest star: Beverly D'Angelo.[41] 
56 – 21 "Black Widower" David Silverman Jon Vitti (story), Sam Simon (teleplay) & Thomas Chastain (teleplay) April 9, 1992 (1992-04-09) 8F20
Selma reveals that she has a new boyfriend that she met through the prison pen-pal program, Sideshow Bob. Bart is immediately suspicious of Bob, but he does everything he can to romance Selma and prove he's changed. After Selma and Bob are married, Bob reveals that he plans to kill Selma, but he is stopped by Bart.
Guest star: Kelsey Grammer.[42] 
57 – 22 "The Otto Show" Wes Archer Jeff Martin April 23, 1992 (1992-04-23) 8F21
Otto crashes the school bus, and is later discovered that he never actually owned a real driver's license, prompting authorities to fire him. Otto then moves in with the Simpsons after he has been evicted, and attempts to teach Bart to learn to play the guitar, though with difficulty. But it's the way he enrages Homer that might provide an inadvertent return ticket to his beloved bus-driving job.
Guest stars: Christopher Guest and Michael McKean.[43] 
58 – 23 "Bart's Friend Falls in Love" Jim Reardon Jay Kogen & Wallace Wolodarsky May 7, 1992 (1992-05-07) 8F22
Milhouse falls in love with the new girl, Samantha Stankey, jeopardizing Bart and Milhouse's friendship. Bart eventually calls Samantha's father and lets him know what's happening. Her father takes her away, which leads to Bart and Millhouse having a fight. Meanwhile, Homer orders a subliminal cassette tape to help him lose weight, but is accidentally sent one that helps him increase his vocabulary after the weight-loss tapes sell out.
Guest star: Kimmy Robertson.[44] 
59 – 24 "Brother, Can You Spare Two Dimes?" Rich Moore John Swartzwelder August 27, 1992 (1992-08-27) 8F23
When the radiation from the Nuclear Power Plant causes Homer to become infertile, he is awarded a complete $2,000 compensation. Meanwhile, Homer's half-brother, Herb, now living on the streets, returns with a plan on how to regain his name, wealth, and life back and reluctantly turns to Homer for help. Herb asks for Homer's $2,000 so he can develop a new product that will translate baby gibberish into speech.
Guest stars: Danny DeVito and Joe Frazier.[45] 

DVD release

The DVD boxset for season three was released by 20th Century Fox in the United States and Canada on August 26, 2003, eleven years after it had completed broadcast on television. As well as every episode from the season, the DVD release features bonus material including commentaries for every episode.

The Complete Third Season
Set details[46][47] Special features[46][47]
  • 24 episodes
  • 4-disc set
  • 1.33:1 aspect ratio
  • Languages:
    • English (Dolby Digital 5.1, with subtitles)
    • Spanish (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround, with subtitles)
    • French (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround)
  • Optional commentaries for all 24 episodes, plus four easter egg commentaries featuring either Al Jean or Mike Reiss
  • Trivia tracks for "Colonel Homer"
  • Storyboards
  • Commercials
  • Easter egg audio outtakes
  • Multi Language Featurette
  • Clip from the 1991 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade featuring a balloon of Bart
  • Jukebox Feature (11 songs)
  • Previously unseen promo footage of Colonel Homer
Release dates
Region 1 Region 2 Region 4
August 26, 2003 October 6, 2003 October 22, 2003

Notes

  1. ^ Jean, Al & Reiss, Mike. (2003). Commentary for "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  2. ^ Richmond, pp. 92–93
  3. ^ Lynch, Jeffrey. (2003). Commentary for "Like Father, Like Clown", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  4. ^ Oakley, Bill & Weinstein, Josh. (2006). Easter egg Commentary for "Lisa the Simpson", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  5. ^ a b Brooks, James L. (2003). Commentary for "Stark Raving Dad", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  6. ^ a b Reiss, Mike. (2003). Easter Egg Commentary for "Stark Raving Dad", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  7. ^ a b Jean, Al. (2003). The Simpsons season 3 DVD commentary for the episode "Homer at the Bat". [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.  
  8. ^ Brooks, James L. (2004). "Bush vs. Simpsons", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fourth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  9. ^ Turner, pp. 230–231
  10. ^ John Ortved (August 2007). "Simpson Family Values". Vanity Fair. http://www.vanityfair.com/culture/features/2007/08/simpsons200708. Retrieved 2008-08-26.  
  11. ^ Reiss, Mike. (2003). Commentary for "Homer Defined", in The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  12. ^ "The Family Dynamic". Entertainment Weekly. 2003-01-29. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,417748_3,00.html. Retrieved 2008-09-06.  
  13. ^ Goldman, Eric; Iverson, Dan; Zoromski, Brian. "Top 25 Simpsons Guest Appearances". IGN. http://tv.ign.com/articles/730/730566p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-03.  
  14. ^ Goldman, Eric; Dan Iverson, Brian Zoromski (2006-09-08). "The Simpsons: 17 Seasons, 17 Episodes". IGN. http://uk.tv.ign.com/articles/731/731095p2.html. Retrieved 2008-08-31.  
  15. ^ Turner, p. 39
  16. ^ a b "Primetime Emmy Awards Advanced Search". Emmys.org. http://www.emmys.org/awards/awardsearch.php. Retrieved 2008-04-27.  
  17. ^ Castellaneta, Dan. (2003). Commentary for the episode "Like Father, Like Clown". The Simpsons: The Complete Third Season. [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.  
  18. ^ "Legacy: 20th Annual Annie Award Nominees and Winners (1992)". Annie Awards. http://annieawards.org/20thwinners.html. Retrieved 2008-04-27.  
  19. ^ "'Dinosaurs', 'Trials' up for environmental nods". Daily Variety. 1992-08-06.  
  20. ^ Associated Press (1992-02-06). "Roberts, Costner among nominees for 18th People's Choice Awards". The Pantagraph.  
  21. ^ Turner, p. 4
  22. ^ Richmond, p. 62
  23. ^ Richmond, p. 63
  24. ^ Richmond, p. 64
  25. ^ Richmond, p. 65
  26. ^ Richmond, p. 66
  27. ^ Richmond, p. 67
  28. ^ Richmond, pp. 68–69
  29. ^ Richmond, p. 70
  30. ^ Richmond, p. 71
  31. ^ Richmond, pp. 72–73
  32. ^ Richmond, p. 74
  33. ^ Richmond, p. 75
  34. ^ Richmond, pp. 76–77
  35. ^ Richmond, p. 78
  36. ^ Richmond, p. 79
  37. ^ Richmond, pp. 80–81
  38. ^ Richmond, p. 82
  39. ^ Richmond, p. 83
  40. ^ Richmond, p. 84
  41. ^ Richmond, p. 85
  42. ^ Richmond, p. 86
  43. ^ Richmond, p. 87
  44. ^ Richmond, p. 88
  45. ^ Richmond, p. 89
  46. ^ a b "Simpsons, The - The Complete 3rd Season". TV Shows on DVD.com. http://www.tvshowsondvd.com/releases/Simpsons-Complete-3rd-Season/2540. Retrieved 2008-03-14.  
  47. ^ a b "The Simpsons Season 3 DVD". The Simpsons Shop. http://www.thesimpsonsshop.com/detail.php?p=12531&v=simfandvd. Retrieved 2008-03-14.  

References

  • Richmond, Ray; Antonia Coffman (1997). The Simpsons: A Complete Guide to our Favorite Family. Harper Collins Publishers. ISBN 0-00-638898-1.  
  • Turner, Chris. Planet Simpson: How a Cartoon Masterpiece Documented an Era and Defined a Generation. p. 39. ISBN 0-679-31318-4.  

External links

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