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The Ten Commandments

1956 original movie poster
Directed by Cecil B. DeMille
Produced by Cecil B. DeMille
Written by J.H. Ingraham (novel Pillar of Fire)
A.E. Southon (novel On Eagle's Wings)
Dorothy Clarke Wilson (novel Prince of Egypt)
Aeneas MacKenzie
Jesse Lasky Jr.
Jack Gariss
Fredric M. Frank
Narrated by Cecil B. DeMille
Starring Charlton Heston
Yul Brynner
Anne Baxter
Music by Elmer Bernstein
Cinematography Loyal Griggs, ASC
Editing by Anne Bauchens
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) October 5, 1956
Running time 220 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $13,000,000
Gross revenue $65,000,000 (Domestic only)

The Ten Commandments is a 1956 American motion picture that dramatized the biblical story of Moses, an adopted Egyptian prince-turned deliverer of the Hebrew slaves. It was released by Paramount Pictures in VistaVision on October 5, 1956. It was directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starred Charlton Heston in the lead role. Co-stars included Yul Brynner as his adoptive brother, Pharaoh Ramesses II, Anne Baxter as Nefretiri, John Derek as Joshua, Edward G. Robinson as Dathan, Yvonne De Carlo as Sephora, Cedric Hardwicke as Pharaoh Seti I, Vincent Price as Baka, and John Carradine as Aaron.

This was the last film that Cecil DeMille directed. He was set to direct his own remake of The Buccaneer, but his final illness forced him to relinquish the directing chores for that one to his son-in-law, Anthony Quinn. He had also planned to film the life of Lord Baden Powell, the founder of the Scout movement, with David Niven; this project was never realized.

The Ten Commandments is partially a remake of DeMille's 1923 silent film. Some of the cast and crew of the 1956 version worked on the original. It has since been remade again as a television miniseries broadcast in April 2006.

The Ten Commandments is one of the most financially successful films made, grossing over $65 million at the North American box office. Adjusting for inflation, this makes it the fifth highest grossing movie in North America, with an adjusted total of $977 million in 2010.[1]

In 1999, The Ten Commandments was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". In June 2008, AFI revealed its "Ten top Ten"—the best ten films in ten "epics" American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. The Ten Commandments was acknowledged as the tenth best film in the epic genre.[2][3]

Contents

Cast

Other well-known talent in the film's "cast of thousands" included Herb Alpert as a Hebrew drummer, Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer as a slave, Michael Ansara as an Egyptian taskmaster, Robert Vaughn as a spearman and a Hebrew, Clint Walker as a Sardinian captain, Eduard Franz as Jethro, and DeMille himself as the film's narrator, all uncredited. In the film's release to theaters (and its subsequent release on home video), DeMille also appeared on screen to introduce the film.

Sets, costumes and props from the film The Egyptian were bought and re-used for this. As the events in The Egyptian take place 70 years before the reign of Rameses II, an unintentional sense of continuity is created. DeMille did not want to cast anyone who had been in The Egyptian, but did accept Michael Ansara (who had played the Hittite Commander), Mimi Gibson (who had played Ankhsenpaaten) and John Carradine (who had a cameo as a tomb robber). In addition, the white-clad girl attendants in the court of Pharaoh are played by the same actresses who had these roles in The Egyptian.

An Egyptian wall painting was also the source for the lively dance performed by a circle of young women at Seti's birthday gala. Their movements and costumes are based on art from the Tomb of the Sixth Dynasty Grand Vizier Mehu.[4] The expression "the son of your body" for a biological offspring is based on inscriptions found in Mehu's tomb.[5]

Production and art design

The screenplay was the creation of a committee of writers, headed by J. H. Ingraham (actually a novelist who wrote Pillar of Fire) and A. E. Southon (author of the novel On Eagle's Wings), who were listed as reverends to add credibility to the script. Dorothy Clarke Wilson (writer of Prince of Egypt), Aeneas MacKenzie, Jesse Lasky, Jr., Jack Gariss, and Fredric M. Frank also contributed to the adaptation of the three books.

In the commentary for the DVD edition, Katherine Orrison (a protege and biographer of Henry Wilcoxon), describes the historical research that DeMille and associates did at the time. Orrison says that many details of Moses' life which were left out of the Bible are present in the Koran, which was sometimes used as a source. She also describes some coincidences in production; the man who designed Moses' distinctive rust-white-black striped robe used those colors because they looked impressive, and only later discovered that these are the actual colors of the Tribe of Levi. Arnold Friberg would later state that he was the one who designed Moses' costume. As a gift, after the production, DeMille gave Moses' robe to Mr. Friberg who still has it in his possession. Moses' robe as worn by Charlton Heston was hand woven by Dorothea Hulse (1903–1963), one of the worlds finest handweavers. Among her other film work she also wove the robe and other textiles for The Robe, as well as textiles and costume fabrics for Samson and Delilah, "David and Bathsheba" and others.

Charlton Heston's newborn son Fraser appeared as the infant Moses. According to Orrison in the DVD commentary, DeMille deliberately timed the filming of his scenes for when Fraser Heston was about three months old. This, and other stories about the making of the film, were related to her by producer/actor Henry Wilcoxon and his wife, Joan Woodbury. Orrison later wrote the book Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments.

Jesse Lasky Jr., a co-writer on The Ten Commandments, described how DeMille would customarily spread out prints of Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912) paintings to indicate to his set designers the look he wanted to achieve. Artist Arnold Friberg, in addition to designing sets and costumes, also contributed the manner of Moses ordaining Joshua to his mission at the end of the film: hands on Joshua's head. Friberg, a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, demonstrated the LDS manner of performing such ordinations, and DeMille liked it.

Pharaoh is usually shown wearing the red-and-white crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. For his pursuit of the Israelites, however, he wears the blue Uraeus helmet-crown, which the Pharaohs wore for battle.

For the original theatrical release of the film, DeMille filmed an onscreen introduction, which was included in home video editions of the film but not the telecasts. In some of his earlier films, DeMille had provided narration, especially at the beginning of the film. This was the only time he was seen as well as heard. He also narrated portions of this film, to provide some continuity between scenes.

Heston, who previously worked for DeMille on The Greatest Show on Earth, won the part after the former impressed DeMille (at an audition) with a knowledge of ancient Egypt. Interestingly enough, though Moses lived sometime in the New Kingdom, it was Old Kingdom Egyptian facts Heston sprouted off at his audition that won him his legendary role.

Academy Award win and nominations

The film won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects. DeMille was reluctant to discuss technical details of how the film was made, especially the optical tricks used in the parting of the Red Sea. It was eventually revealed that footage of the Red Sea was spliced with film footage (run in reverse) of water pouring from large U-shaped trip-tanks set up in the studio back lot.[6][7][8] In the 1923 version of The Ten Commandments produced by Cecil B. DeMille, the visual effect of keeping the walls of water apart while the Israelites walked through was accomplished with a slab of Jell-O that was sliced in two and filmed close up as it jiggled. This shot was then combined with live-action footage of Israelites walking into the distance, creating a near-perfect illusion.[7]

Aside from winning the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects (John P. Fulton), it was also nominated for Best Art Direction-Set Decoration, Color (Hal Pereira, Walter H. Tyler, Albert Nozaki, Samuel M. Comer, Ray Moyer), Best Cinematography, Color, Best Costume Design, Color (Edith Head, Ralph Jester, John Jensen, Dorothy Jeakins and Arnold Friberg), Best Film Editing, Best Picture and Best Sound, Recording.[9]

Popularity

Critics have argued that considerable liberties were taken with the Biblical story, affecting the film's claim to authenticity, but this has had little effect on its popularity.[10] For decades, a showing of The Ten Commandments was a popular fund-raiser among revivalist Christian churches, while the film was equally treasured among film buffs for DeMille's "cast of thousands" approach and the heroic but antiquated silent-screen-type acting. In the United States, the movie has traditionally been shown on television annually since 1973 on ABC around Palm Sunday, Easter, or Passover.

Box office performance

The Ten Commandments was the highest-grossing film in 1957, earning a net profit of $18,500,000.[11]

Adjusted for inflation, it is the fifth-highest grossing movie of all time in the U.S. and Canada, with a box office gross of $977,260,000 calculated for 2010.[12]

Parodies

Due to its fame and popularity the film has been often parodied.

  • Heston's version of Moses was spoofed twice in History of the World, Part I (1981):
    • First, Mel Brooks, playing Moses (historically), brings out fifteen commandments written on three tablets. He fumbles, drops, and breaks one tablet: "The Lord, the Lord Jehovah has given unto you these fifteen... *smash* ... Oy! Ten! Ten commandments for all to obey!"
    • Second, he is shown parting the Red Sea (on the same backlot as the original) as Comicus (Mel again) and company are trying to escape the Roman pursuit; afterwards, Moses is shown with his arms up, but he's being robbed: "People aren't safe anymore! You can't even breathe without being robbed in the street!"
  • In The Simpsons the film's setting was spoofed at the beginning of the episode Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment. It was spoofed again in the second segment of The Simpsons Bible Stories, where Millhouse plays the part of Moses, and also briefly in the third segment where Bart Simpson plays David. When Bart is imprisoned, Chief Wiggum mockingly says: "Where's your Messiah now?", a famous line from the Ten Commandments, said by Edward G. Robinson, on whose voice Chief Wiggum's voice is based. In both segments Wiggum has the same outfit as Robinson in the film.
  • This Simpson's parody may have been more correctly attributed to part of comedian Billy Crystal's stand-up act from the 1980s which included both the voices of Yul Brynner and Edward G. Robinson from the film to question the decision to cast Mr. Robinson, well-known for his success playing gangsters, in the part of Dathan.
  • In one scene from Caddyshack (1980) during a thunderstorm, the music that represents Moses from The Ten Commandments is played. When the golfer, Bishop Pickering played by De Mille protege Henry Wilcoxon, is struck by lightning, the music from the end of the film is played.

Decalogues

One legacy of the movie are scores of public displays or monuments of the Ten Commandments that DeMille paid to be erected around the country as a publicity stunt. Known as decalogues, the displays were set up by the group Fraternal Order of Eagles, sometimes in or near government buildings. Several have been involved in court battles over whether their presence is said to violate the First Amendment to the United States Constitution's Establishment Clause.

Another "legacy" of the film's version of the Decalogue is that it may portray it inaccurately. The film shows the LORD inscribing five Commandments on each of the two tablets. In fact, for the most part, Hebrew texts state that the two tablets were identical copies, with all ten of the Commandments inscribed upon each. Some texts, however, do state that each tablet was inscribed with five commandments, while others indicate that the decalogue was inscribed on both the front and back of both tablets.[citation needed]

Problematic Pharaoh identifications

Some variances in the film are simply factual errors. In the scene in which Moses refers to the monumental stele commemorating "Seti's victory over the Hittites at Kadesh", the obvious error is that it was Ramses II, not his father, Seti (I), who fought the Hittites at Kadesh. This does several things to the movie's narrative. Most obviously, it means that Yul Brynner, billed as "Ramses", is in fact playing Merenptah, Ramses II's heir, and Sir Cedric Hardwicke, billed as "Seti" (I) is actually portraying Ramses II. This is further confirmed by "Seti" dying at an advanced age after a long reign; Seti (I) reigned for only 11 years, while Ramses II's reign lasted 67 years, prior to his death at age 90. (See Seti I and Ramses II.) This error also moves the Exodus forward in time, by approximately six decades. Additionally, the Battle of Kadesh is believed to have ended in a draw, which led to a peace treaty, rather than a decisive victory for the Egyptians, as depicted in the film.

Differences from the Bible

There are many differences between the movie's story line and the Exodus story as traditionally understood from the Bible. According to the commentary in the DVD, some details are taken from sources such as Josephus, the Sepher ha-Yashar, and the Chronicle of Moses, as well as the Qur'an. Some are fictional inventions.

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Egyptian characters

In the film, the kings of Egypt are all named: Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II, but the Bible makes no distinctions, calling them all "Pharaoh." See article Pharaoh of the Exodus, and the section above on problematic Pharaoh identifications.

The Bible never mentions the wives of the Pharaohs, but in the film, we see a great deal of Queen Nefretiri. Her name is a variant of Nefertari, the Great Royal Wife of Rameses II. Egyptian records show that Rameses loved Nefertari, while in the film Nefretiri hates him. The Bible says "The Lord hardened Pharaoh's heart", but the film avers that Nefretiri's schemes are the means through which God does this. (Do not confuse with Nefertiti.)

While Pharaoh's daughter is no longer mentioned again after the rescuing story in the Bible, the film follows Bithiah's life well into her later years. The story of her following the Israelites out of Egypt is taken from the Midrash. In the Bible, Moses was 80 during the Exodus, so Bithiah must have been older still, yet in the film she is portrayed as relatively young and healthy enough to carry a child in the trek away.

Baka (as played by Vincent Price) is never mentioned by name in the Bible, and he is not specifically mistreating Joshua when Moses kills him. In the Bible, Dathan is not mentioned as having been a witness to the killing (though, the Bible does mention that, in another incident after Moses kills an Egyptian, he confronts two quarreling Israelites, one of whom accuses Moses of having killed an Egyptian. The Midrash identifies the Israelites as Dathan and his brother Aviram, which may have been the inspiration for this part of the story).

Exodus 15:19 does not specifically say Pharaoh drowned with his army but, Psalm 136:15 says "but swept Pharaoh and his army into the Red Sea; His love endures forever (NIV). (If so, he was not Ramesses II). In the movie, he prudently stays in the rear and witnesses the parting of the waters.

There are midrashic sources that state that God singled him out to be the sole Egyptian survivor so that he serve as witness to the entire saga,(the same reason given to Pharaoh's escape from perishing during the death of all firstborn,) and a midrash commenting on the Book Of Jonah tells that he eventually became the king of Nineveh. There, he does heed the words of a prophet sent by God who exhorts him and his nation to repent:

"Rabbi Nehuniah HaKaneh says, You can learn about repentance from Pharaoh, who rebelled flagrantly against God... but later repented, saying, 'Who is like You among the gods, HaShem?' (Ex. 15:11). God saved Pharaoh from death to tell the power of His might, as it says, 'However, on account of this I have caused you to stand' (Ex. 9:16), and he became the ruler of Nineveh." (Job 24:12; Pirkey d'Rabbi Eliezer).

Hebrew characters

The story of Shiphrah and Puah (Exodus 1:15-21) has been omitted in the film. Some Talmudic commentaries identify them as none other than Yokheved and Miriam.

The name of the birth mother of Moses in the Bible is Yokheved (Hebrew) or Jochebed (English). In the movie, this is changed to "Yoshebel." She is shown as a very oppressed and endangered slave working on a construction project under hazardous conditions. This may be problematic, since a strong case can be made that the tribe of Levi was not actually enslaved.[citation needed] Perhaps because of this, at one point Yoshebel states: "We are Levites, appointed shepherds of Israel."

Moses

In the film, the young Moses is a successful military commander who defeats a Nubian army and makes the Ethiopians allies of Egypt. This is sourced in Josephus, but is not in the Bible. It is also mentioned in Seder Olam, a sort of midrashic history book.

In Exodus 2:11-12, Moses "looked this way and that way, and when he saw that there was no man, he slew the Egyptian and hid him in the sand." No such caution in the film: Moses jumps right in to fight the Egyptian. Instead of sensibly fleeing to Midian immediately, as he does in the Bible, he stays in Egypt and is arrested and exiled.

The movie adds a subplot about Joshua coming to Moses to beseech him to return to Egypt to free the Israelites.

In the Bible, Moses complains to the LORD that he is slow of speech, and of a slow tongue; in the film he only says "what words can I speak that they will heed?" DeMille considered having Moses stammer slightly, but Heston could not do it, and settled for speaking very slowly. Modern midrash asserts the relevance of the phrase "divine apostasia", which rehabilitates the term "apostasia" from its heretical or pejorative sense by defining it as an inability to articulate given the tools (or limitations rather) of language. This sense of the term apostasia asserts the moral humility and/or wisdom of silence or hesitance applied to speech and writing.

The Midianites are depicted as Arab Ishmaelites in the film; in the Bible the Midianites were descended from Midian, Abraham's son by his second wife Keturah, and not from Ishmael.

The story of Zipporah performing an emergency circumcision on her son by Moses (Exodus 4:24-26) is missing in the film.

The plagues

The film shows four of the Plagues of Egypt: Blood, Hail, Darkness, and Death of the Firstborn, omitting the rest. DeMille could not figure out a way to enact the plagues of frogs, locusts and so on, without it coming out as unintentionally humorous, but they are mentioned in the dialogue between Pharaoh and his advisers.

In the Bible, Moses did not say, "If there is one more plague on Egypt, it will be by your word that God will bring it" as he did in the movie, and Pharaoh did not decree that the firstborn of each house of Israel would die, beginning with the son of Moses. This is taken from a Midrash that expands the Biblical narrative in order to explain the origin of the tenth plague.

In the Bible, God executes the tenth plague alone, not by sending the Angel of Death. In the film, on the first Passover night, the Destroyer is seen with a crescent moon in the sky. But Passover always begins in the middle of the Hebrew month of Nisan, during a full moon.

The commandments

In the Bible, the reception of the Ten Commandments began as a national revelation, as opposed to the private one depicted in the film. The story of Moses and seventy Elders of Israel eating and drinking in the presence of God (Exodus 24:9-11) is not found in the film.

The story of Korah and his rebellion, which occurs much later in the Bible narrative, is conflated with that of the Golden Calf in the film. Korah himself plays only an assistant to the ringleader Dathan. Further, in the Bible, Dathan does not die during the Sin of the Golden Calf (nor do his brother Aviram or Korah), but during Korah's rebellion.

The Hebrew term generally translated as Ten Commandments is more accurately Ten Pronouncements, and Jewish tradition considers that Moses received not only those but all the 613 Commandments contained in the Five Books of Moses.

Other changes

In the movie, the wayward Israelites were portrayed performing a human sacrifice (a virgin girl) to the golden calf, possibly in order to make it seem that they deserverd their deaths in the movie. In the bible, there was nothing so offensive as a human sacrifice; they performed a "burnt offering" to the golden calf, which is described in Leviticus as requiring the butchering of animals—not human beings.

In the movie, the "guilty" Israelites died by falling into an impersonal crack that opened up in the earth's crust. In the Bible, however, it was quite a bit different. Moses commanded who ever was on his side to pick up their swords and kill everyone who had sinned—even if that meant they had to hack to death their own friends or even members of their very own families.

In Exodus, the Israelites, led by Miriam, sing and dance to celebrate the death of Pharaoh and the Egyptian army, and their own liberation. In the film, they stand still in stunned silence.

The Biblical story of the attack by the Amalekites and the Battle of Rephidim has been omitted in the film.

The Biblical accounts of God supplying the Israelites with water, manna and quail are missing in the movie.

In the movie they instantly walk through the parted Red Sea path on dry land. The Biblical account of the Red Sea parting is that the winds blew them open overnight in order for them to walk on dry land, which makes it even more incredible for God to hold Pharaoh's army at bay that long. Exodus 14:21 "Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and all that night the LORD drove the sea back with a strong east wind and turned it into dry land. The waters were divided."

In the movie, God ordered the Israelites to wander in the wilderness for 40 years as punishment for the Golden Calf incident. In the Bible, the 40 years of wandering was punishment for their unwillingness to believe God would deliver the promised land to the Hebrews despite the apparent physical superiority of the natives.

Home media

The artist's rendering of Charlton Heston as Moses was bulked up to modern physique standards when the DVD was released

The Ten Commandments has been released to DVD on three occasions:

First Edition released on March 30, 1999 as a two disc set, with the following specs:

Disc One & Two: The Movie (1956, 220 minutes) + Extras

  • 1.78:1 Widescreen (Enhanced for 16x9)
  • Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1, Dolby Surround 2.0), French (Dolby Mono 2.0)
  • Subtitles: English
  • Scene Selection (48 Chapters)
  • Trailers:
    • 1956 "Making of" Trailer
    • 1966 Re-Release Trailer
    • 1989 Re-Release Trailer

Second Edition released on March 9, 2004 as a two disc set (Special Collector's Edition), with the following specs:

Disc One & Two: The Movie (1956, 220 minutes) + Extras

  • 1.78:1 Widescreen (Enhanced for 16x9)
  • Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1, Dolby Surround 2.0), French (Dolby Mono 2.0)
  • Subtitles: English
  • Scene Selection (48 Chapters)
  • Commentary by Katherine Orrison, Author of Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments
  • 6-Part Documentary: (Approximately 37 minutes)
    • Moses
    • The Chosen People
    • Land of the Pharaohs
    • The Paramount Lot
    • The Score
    • Mr. DeMille
  • Vintage Newsreel: The Ten Commandments — Premiere in New York
  • Trailers:
    • 1956 "Making of" Trailer
    • 1966 Re-Release Trailer
    • 1989 Re-Release Trailer

Third Edition released on March 21, 2006 as a three disc set (50th Anniversary Collection), with the following specs:

Disc One & Two: The Movie (1956, 220 minutes) + Extras

  • 1.78:1 Widescreen (Enhanced for 16x9)
  • Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 5.1, Dolby Surround 2.0), French (Dolby Mono 2.0)
  • Subtitles: English
  • Scene Selection (48 Chapters)
  • Commentary by Katherine Orrison, Author of Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments
  • 6-Part Documentary: (Approximately 37 minutes)
    • Moses
    • The Chosen People
    • Land of the Pharaohs
    • The Paramount Lot
    • The Score
    • Mr. DeMille
  • Vintage Newsreel: The Ten Commandments — Premiere in New York
  • Trailers:
    • 1956 "Making of" Trailer
    • 1966 Re-Release Trailer
    • 1989 Re-Release Trailer

Disc Three: The Movie (1923 Version, 136 minutes)

  • 1.37:1 Academy Ratio (4:3 Standard)
  • Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Stereo 2.0)
  • Subtitles: French
  • Commentary by Katherine Orrison, Author of Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments
  • Hand-tinted footage of the Exodus and Parting of the Red Sea Sequence

Television

The movie has been broadcast on the ABC network on the Saturday before Easter, most recently on April 11, 2009, with the movie leading in views for that night, with approximately 6.81 million viewers.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Box Office Mojo
  2. ^ American Film Institute (2008-06-17). "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres". ComingSoon.net. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=46072. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  3. ^ "Top 10 Epic". American Film Institute. http://www.afi.com/10top10/epic.html. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  4. ^ Party Time in Ancient Egypt
  5. ^ The Tomb of Mehu at Saqqara in Egypt
  6. ^ Den of Geek. "Top 50 Movie Special Effects Shots". http://www.denofgeek.com/misc/178010/top_sfx_shots_no21_the_ten_commandments.html. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  7. ^ a b PBS. "NOVA Online/Special Effects/All About Special Effects/Trivia Quiz (Answers)". http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/specialfx/effects/trivia2.html. Retrieved 2009-01-02. 
  8. ^ http://www.geocities.com/Hollywood/Makeup/9472/article.htm Article discussing special effects
  9. ^ "NY Times: The Ten Commandments". NY Times. http://movies.nytimes.com/movie/49007/The-Ten-Commandments/awards. Retrieved 2008-12-22. 
  10. ^ In fact, many of the supposed "inaccuracies" were actually adopted by DeMille from extrabiblical but ancient sources, such as Josephus, the Sepher ha-Yashar, and the Chronicle of Moses. Moses's career in Ethiopia, for instance, is based on ancient midrashim. L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, Philadelphia 1967; A. Shinan, "Moses and the Ethiopian Woman: Sources of a Story in The Chronicle of Moses", Scripta Hierosolymitana 27 (1978).
  11. ^ Steinberg, Cobbett (1980). Film Facts. New York: Facts on File, Inc.. p. 23. ISBN 0-87196-313-2.  When a film is released late in a calendar year (October to December), its income is reported in the following year's compendium, unless the film made a particularly fast impact (p. 23)
  12. ^ "Top grossing films adjusted for inflation", BoxOfficeMojo

References

External links


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